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The Koyal Group Insurance Compliance (Corrects headline to show probe is over legal compliance) March 3 (Reuters) - A federal grand jury is probing Citigroup Inc, including its Banamex USA affiliate, over compliance with the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering requirements, the company said. In an annual filing on Monday with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, the company said the probe includes subpoenas from the U.S. Attorney's Office for the District of Massachusetts. The company also said Banamex USA had received a subpoena from the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. While the U.S. attorney may bring criminal charges, the FDIC is a civil agency. The criminal probe follows other problems that have surfaced with Banamex, which operates Citigroup's largest single consumer bank outside of the United States and has been portrayed by the company as a model of its global strategy.
History of Hydroponics. • Hanging gardens of ... World War II-hydroponics in western Pacific. • Plastics .... TOV (tomato on the vine): Tradiro, Ambiance,. Balance ... History of Hydroponics • • • • • Hanging gardens of Babylon Aztec floating gardens World War II-hydroponics in western Pacific Plastics changed everything! Boom in 1990’s – – – – Space program Growing in deserts Vertical farming Large scale production Advantages •Crops can be grown where soil is unsuitable •Reduced plant disease •More control •Bigger yields Disadvantages •Initial costs higher •Deeper knowledge is needed •If introduced, diseases can easily spread •Needs more attention The basics • Growing substrates • Nutrient solution • System designs Growing Substrates • What makes a good media? – Provides support – Good pore size – Does not clog system – Does not affect nutrient solution Photo: /www.aquaponicsusa.com
Reading and understanding centrifugal pump curves is key to proper pump selection, and to their reliable and efficient operation. This Tech Brief examines how pump curves can provide data about a pump’s ability to produce flow against certain head, shows how to read a typical centrifugal pump curve, and provides information about pump efficiency and brake horsepower. Pumps are the workhorses of any drinking water distribution or wastewater collection system. They operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year getting water to homes and business, and removing wastewater from them. A correctly sized pump will work efficiently for many years, saving a system money and energy. An incorrectly sized pump can fail if it’s too small or result in unnecessary expense if it’s too big. Pump curves provide a way to see the correct size a pump should be for specific conditions. Pump Terminology Before discussing specific details, it helps to understand typical terms associated with pump curves: Impeller—the moving element in a pump that drives the liquid. Volute—the spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharged by the impeller. Head—a measure of the pressure or force exerted by water expressed in feet. Centrifugal pump curves show pressure as head, which is the equivalent height of water with specific gravity = 1. Static Head—the vertical height difference from the surface of a water source to the centerline of the impeller. The vertical height difference from the centerline of the impeller to the discharge point is called discharge static head, while the vertical height difference from the surface of the water source to the discharge point is known as total static head. Total Head / Total Dynamic Head—the total height difference (total static head) plus friction losses and demand pressure from nozzles etc. (total discharge head) = total dynamic head. Capacity/Flow—the rate of liquid flow that can be carried, typically measured in gallons per minute (gpm). Net Positive Suction Head—how much suction lift a pump can achieve by creating a partial vacuum. Atmospheric pressure then pushes liquid into pump. A method of calculating if the pump will work or not. Cavitation—cavities or voids in liquid. Bubbles take up space leading to a drop in pump capacity. Collapsing bubbles can damage the impeller and volute, making cavitation a problem for both the pump and the mechanical seal. Specific Gravity—the weight of liquid in comparison to water at approximately 20° C (SG = 1). Specific Speed—a measure of the function of pump flow, head, and efficiency. Vapor Pressure—the force exerted by the gas released by a liquid in a closed space. If the vapor pressure of a liquid is greater than the surrounding air pressure, the liquid will boil. Viscosity—a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow (i.e., how thick it is). The viscosity determines the type of pump used, how fast it can run, and with gear pumps, the internal clearances required. Friction Loss—the amount of pressure / head required to force liquid through pipes and fittings.
