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Stem Cell Therapy: A Primer for Interventionalists and Imagers

In recent years, research advancement in stem cell therapy has been rapid. Accordingly, general clinical, scientific, and public attention to the application of stem cell therapy has been substantial. Promises are great, most notably with regard to the application of stem cell therapy for diseases that are currently difficult to treat or incurable such as Parkinson disease or diabetes mellitus. It is in the best interest of patient care for diagnostic and interventional radiologists to be actively involved in the development of these therapies, both at the bench and at the bedside in clinical studies. Specifically, the diagnostic radiologist can become an expert in imaging, tracking, and monitoring of stem cells and in the assessment of engraftment efficiency, whereas the interventionalist is a natural expert in targeted stem cell delivery by means of different routes (percutaneous, selective intravenous, or intraarterial). In addition, there is a potential role for the interventionalist to create engraftment territory and increase engraftment bed fertility with controlled intentional tissue destruction (eg, by means of thermal ablation) that might precede stem cell administration. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2009; 20:999 –1012 Abbreviations: MS ϭ multiple sclerosis, RF ϭ radiofrequency, SPIO ϭ superparamagnetic iron oxide RESULTS of recent stem cell research have received much clinical, scientific, and public attention, and clinical applications of stem cell therapy will undoubtedly continue to expand in the future. The interventional and diagnostic radiologist should be familiar with the basic principles of stem cell From the Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center–Harvard Medical School, One Deaconess Rd, West CC Bldg, 3rd Fl, Boston, MA 02215 (B.N., S.F., S.N.G.); Department of Radiology, UCSD Medical Center School of Medicine, San Diego, California (M.D.K.); and System Radiology, Geisinger Health System, Danville, Pennsylvania (J.F.C.). Received April 16, 2009; final revision received April 24, 2009; accepted April 28, 2009. Address correspondence to B.N.; E-mail: boris.nikolic@ uphs.upenn.edu *Current affiliation and corresponding author contact: Boris Nikolic, MD, MBA, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, 3400 Spruce Street, 1 Silverstein, Philadelphia, PA, 19104; E-mail: boris.nikolic@uphs.upenn.edu None of the authors have identified a conflict of interest. © SIR, 2009 DOI: 10.1016/j.jvir.2009.04.075

Latihan Soal IPA - UN dan SNMPTN/PTS 2012/2013 - 04-09-2013

Latihan Soal IPA - UN dan SNMPTN/PTS 2012/2013 - 04-09-2013 Universitas Esa Unggul - http://www.esaunggul.ac.id Latihan Soal IPA - UN dan SNMPTN/PTS 2012/2013 Tuesday, April 09, 2013 http://www.esaunggul.ac.id/future-student/latihan-soal-ipa-un-dan-snmptnpts-20122013/ Latihan Soal IPA UN dan Ujian SNMPTN/PTS 2012/2013 Modul 1 Bahasa Indonesia Bahasa Inggris Matematika IPA Fisika Kimia Biologi Modul 2 Bahasa Indonesia Bahasa Inggris Matematika IPA Fisika Kimia Biologi _______________________________________________ PDF generated by Universitas Esa Unggul page 1 / 1 Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org) 4 Sep 2013 ... Latihan Soal IPA - UN dan SNMPTN/PTS 2012/2013 - 04-09-2013. Universitas Esa Unggul - http://www.esaunggul.ac.id. Latihan Soal IPA - UN ...

