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This paper examines the complex, often misunderstood, relationship between al-Qaeda, the Taliban and the various militant groups found in FATA (the Federally Administered Tribal Areas) in Pakistan, including the TTP (Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan). Much of what is commonly assumed about the Taliban, the TTP and al-Qaeda is based on misinformation, misunderstanding or a misrepresentation of historical events. The Taliban and alQaeda can in many ways be seen as sharing common values, although their ultimate goals remain very different. The Taliban were not part of the mujahedeen fighting against the Soviets in Afghanistan, and emerged only in 1994. Al-Qaeda, for all the conspiracy, did not receive money from the CIA during the 1980s, and was only officially formed as an organisation in 1988. The creation of the TTP in 2007 is another matter, and was created as an umbrella organisation for various Pakistani militant groups, and maintains close ties with al-Qaeda. However, the Pakistani Taliban is not the same Taliban as the one formed in 1994, and although it swears its loyalty to Mullah Omar, its goals differ from that of the Afghani Taliban. We can speak of al-Qaeda and the Taliban in two broad strokes – pre 9/11 and post 9/11. The attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon (as well as the failed attack on Washington DC with the hijacked flight 93), was the culmination of al-Qaeda as a tightly knit, hierarchical organisation. The subsequent “War on Terror” and the invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001 destroyed much of its organisational capacity; it also left the Taliban severely weakened. However, they both regrouped in the FATA region over a period of years, and al-Qaeda spread its ideology throughout northern Pakistan, coalescing with militant groups and local warlords. Before 9/11, al-Qaeda and the Taliban were very much two different organisations; today, it is not so simple, and in 2010, General David Petreus claimed that there is “a symbiotic relationship between all of these different organizations: al-Qaeda, the Pakistani Taliban, the Afghan Taliban ... They support each other, they coordinate with each other, sometimes they compete with each other, [and] sometimes they even fight each other.” (cfr, 2010, http://www.cfr.org).
Al Qaeda (AQ) has evolved into a significantly different terrorist organization than the one that perpetrated the September 11, 2001, attacks. At the time, Al Qaeda was composed mostly of a core cadre of veterans of the Afghan insurgency against the Soviet Union, with a centralized leadership structure made up mostly of Egyptians. Most of the organization’s plots either emanated from the top or were approved by the leadership. Some analysts describe pre-9/11 Al Qaeda as akin to a corporation, with Osama Bin Laden acting as an agile Chief Executive Officer issuing orders and soliciting ideas from subordinates. Some would argue that the Al Qaeda of that period no longer exists. Out of necessity, due to pressures from the security community, in the ensuing years it has transformed into a diffuse global network and philosophical movement composed of dispersed nodes with varying degrees of independence. The core leadership, headed by Bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, is thought to live in the mountainous tribal belt of northwest Pakistan bordering Afghanistan, where it continues to train operatives, recruit, and disseminate propaganda. But Al Qaeda franchises or affiliated groups active in countries such as Yemen and Somalia now represent critical power centers in the larger movement. Some affiliates receive money, training, and weapons; others look to the core leadership in Pakistan for strategic guidance, theological justification, and a larger narrative of global struggle.
A l-Qa’ida seems to be on its heels. The death of Osama bin Laden and the fall of Arab dictators have left its leadership in disarray, its narrative confused, and the organization on the defensive. One silver lining for al-Qaida, however, has been its affiliate organizations. In Iraq, the Maghreb, Somalia, Yemen, and elsewhere, alQa’ida has used local groups to expand its reach, increase its power, and grow its numbers. This string of mergers is not over. In places as diverse as the Sinai Peninsula and Nigeria, al-Qa’ida-linked organizations are emerging. However, the jihadist world is more fractured than it may appear at first glance. Many Salafi-jihadist groups have not joined with al-Qa’ida, and even if they have, tensions and divisions occur that present the United States and its allies with opportunities for weakening the bond. at the same time, several Salafi-jihadist groups chose not to affiliate with al-Qa’ida, including Egypt’s Gamaat al-Islamiyya and Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), and fighters in Chechnya, Gaza, and Pakistan maintained their distance as well. Motivations to the Affiliate for Joining There are a number of reasons why a group may choose to affiliate with al-Qa’ida, some practical, some ideological, and some personal: • • Al-Qa’ida has always been both a group with its own agenda and a facilitator of other terrorist groups. This meant that it not only carried out attacks on U.S. targets in Kenya, Tanzania, and Yemen throughout the 1990s, but it helped other jihadist groups with funding, training, and additional logistical essentials. Toward the end of the 1990s, alQa’ida incorporated Egyptian Islamic Jihad into its structure. After September 11, 2001, this process of deepening its relationship with outside groups took off, and today a number of regional groups bear the label “al-Qa’ida” in their name, along with a more local designation.