Table of contents 1. Different types of pump systems 2. Three important characteristics of a pump system: pressure, friction and flow 3. What is friction in a pump system 4. Energy and head in pump systems 5. Static head 6. Flow rate depends on elevation difference or static head 7. Flow rate depends on friction 8. How does a centrifugal pump produce pressure 9. What is total head 10 What is the relationship between head and total head 11. How to determine friction head 12. The performance or characteristic curve of the pump 13. How to select a centrifugal pump Examples of total head calculations - sizing a pump for a home owner application 14. Examples of common residential water systems 15. Calculate the pump discharge pressure from the pump total head. Appendix A Flow rate and friction loss for different pipe sizes based at different velocities Appendix B Formulas and an example of how to do pipe friction calculations Appendix C Formulas and an example of how to do pipe fittings friction calculations Appendix D Formula and an example of how to do velocity calculation for fluid flow in a pipe Appendix E The relationship between pressure head and pressure... This tutorial is intended for anyone that has an interest in centrifugal pumps. There is no math, just simple explanations of how pump systems work and how to select a centrifugal pump. For those who want to do detail calculations, some examples have been included in the appendices. This tutorial answers the following questions: - What are the important characteristics of a pump system? - What is head and how is it used in a pump system to make calculations easier? - What is static head and friction head and how do they affect the flow rate in a pump system? - How does a centrifugal pump produce pressure? - Why is total head and flow the two most important characteristics of a centrifugal pump? - What is meant by the pump rating? And what is the optimal operating point of a centrifugal pump? - How to do details calculations that will allow you to size and select a centrifugal pump? - How to verify that your centrifugal pump is providing the rated pressure or head? - What is density and specific gravity and how do they relate to pressure and head? Copyright . 2005---- www.lightmypump.com---------- Revised October 9, 2007
Fluids/Solids Handling Understand the Basics of Centrifugal Pump Operation By starting from such fundamentals as head and pressure, the authors have developed practical tips for specification and operation that provide for cost-effectiveness and reliability. Kimberly Fernandez, Bernadette Pyzdrowski, Drew W. Schiller and Michael B. Smith, KBR C entrifugal pumps are the most common type of kinetic pump, and are used most often in applications with moderate-to-high flow and low head. As the workhorse of the chemical process industries (CPI), centrifugals are almost always more economical to own, operate and maintain than other types of pumps. Parameters needed in specifying The process engineer is normally responsible for specifying the process requirements of the pump, including the conditions and physical properties of the liquid, and, most importantly, the ﬂowrate, pressure, density and viscosity. The ﬂowrate determines the capacity of the pump, and the head depends on the density and viscosity of the liquid. In general, the required ﬂowrate is determined by the material and energy balances. Design margins, typically between 0–25%, are added to the material-balance ﬂowrate to account for unexpected variations in properties or conditions, or to ensure that the overall plant meets its performance criteria. Also, minimum ﬂow protection is often added as continuous circulation. Occasionally, the required ﬂowrate (including design margins) may fall in the low range of that for centrifugal pumps. In such cases, a minimum-size pump rated for continuous service is speciﬁed, and the extra pump capacity is typically consumed by circulation from the discharge to the source. 52 www.cepmagazine.org May 2002 CEP During speciﬁcation, the maximum pressure a pump will develop during any aspect of operation, including startup, shutdown and upset conditions is determined. The shutoff pressure is the maximum pressure a pump will develop under zero-ﬂow conditions, which reﬂects a fully blocked outlet. Variables to consider when determining the design pressure include: • maximum pressure of the source (e.g., relieving pressure of a vessel) • maximum head developed by the pump (i.e., shutoff head) • maximum static head of the ﬂuid in the pump’s suction line • maximum pump operating speed (for variablespeed drives) • possibility of operator intervention during an upset. The head h is the most commonly used measurement of the energy at any point of the system, or of the system as a whole. It is deﬁned as: h=...
