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Well-organized big data get together in the densely distributed sensor networks is, therefore, a challenging research area. One of the most effective solutions to address this challenge is to utilize the sink node’s mobility to facilitate the data gathering. While this technique can reduce energy consumption of the sensor nodes, the use of mobile sink presents additional Challenges such as determining the sink node’s trajectory and cluster formation prior to data collection. In this paper, we propose a new mobile sink routing and data gathering method through network clustering based on modified ExpectationMaximization (EM) technique. In addition, we derive an optimal number of clusters to minimize the energy consumption. The effectiveness of our proposal is verified through numerical results.
Rail inspection is an important task in railway maintenance. The speed and loads of trains have been increasing greatly in recent years, and these factors inevitably raise the risk of producing rail defects. Mainly the discrete surface defects impact the riding quality and safety of a railway system. However, it is a challenge to inspect such defects in a vision system because of illumination inequality and the variation of reflection property of rail surfaces. This project presents a realtime VIS for discrete surface defects of rail heads. VIS comprises the Image Acquisition Subsystem (IAS) and the image analysis subsystem. IAS acquires gray rail images for the surface of a rail head, and the latter processes rail images and detects possible defects. This paper propose the Local Normalization(LN) method to enhance the distinction between defects and background in a rail image, considering illumination inequality and the variation of reflection property of rail surfaces
With the advancements in optical and satellite communications for high speed long range data transmissions, serrated antennas plays a vital role. In this work we have designed a Edge Serrated Microstrip Patch antenna used for these applications has been modeled on FR4 substrate as a dielectric medium which has a relative permittivity value of 4.4. The proposed antenna was resonating at two different frequencies in L & S band Microwave frequency ranges. This antenna was fed with coaxial feeding and was designed in a software HFSS.
Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks has to take into account the limited battery resources of the nodes. Sensor nodes can also be powered by other energy sources like solar energy. This paper provides a review of Environment monitoring using Wireless Sensor Networks. The issues related to environment sensor networks is highlighted. The real time applications in environment monitoring is presented with emphasis on energy conservation. Furthermore in this paper we address the problem of scavenging energy using solar powered devices.
This paper presents an enhanced 32-bit carry lookahead(CLA) adder implementing using the constant delay (CD) logic, targeting at full-custom high-speed applications. The CD characteristic of this logic style regardless of the logic type makes it suitable in implementing complicated logic expressions such as addition. CD logic exhibits a unique characteristic where the output is pre-evaluated before the inputs from the preceding stage is ready. This feature offers performance advantage over static and dynamic domino logic styles in a single-cycle multistage circuit block. Several design considerations including timing window width adjustment and clock distribution are discussed. Using 65-nm general-purpose CMOS technology, the proposed logic demonstrates an average speed up of 94% and 56% over static and dynamic domino logic, respectively, in five different logic gates. Simulation results of 8-bit ripple carry adders show that CD logic is 39% and 23% faster than
Development is explain not as an empirical term (Reese and Overton1970) and on occasion as through it is (Kaplan 1983) . Many times as what ever happens across the life span is what constitutes development. The concept of development centers on value based notion of improvement. In life span perspective the development is life long, interactive, multidimensional, culturally historically embedded process, shows plasticity, involves both gain and losses and has multidisciplinary field of study. (Sugarman 2001) The quality of life is interpreted differently as satisfaction (Summers 1976), happiness( Esterling 1978),psychological wellbeing( Andrews and Withey 1978) and degree of fulfillment of individuals important goals(Frish 1089) .In Positive Psychology the scientifically unwieldy notion of happiness is broken down several more quantifiable aspect: positive emotion (the pleasant life) engagement (engaged life) and purpose(meaningful life). (Seligman 2008)
Clustering technique is the basic technique used in the wireless sensor network to enhance the lifetime of a sensor network by mitigating energy consumption and provide efficiency, scalability, and security. Formerly sensor nodes are considered to be homogeneous in which each node has the same processing capacity, energy and functionality, but to prolong network lifetime researches has been evolved to infuse heterogeneity in wireless sensor network such as to provide different energy level to some nodes. In this paper, we present a survey on basic clustering techniques for Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks.
This paper touched the concept of a new system of abstract algebra .Where we relied on a set of semi order, and the stack of elements in the form of a matrix. We proved that this system is a semi-group, after providing the fuzzy system to the system, and access to the algebraic operations determine the significance of any element in the set and reliance on the location element in the set . Identify new methods to resolve the issues of transportation models in Operations Research.
As the world runs fast, its our duty to run with the world compensating its speed. There is an urge to prove everyone unique. Hence time management play a worthless role in the daily work of a person. At morning it is a herculean task to wake up from the bed. “Let me sleep for some more time” is the first slogan of everyone every morning. But feeling guilty for not waking up in the morning is also encountered in several cases. In this paper we propose a novel “Murderer Algorithm” based automatic waking up system that helps to wake up every morning. The uniqueness of the system is to make the person in the bed to wakeup and get away from the bed. The device employs simple capacitive touch sensor to sense the presence of a person and also a brig
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