Mata Pelajaran : BAHASA INGGRIS - Universitas Esa Unggul

BAHASA INGGRIS : XII IPA/IPS : 90 menit Mata Pelajaran Kelas/ Program Waktu Choose A, B, C, D, or E for the correct answer. Listening Section In this section of the test, you will have the chance to show how well you understand spoken English. There are three parts to this section with special directions for each part. Part I Questions 1 to 5 Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear some dialogues or questions spoken in English. The dialogues or questions will be spoken two times. They will not be printed in your test book so you must listen carefully to understand what the speakers say. After you hear a dialogue and the question about it, read the five possible answers and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard. Now listen to a sample question. You will hear: Man : How about exercising tomorrow morning? Woman : Alright. Pick me up at 6. You will also hear: Narrator : What will the man do? You will read in your test book: a. Do exercise at 6. b. Go with six women. c. Take exercise alone. d. Leave the woman alone. e. come to the woman’s house. The best answer to the question is “Come to the woman’s house.” Therefore, you should choose answer (e). 1. a. She cut herself quite badly. b. She wasn’t given any help. c. She cried while slicing onions. d. She sliced the onions hurriedly. e. She was going to make fried rice. 2. a. Do his assignment b. See a book fair. c. Buy a history book. d. Offer the woman a book. e. Go to the woman’s house. 3. a. To buy a novel. b. To read a novel. c. To lend a novel. d. To go to a bookstore. e. To finish reading a novel. 4. a.1 b.2 c.3 d.4 e.5 Latihan Soal UN dan Ujian SNMPTN /PTS 2012/2013 1 5. a.1 b.2 c.3 d.4 e.5 PART II Questions 6 to 10 Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear a statement or a question spoken in English, foolowed by four responses, also spoken in English. The statement or question and the responses will be spoken two times. They will not be printed in your test book, so you must listen carefully to understand what the speakers say. You have to choose the best response to each statement or question. Now listen to a sample question: You will hear: Woman : Good morning, John. How are you? Man : …… You will also hear: a. I am fine, thank you. c. Let me introduce myself. b. I am in the living room. d. My name is John Travolta. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The best answer to the question “How are you?” is choice (a), “I’m fine, thank you.” Therefore, you should choose answer (a). Mark your answer on your answer sheet. Mark your answer on your answer sheet. Mark your answer on your answer sheet. Mark your answer on your answer sheet. Mark your answer on your answer sheet. Part III Questions 11 to 15 Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear several monologues. Each monologue will be spoken two times. They will not be printed in your test book so you must listen carefully to understand what the speakers say. After you hear a monologue and the questions about it, read the five possible answers and decide which one would be the best answer to the questions you have heard. 11. a. b. c. Goose hunting An unfaithful dog An unusual accident d. A mathematics teacher e. Chambers Country Policeman 12. a. b. c. Arthur Houston Labrador d. Perry Price e. Joe LaRive Latihan Soal UN dan Ujian SNMPTN /PTS 2012/2013 2 13. a. b. c. It lies on high land. It is densely populated. It lies on a flat low plain area. d. The climate is hot and humid. e. It is at the mouth of the Ciliwung River. 14. a. b. c. James’ pet dog Muggs’ characteristics Muggs’ strange behavior d. The night when Muggs died e. Browny, the Cocker Spaniel 15. a. b. c. Andre Muggs James d. Browny e. George This is the end of the listening section Reading Section Text 1 is for number 16 Miss Ratu, I’m going to have a business trip to Surabaya and Jakarta. I’d like to go by train from here to Surabaya this afternoon and spend two days there. Then I’d like to fly to Jakarta and stay there for three nights. 1. Please book an executive class train ticket and seat reservation to Surabaya. 2. Please book single room with bath for three nights (Wed 1, Thurs 2, Fri 3) at Sulthan Hotel, Jakarta Selatan. Thanks, Raja 16. What is the message about? A. B. C. D. E. Mr. Raja’s request to his secretary. Ratu’s plan to Surabaya. A business trip to Surabaya. Mr. Raja’s schedule to Jakarta. A reservation for a train ticket. Text 2 is for number 17 Hi, Guys! 78 shs will hold a Fund Raising Activity next month. It is intended to help victims of earthquake in several areas in Aceh. Everyone who is interested in this activity, please join us. You are also invited to donor your used clothes. For further information, please contact Teuku as the chief program cocoordinator at his office or to the following numbers: 021- 7996070 081318777056 17. What is the activity for? A. Collecting used clothes B. Helping their raising activity C. Joining fund raising activity D. Helping victims of earthquakes E. Inviting neighbor to donor used clothes Text 3 is for number 18 The University of Australia The University of Australia has an international reputation for educational professionals and applied research. It is Australia’s largest university, with six campuses, including a specialized technology campus. The university places particular importance on the quality of its teaching and learning programs, and on its working links with industry, business and government. 18. Which information is NOT TRUE about the University of Australia? Latihan Soal UN dan Ujian SNMPTN /PTS 2012/2013 3 A. B. C. D. E. It has an international educational reputation It also has a specialized technology campus It has six technology campuses It is Australia’s largest university It has good relation with industry Text 4 is for number 19 and 20 Quake Rocks Southern Philippines Philippines: A 5,3-magnitude earthquake struck the southern Philippines on Thursday, the U.S. Geological Survey said, but there were no reports of casualties or damage. The undersea quake struck at 11:20 a.m. (03200 GMT) around 96 kilometers south east of the southern city of General Santos on the island of Mindanao, the U.S. agency said. The quake was felt in various cities in Mindanao but was not large enough to cause any major damage or panic, said the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs). The archipelago nation, made up of more than 7,000 islands, sits on the Pacific “Ring of fire” where continental plates collide, causing frequent seismic and volcanic activity. (Adapted from the Jakarta Post, December 2008) 19. How do we know that the quake was not considered as a big one? Because .... A. It was an undersea quake B. There was no victims or damage C. The quake was less than 5,3 magnitute D. The distance was deep down the sea E. The quake rocked the center of Mindanao, ...