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Rugged or refined: whatever you need Whether it’s cruising on paved surfaces or heading off-road, the Amarok is equipped to deliver the performance for all environments and terrains D riv ing te ch ex pla ine d Permanent 4MOTION® Permanent is great for convenient oﬀ-roading. It keeps the four-wheel-drive system engaged whether you’re on- or oﬀ-road, so that power is always sent to the wheels with the most oned on South America’s rough mountain Sure-footed on any terrain grip. It’s available on the terrain, it’s no surprise that the Amarok is Designed to tackle the toughest off-road terrains, Amarok Highline – the such a formidable off-roader. With its powerful the Amarok has an Electronic Stabilisation Programme manual model comes with 2.0-litre TDI engines and the dynamic all-terrain benefits (ESP) fitted as standard – part of an impressive range the standard leaf-spring of the intelligent 4MOTION four-wheel-drive, it will take of safety features, which include on- and off-road suspension. The automatic you anywhere you need to go. On-road performance is anti-lock braking systems, an Electronic Differential has the heavy-duty leaf just as composed, thanks to the Amarok’s refined ride. Lock, and Trailer Stability Control. suspension system. Dependable four-wheel drive steep inclines when pulling away, while Hill Descent Selectable At the heart of the Amarok’s off-road performance is Control regulates engine speed and applies the brakes 4MOTION® Selectable Volkswagen’s advanced 4MOTION system, which if necessary, so that you can drive down slopes in a safe is ideal for rugged helps maintain optimum traction on all road surfaces.
For P/No: 04998 & 04999 only. 1. In the engine bay, disconnect the negative and positive battery terminals. 2. Remove the vehicle battery (1) by first removing any fasteners. 3. Locate the vehicle grommet behind the battery cavity area. 4. Pierce a hole in the vehicle grommet. Note: Do not connect the harness to the battery at this point. Issue Date 27-09-10 For P/No: 04997 only. 5. In the engine bay, locate the vehicle battery (1). 6. Route the body harness (2) down through to the chassis. Note: Do not connect the harness to the battery at this point. 7. Route the power input harness (1) from the engine bay down through to the chassis, following the path of the brake and fuel lines. For P/No: 04997 & 04999 only. 8. Following the diagram on the right, house the two power & ground input harness female terminals (4) into the mating connector (3). 9. Connect the power input harness connector (3) to the body harness mating connector. Issue Date 27-09-10 For P/No: 04998 only. 10. Following the diagram on the right, house the three power & ground input harness female terminals (4) into the mating connector (5). 11. Connect the power input harness connector (5) to the body harness mating connector. 12. Route the body harness (1) along the LHS chassis rail, following the path of the blue vehicle harness towards the rear of the vehicle. 13. Route the body harness (1) along the rear of the vehicle towbar towards the towbar mounting bracket. Issue Date 27-09-10
Ensure the jack is in sound condition and good working order. Take action for immediate repair or replacement of damaged parts. Use genuine parts only. The use of improper parts may be dangerous and will invalidate the warranty. Locate the jack in a suitable, well lit working area. Keep working area clean and tidy and free from unrelated materials. Use jack on level and solid ground, preferably concrete. Avoid tarmacadam as jack may sink in. Place wedges under wheels of vehicle, but ensure the jack wheels are free to move and that there are no obstructions. Ensure the vehicle handbrake is engaged, engine is switched off and transmission is in gear (or “PARK” if automatic). Ensure minimum distance of 0.5m between vehicle and static objects such as doors, walls, etc., to allow for vehicle tilting. Ensure there are no passengers in the vehicle and that all non-essential persons keep a safe distance whilst the jack is in use. Place jack under lifting points recommended by vehicle manufacturer (see vehicle hand book). Ensure lifting point is stable and centred on saddle. WARNING! When lifting at the jack's maximum rating (2tonne) or close to it, it is recommended that the effort of raising the load shall be reduced by the use of assistance during this operation. ANGER: Use the jack for lifting only, NOT for supporting the lifted load.
Ensure that the jack is in sound condition and good working order. Take action for immediate repair or replacement of damaged parts. Use recommended parts only. Unapproved parts may be dangerous and will invalidate the warranty. Locate the jack in an adequate, well lit work area. Keep work area clean and tidy and free from unrelated materials. Use jack on level and solid ground, preferably concrete. Avoid tarmacadam as jack may sink in. Place wedges under the wheels of the vehicle but ensure that the wheels of the jack can move freely. Ensure that the vehicle handbrake is engaged and switch off the engine. Ensure a minimum distance of 0.5m between vehicle tilt and static objects such as doors, walls, etc. Ensure all non-essential persons keep a safe distance whilst the jack is in use. Ensure that there are no passengers in the vehicle to be jacked up. Place jack under vehicle manufacturer’s recommended lifting points (see vehicle handbook). Check that the lifting point is stable and centred on the jack saddle. Ensure that the jack wheels are free to move and that there are no obstructions. IMPORTANT! During the jacking operation ensure that you can always see the vehicle-to-jack
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission 23 Marcus Clarke Street, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 2601 © Commonwealth of Australia 2013 This work is copyright. In addition to any use permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all material contained within this work is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence, with the exception of: • the Commonwealth Coat of Arms • the ACCC and AER logos • any illustration, diagram, photograph or graphic over which the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission does not hold copyright, but which may be part of or contained within this publication. The details of the relevant license conditions are available on the Creative Commons website, as is the full legal code for the CC BY 3.0 AU licence. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Director, Internal Communication and Publishing Services, ACCC, GPO Box 3131, Canberra ACT 2601, or email@example.com. Important notice The information in this publication is for general guidance only. It does not constitute legal or other professional advice, and should not be relied on as a statement of the law in any jurisdiction. Because it is intended only as a general guide, it may contain generalisations.