The Top-Flo® name represents the finest in sanitary process equipment. TOP-FLO® pumps have been designed to offer efficient transfer of product over a wide range of head and viscosity conditions. TOP-FLO® pumps are easy to install, clean, and operate. This catalog will answer many of the questions you may have regarding TOP-FLO® pumps. If you require additional information, a representative will be happy to assist you and can be reached at 1-800-458-6095. TOP-FLO® pumps are suitable for use in CIP (clean-in-place) installations. This feature enables easy self-cleaning with no dismantling or take-down. Sanitizing of all product contact areas is automatic. All TOP-FLO® pumps are available in standard inlet sizes and outlet sizes. In addition, enlarged inlet sizes are available for... Motor Data is not included as part of 4-step ordering number. Provide the following information: • Horsepower and RPM TF-C100, TF-C114, TF-C216, TF-C218, TF-C328 • Electrical phase and voltage Note: • TEFC is standard • TF-C Series furnished without legs unless otherwise specified on order. If motor is furnished from another source, supply the following: • Casing Gaskets: BUNA (Standard). If other type is required, specify on order. • Enlarged inlet: When ordering pump with enlarged inlet state inlet size, i.e., TF-C218MD with 3" inlet. 3 port connections • Horsepower • RPM • NEMA frame size M - Clamp (Standard) Remember to order needed accessories: T - Acme Bevel Seat Thread • Seal Kits and Parts S - NPT Female Thread • Gaskets F - Flanged • Clamps W - Weld • Hangers type of seal/standard material: 4 D - External balanced sanitary seal DG - External balanced sanitary seal w/clamped insert E - Water cooled balanced double seal F - External balanced seal w/cascading water • Air Relief Valves • Check Valve • Butterfly Valves • Ball Valves • Fittings 1 TOP-FLO® TF-C Series Centrifugal Pumps seal specifications TYPE D External Balanced Seal (Sanitary) "tf-c" series Model No. TF-C100 TF-C114 TF-C216 TF-C218 TF-C328 Inlet 1-1/2 1-1/2 or 2 2 or 2-1/2 2 or 3 3 or 4 Outlet 1 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 2 Max. Imp. 3.68 4 6 8 8 pump specifications Pump Casings: • Volute type - Standard • Inlet-oversizing as noted in chart above Pump Connections: sanitary: industrial: • Clamp • Threaded • Bevel Seat (ACME) • Flanged Pump Construction Materials: • All wetted parts - 316 SS • Seals - Carbon (other seals available) • Casing Gasket - BUNA (Standard) • FKM, EPDM, and PTFE are available Pump Finishes: • Polished or Electropolished Pump Seals: • Available in D, DG, E, and F styles Motor, Electrical: • 3 Phase - 230/460 volts - 1750 & 3500 rpm • Single Phase - 115/230 volts - 1750 & 3500 rpm Motor Housings: • TEFC (Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled) • Washdown Duty • Other styles available on request For light duty transfer requirements, see Top Line brochure (TF-C100). 2 This versatile seal has numerous applications but yet is extremely durable. Dairy products, soft vegetables, beverages, and even acid cleaning solutions and detergents are among the recommended uses. type DG External Balanced Seal with Clamped-in Seat (Sanitary) The DG seal uses the standard Type D rotating seal components with a reversible silicon carbide, tungsten carbide or ceramic seat. Typical applications include liquid sugar, beverage syrup, chocolate and abrasive products.
2014 Silverado and Sierra Score a Safety First for Trucks New Chevrolet, GMC crew cabs receive first five-star scores under new rating system DETROIT – The 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and High Country and the GMC Sierra and Sierra Denali 1500 are the first pickup trucks to receive the highest possible five-star Overall Vehicle Score for safety since the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration changed its New Car Assessment Program for the 2011 model year. NHTSA only tested the crew cab models of Silverado and Sierra. Chevrolet and GMC expect crew cab models to account for 60 percent of their 2014 light duty full-size pickup truck sales. “Safety is as important to truck buyers as it is to car buyers,” said Gay Kent, GM general director of Vehicle Safety and Crashworthiness. “Silverado and Sierra set a benchmark for pickup truck safety by offering a full array of advanced features designed to protect occupants before, during and after a collision.” Silverado and Sierra offer fully boxed frames, extensive use of high-strength steel, and several segment-exclusive safety features are available, including Forward Collision Alert, Lane Departure Warning, and Safety Alert Seat. Safety Alert Seat warns the driver of potential traffic danger using directional vibration pulses from the seat cushion. The patented warning approach is tied to all of the onboard crash avoidance systems.
GMC. Our commitment is to push the limits of what’s possible. Our dedication is to build professional-grade SUVs, trucks and vans. Our products are purposefully engineered to offer you the highest standards of performance, innovation and versatility. Like you, GMC believes that just being good enough is never enough and jobs worth doing are worth doing well. It’s why the 2013 Sierra was built to work smart as well as efficiently. It’s why Sierra can offer over 300 horsepower and an EPA-estimated 22 hwy mpg1 in the same V-8 engine. GMC. We are Professional Grade. MODELS Sierra DENALi & denali hd... Our 1/2-ton Sierra 1500 Denali has a long list of standard features, including our 6.2L V-8. So you’ll be able to combine strength and capability with premium features to create a truck tailored to your purpose. Professional Grade—at GMC, that’s how we build our Sierra pickup truck, and Sierra Denali raises that standard to the highest levels of excellence. Available in all Sierra series, from 1500 and 2500HD to our 3500HD with single or dual rear wheels—no GMC truck works harder, works smarter, than Sierra Denali. It’s smarter, thanks to Sierra 1500 Denali’s standard Vortec 6.2L V-8. No competitor’s V-8-powered pickup offers you 400-plus horsepower with better fuel economy.3 It’s stronger, thanks to Sierra Denali HD’s available Duramax Diesel 6.6L V-8—the most powerful engine ever offered in a GMC HD pickup truck. A combination of iconic grille, wheels and chrome accents distinguish the Denali exterior, while inside, Sierra Denali models reward you with a spacious interior so refined, it rivals the comfort and technology of the finest passenger sedans.