Soal-Soal dan Pembahasan Matematika IPA SNMPTN 2012 ...

Soal-Soal dan Pembahasan Matematika IPA SNMPTN 2012 Tanggal Ujian: 13 Juni 2012 1. Lingkaran (x + 6)2 + (y + 1)2 = 25 menyinggung garis y = 4 di titik... A. ( -6, 4 ) B. ( 6 , 4) C. ( -1, 4 ) D. ( 1, 4 ) E. ( 5 , 4 ) Jawab: BAB XI Lingkaran Masukkan nilai y=4 pada persamaan (x + 6)2 + (4 + 1)2 = 25 (x + 6)2 = 25 – 25 = 0 x = -6 Didapat titik x = -6 dan y = 4  (-6,4) Jawabannya A 2. Jika 2x3 – 5x2 – kx + 18 dibagi x - 1 mempunyai sisa 5, maka nilai k adalah... A. -15 B. -10 C. 0 D. 5 E. 10 Jawab: BAB XII Suku Banyak Metoda Horner x3 x= 1 2 x2 x -k 18 2 2 -5 -3 -3 - k -3 ( -3- k) + = kalikan dengan x =1 (15 – k)  sisa =5 15 – k = 5 k = 15 – 5 = 10 Jawabannya E www.belajar-matematika.com 1 3. Luas daerah yang dibatasi oleh kurva y = x2, y = 1, dan x = 2 adalah... A. ∫ (1 − B. ∫ ( ) C. ∫ ( − 1) − 1) D. ∫ (1 − Jawab BAB XVI Integral E. ∫ ( ) − 1) Buat sketsa gambar untuk mengetahui batas luas: terlihat bahwa bidang luasnya (arsiran) bagian atasnya adalah y = x 2 dan bagian bawahnya y = 1 dengan dibatasi oleh batas atas x = 2 dan batas bawah x =1. Dalam notasi integralnya : b ∫ ( b b a a a L =  y2 dx -  y1 dx =  ( y 2  y1) dx − 1) Jawabannya C 4. ( ( A. B. ) ) = .... C. E. D. www.belajar-matematika.com 2 Jawab: BAB VII Trigonometri ( ( + 2 sin cos ) ) = = = =1 = 2 Jawabannya E 5. Lingkaran (x - 3)2 + (y - 4)2 = 25 memotong sumbu –x di titik A dan B. Jika P adalah titik pusat lingkaran tersebut, maka cos ∠APB = ... A. C. B. E. D. Jawab: BAB XI Lingkaran dan BAB VII Trigonometri Sketsa gambar: Lingkaran dengan pusat (3,4) APB merupakan segitiga. www.belajar-matematika.com 3 Untuk menjawab soal ini digunakan teorema di bawah ini: Aturan sinus dan cosinus C  b  a  A c B Aturan cosinus 1. a 2 = b 2 + c 2 - 2bc cos  2. b 2 = a 2 + c 2 - 2ac cos  3. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos  Kita pakai rumus (3) c = AB = 6 a = b = AP = PB = √3 + 4 = √25 = 5 c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos P 2ab cos P = + − cos P = = = = . . . Jawabannya A 6. Grafik fungsi f(x) = ax3 – bx2 + cx + 12 naik jika.... A. b2 – 4ac < 0 dan a > 0 B. b2 – 4ac < 0 dan a < 0 C. b2 – 3ac > 0 dan a < 0 D. b2 – 3ac < 0 dan a > 0 E. b2 – 3ac < 0 dan a < 0 Jawab: BAB XV Differensial www.belajar-matematika.com 4 Syarat fungsi naik ( )>0 3ax2 - 2bx + c > 0  fungsi naik ( - , 0, + ) * variabel x2 > 0 3a > 0 a>0 *D<0 ( ) > 0 , maka tidak ada titik potong dan singgung di sb x sehingga D < 0  karena (-2b)2 – 4.3a.c < 0 4b2 – 12.a.c < 0 b2 – 3 ac < 0 didapat a > 0 dan b2 – 3 ac < 0 Jawabannya D 7. →0 = .... E. √3 √ A. -1 C. 1 B. -0 D. Jawab: XIV Limit Fungsi →0 = →0 = = = →0 →0 1 . 1. = = =1 Jawabannya C www.belajar-matematika.com

Soal dan Pembahasan Matematika IPA SNMPTN 2011

Soal-Soal dan Pembahasan SNMPTN Matematika IPA Tahun Pelajaran 2010/2011 Tanggal Ujian: 01 Juni 2011 1. Diketahui vektor u = (a, -2, -1) dan v = (a, a, -1). Jika vektor u tegak lurus pada v , maka nilai a adalah ... A. -1 B. 0 C. 1 D. 2 E. 3 Jawab: Vektor: vektor u tegak lurus pada v maka u . v = 0 u = −2 , v = −1 −2 . −1 −1 (a – 1) (a-1) = 0 maka a = 1 −1 = a2 – 2a + 1 = 0 (a - 1)2 = 0 Jawabannya adalah C 2. Pernyataan berikut yang benar adalah ... A. Jika sin x = sin y maka x = y B. Untuk setiap vektor u , v dan w berlaku u . ( v . w ) = ( u . v ). w C. Jika b  f ( x) dx = 0, maka a D. Ada fungsi f sehingga E. 1 – cos 2x = 2 cos2 x f ( x )= 0 Lim f(x) ≠ f(c) untuk suatu c xc www.belajar-matematika.com - 1 Jawab: Trigonometri, vektor, integral, limit A. Ambil nilai dimana sin x = sin y  sin α = sin (1800 – α ) ambil nilai α = 600  sin 600 = sin 1200 ; tetapi 600 ≠ 1200 Pernyataan SALAH B. Operasi u . ( v . w ) tak terdefinisi karena v . w = skalar, sedangkan u = vektor vektor . skalar = tak terdefinisi Pernyataan SALAH C. Ambil contoh cari cepat hasil dimana b  f ( x) dx = 0 ; a 1 Didapat b = 1 dan a = -1 maka f(x)= x   x dx = 0  1 terbukti : f(x) = x bukan f(x) = 0 x2 | Pernyataan SALAH D. Ambil contoh f(x) = Lim xc f(x) = Lim x 1 ( ( = ( ( ) ( )( ) = ) ( ) Lim f(x) ≠ f(c)  2 ≠ 1 xc ) ( )( ) = ) ( ) =2 Pernyataan BENAR E. 1 – cos 2x = 1 – ( 2cos2 x – 1) = 1 + 1 - 2cos2 x = 2 - 2cos2 x = 2 ( 1 – cos2 x) Pernyataan SALAH Jawabannya adalah D www.belajar-matematika.com - 2 = (1 – 1) = 0 3. Luas daerah di bawah y = -x2 +8x dan di atas y = 6x - 24 dan terletak di kuadran I adalah.... a. ∫ (− b. ∫ (− c. ∫ (− +8 ) +8 ) +8 ) d. ∫ (6 − 24) e. ∫ (6 − 24) Jawab: Integral: +∫ ( + ∫ (− + ∫ (− + ∫ (− + ∫ (− − 2 − 24) + 2 + 24) + 2 + 24) +8 ) +8 ) kuadran I titik potong kedua persamaan : y1 = y2 -x2 +8x = 6x-24 -x2 +8x - 6x+24 = 0 -x2 +2x + 24 = 0 x2 -2x - 24 = 0 (x - 6) (x+4)0 x = 6 atau x = -4  karena di kuadran I maka yang berlaku adalah x = 6  y = 6.6 – 24= 12 berada di titik (6,12) www.belajar-matematika.com - 3 L = ∫ (− = ∫ (− +8 ) +8 ) + ∫ ((− + ∫ (− Jawabannya adalah B + 8 ) − (6 − 24)) + 2 + 24) 4. sin 350 cos 400 - cos 35 sin 400 = A. cos 50 B. sin 50 C. cos 950 D. cos 750 E. sin 750 Jawab: Trigonometri: Pakai rumus: sin (A - B) = sin A cos B - cos A Sin B A= 350 ; B = 400 = sin (350 - 400) = sin -50 Cos (90 0 -  ) = sin   rumus Cos (90 0 - (-50) ) = sin -50   = -50 Cos 950 = sin -50 Jawabannya adalah C 5. Diketahui g(x) = ax2 – bx + a – b habis dibagi x – 1. Jika f(x) adalah suku banyak yang bersisa a ketika dibagi x – 1 dan bersisa 3ax + b2 + 1 ketika dibagi g(x), maka nilai a adalah...... A. -1 B. -2 C. 1 D. 2 Jawab: Suku Banyak: g(x) = ax2 – bx + a – b habis dibagi x – 1  g(1) = 0 g(1) = a . 1 – b .1 + a – b = 0 =a–b+a–b=0 2a – 2b = 0 2a = 2b  a = b karena a = b maka: g(x) = ax2 – ax + a – a = ax2 – ax www.belajar-matematika.com - 4 E. 3 f(x) dibagi dengan f(x-1) sisa a  f(1) = a f(x) dibagi dengan g(x) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) dibagi dengan ax2 – ax sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) dibagi dengan ax(x – 1) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 teorema suku banyak: Jika suatu banyak f(x) dibagi oleh (x- k) akan diperoleh hasil bagi H(x) dan sisa pembagian S  f(x) = (x- k) H(x) + S f(x) dibagi dengan ax(x – 1) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) = ax (x - 1) H(x) + (3ax + b2 + 1) substitusikan nilai nol dari pembagi yaitu x = 0 dan x = 1  dari ax (x - 1) ambil x = 1  untuk x = 1 f(1) = a . 1 (1 – 1) H(0) + 3a.1 + b2 + 1 a = 0 + 3a + b2 + 1  diketahu a = b, masukkan nilai a = b a = 3a + a2 + 1 a2 + 2a + 1 = 0 (a+1)(a+1) = (a+1)2 = 0 a = -1 Jawabannya adalah A 6. Rotasi sebesar 450 terhadap titik asal diikuti dengan pencerminan terhadap y = -x memetakan titik (3,4) ke .... A. √ B. − Jawab: ,√ √ ,√ C. D. √ √ ,−√ ,−√ E. − Transformasi Geometri:  cos  Rotasi sebesar 450 terhadap titik asal =   sin    sin    cos     0  1 pencerminan terhadap y = -x    1 0     www.belajar-matematika.com - 5 √ ,√