2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 with 2-Speed Transfer Case RPO Codes NQG, NQH 2014 GMC Sierra 1500 with 2-Speed Transfer Case RPO Codes NQG, NQH Some customers may want to tow their vehicle behind another vehicle with all four tires on the ground. This is referred to as flat, dinghy towing or even as a “toad” (slang for towed vehicle). Towing in this manner is acceptable only on certain 4WD trucks depending on the transfer case option. The vehicle should be properly equipped and prepared as described below. The information contained in this bulletin supplements the Owner’s Manual. Please provide a copy of this bulletin to customers that want to dinghy tow their truck. Towing Set Up Procedure Notice: Use extra care whenever towing another vehicle. Do not exceed the towing vehicle's ratings such as the gross combination weight rating (GCWR) by adding the weight of the dinghy towed vehicle or vehicle damage may result. Recreational/Dinghy tow basic setup procedures Four wheel drive pick-ups with a two speed transfer case (that have a neutral and a 4 low position): 1. Tow only in forward direction. Position the vehicle to be towed behind the towing vehicle. 2. Securely attach the vehicle to the tow vehicle. 3. Firmly apply the parking brake, start the engine and shift the transmission to neutral. Caution: Shifting the transmission to neutral can cause the vehicle to roll and may cause personal injury. 4. Shift the transfer case to neutral. Caution: Shifting the transfer case to Neutral can cause the vehicle to roll, even if the transmission is in park (automatic) or 1st gear (manual), and may cause personal injury. 5. Check for transfer case neutral by shifting transmission to reverse then drive and verify there is no engagement. 6. While the transmission is in drive, turn the ignition key to Accessory. Copyright 2013 General Motors LLC. All Rights Reserved. 7. Shift the transmission to Park. 8. Depower the vehicle by removing the negative cable at the battery. This procedure must be followed or the steering column could be damaged. • Cover the negative battery post with a nonconducting material and prevent any contact between the negative battery terminal and the negative battery cable. Notice: If power is provided by accidental contact of the cable and terminals, damage to the towed vehicle may result, which would not be covered under the New Vehicle Limited Warranty. 9. Verify the steering column is unlocked. 10. Release the park brake only after verifying the towed vehicle is attached to the towing vehicle. 11. The ignition key must remain in the towed vehicle. Manually lock the doors and use 2nd key for access. Disconnecting the Towed Vehicle 1. Leave the truck connected to the tow vehicle. 2. Connect the battery. 3. Set the parking brake and place transmission in Park. 4. Shift the transfer case to 2 HI. 5. Disconnect the truck from the towing vehicle. 6. Reset any lost ...
The all-new 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 arrive first as a crew cab, followed soon by a regular cab and a double cab, which replaces the extended cab of previous years. Early buyers can choose from either a 4.3L V6 engine or a 5.3L V8 engine. A new 6.2L V8 engine will follow later in the year. For the first time, 1500 crew cabs will be available with a longer 6’6” cargo box, in addition to the previous 5’8” cargo box, enabling customers to carry more cargo while still being able to park in many garages. Three all-new EcoTec3 engines will be offered. The EcoTec3 engines feature three state-of-the-art technologies — direct injection, V4 Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and continuously variable valve timing — to make the most of power, torque and efficiency across a broad range of operating conditions. Full-Size Truck Brake Pipe Kit All kits are pre-formed and pre-flared to aid installation. The brake pipe kits have a nylon coating that provides better All-New 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 Have Arrived. . . . . . 1 Full-Size Truck Brake Pipe Kit . . . . . . . . . . 1 New EcoTec3 Engines ACDelco recently released new hydraulic brake pipe kits for 1999-2007 Chevrolet Silverados and GMC Sierras and 1999-2006 Cadillac Escalade, Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Suburban, Chevrolet Avalanche and GMC Yukon models. These kits can be used any time the replacement of the entire brake pipe assembly is required. IN THIS ISSUE corrosion protection; and they are a lower-cost alternative to pipe replacement. The kits are not intended for the repair of a single damaged brake pipe. They are intended for the replacement of the entire brake pipe assembly due to c orrosion or wear. Service bulletin 13D-079 GMT800 details the procedures for installing these kits. It includes a part number l isting for each application. continued on page 3...