Presentasi SBMPTN Info Day 2013.pdf

SBMPTN Info Day 2013 Acara Sosialisasi Seleksi Bersama Masuk Perguruan Tinggi Negeri Tahun 2013 Dr. Emil Budianto Ketua Pantia Lokal SBMPTN Jakarta SELEKSI MAHASISWA MASUK PTN PRESTASI AKADEMIK SNMPTN KEBIJAKAN PENERIMAAN MAHASISWA PTN UJIAN TERTULIS SBMPTN Pola seleksi yang dilaksanakan secara bersama oleh PTN di seluruh Indonesia yang diselenggarakan melalui ujian tulis KARAKTERISTIK TES TERTULIS 1 2 • mengukur kemampuan penalaran atau kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi (higher order thinking) yang memprediksi keberhasilan calon mahasiswa di semua program studi di Perguruan Tinggi. • terdiri dari Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA), Tes Kemampuan Dasar Umum (TKDU), Tes Kemampuan Dasar Sains dan Teknologi (TKD Saintek), dan Tes Kemampuan Dasar Sosial dan Humaniora (TKD Soshum). Perbedaan SNMPTN 2012 dengan SBMPTN 2013

PENJELASAN TEKNIS PELAKSANAAN UJIAN SNMPTN 2008

PENTING !!!.. a. Lokasi Ujian dibagi dalam : Sektor dan Lokasi (SAINTEK/SOSHUM/CAMPURAN) b. ATK untuk keperluan Lokasi Ujian dikirim pada tanggal 12 dan 13 Juni 2013; c. Dokumen Naskah Soal Ujian (NSU); Lembar Jawab Ujian (LJU) ; Berita Acara dan Album Bukti Hadir Peserta mulai dikirim jam 05.30 WIB dari Sekretariat Panlok UNS Kampus Kenthingan. • Penanggung Jawab Lokasi • Sekretaris • Bendahara • Anggota • Pengawas • Penata Tempat/Ruang • Keamanan 1. PETUGAS PELAKSANA UJIAN DI LOKASI. Pelaksanaan Ujian Tulis dibagi dalam 3 (tiga) Tahap : a. Sebelum Ujian, meliputi kegiatan : 1). Pemeriksanaan Ruang Ujian; 2). Penerimaan Naskah Soal Ujian (NSU), Lembar Jawab Ujian (LJU) dan kelengkapannya; 3). Verifikasi dokumen peserta; 4). Pembagian LJU dan NSU. b. Pada saat ujian, meliputi kegiatan: 1). Pemeriksanaan kelengkapan NSU; 2). Pengisian Berita Acara ( BA.U.1 dan BA.U.2); 3). Pengawasan Ujian; 4). Melakukan presensi peserta. c. Pada waktu selesai ujian, meliputi kegiatan: Pengelolaan dan Penyerahan LJU dan berkas lainnya. 2. Hal-hal yang harus disiapkan Panitia Ujian Setempat. • Kesiapan ruang: • Berkapasitas 20 orang atau kelipatannya; • Berpenerangan dan sirkulasi udara yang baik; • Ketersediaan meja dan kursi; • Jarak antarkursi 80 cm kesamping dan 60 cm ke depan/belakang; • Lay out ruang tidak boleh dalam bentuk teater;

snmptn-2010_ipa_kodesoal_526
by top markotop 0 Comments favorite 34 Viewed Download 0 Times

1. Sebelum mengerjakan soal, Anda diminta untuk meneliti kelengkapan nomor dalam berkas soal ini. Tes Bidang Studi IPA ini terdiri atas 60 soal dari 4 bidang ilmu, yaitu Matematika 15 soal, Fisika 15 soal, Kimia 15 soal, dan Biologi 15 soal. 2. Bacalah dengan cermat aturan dan tata cara menjawab setiap tipe soal! 3. Tulislah jawaban Anda pada lembar jawaban ujian yang tersedia sesuai dengan petunjuk yang diberikan! 4. Anda dapat menggunakan bagian yang kosong dalam berkas soal untuk keperluan corat-coret. Jangan menggunakan lembar jawaban ujian untuk keperluan corat-coret. 5. Selama ujian berlangsung, Anda tidak diperkenan­ kan menggunakan alat hitung dalam segala bentuk. 6. Selama ujian berlangsung, Anda tidak dlperkenan­ kan menggunakan alat komunikasi dalam segala bentuk. 7. Selama ujian berlangsung, Anda tidak diperkenan­ kan untuk bertanya atau meminta penjelasan kepada siapa pun tentang soal-soal ujian, termasuk kepada pengawas ujian. 8. Selama ujian berlangsung, Anda tidak diperkenan­ kan keluar-masuk ruang ujian. 9. Waktu ujian yang disediakan adalah 90 menit. 10. Harap diperhatikan agar lembar jawaban ujian tidak kotor, tidak terlipat, tidak basah, dan tidak robek. 11. Setelah ujian selesai, Anda diminta tetap dud uk sampai pengawas selesai mengumpulkan lembar jawaban ujian. Anda dipersilahkan keluar ruang setelah mendapat isyarat dari pangawas untuk meninggalkan ruang. 12.Jawaban yang benar diberi skor +4, jawaban kosong diberi skor 0, dan jawaban yang salah diberi skor -1. 13.Penilaian didasarkan atas perolehan skor pada setiap bidang ilmu. Oleh sebab itu, Anda jangan hanya menekankan pad a bidang ilmu tertentu (tidak ada bidang ilmu yang diabaikan). 14.Kode naskah ini: [

Radiation Oncology and Advancements in Cancer Analysis

As healthcare breakthroughs are discovered just about every day and preventions, cures and treatment options turn out to be readily available for hundreds of diseases, new york prostate oncologist the quantity two lead to of death for men and women inside the United states behind heart disease.This does not imply that cancer investigation is void of main breakthroughs or that it's not coming along as quickly as advancements in other fields. It merely indicates that though new therapy technologies, for instance radiation therapy are becoming created and researched, they may be not becoming achieved at the very same rate as diabetes, influenza, and cardiovascular illness remedy and preventions.

chronic abdominal wall pain - UNC School of Medicine

Chronic abdominal wall pain (CAWP) refers to the pain originating from the abdominal wall which is often misdiagnosed as arising from a source inside the abdominal cavity, often resulting in inappropriate diagnostic investigations, unsatisfactory treatment, and considerable costs. In spite of being implicated in as many as 10% of patients with chronic abdominal pain of unknown cause seen by gastroenterologists, this condition has received little research and clinical attention (1). Thompson et al estimated that about 1% of all referrals for chronic abdominal pain made to a general surgeon were eventually considered to be CAWP (2). In a study of patient referrals to gastroenterologists over a 5-year period, Costanza et al showed that CAWP comprised 7.8% (133 of 1708) patients referred with abdominal pain. Referring physicians were able to suspect CAWP in only 3% of their patients, which suggests the relative unawareness of this condition (3). By contrast, physicians aware of this condition have reported seeing between one to two such patients in a week to three per day (4). Even in 1926, when Carnett first described the examination process to differentiate pain of abdominal wall origin from intra abdominal pain, he commented on CAWP being a frequently missed diagnosis (5). What is within the abdominal wall? The most important cause of CAWP is entrapment of a branch (anterior cutaneous) of one of the lower thoracic (T 7-T 12) intercostal (rib cage) nerves in its tortuous course through the abdominal wall muscle. After turning at a 90º angle, the nerve passes from the posterior sheath of the abdominal wall muscle (rectus abdominis) through a fibrous opening and then branches at right angles while passing through its anterior sheath. It has been thought that the underlying problem is nerve compression with resulting ischemia or lack of blood supply, explained by the nerve's course through the muscle. Applegate termed the condition as "anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome" and suggested the entrapped nerve may also be pushed by intra- or extra-abdominal pressure or pulled by a scar causing pain in the abdominal wall (6). Other diseases affecting the nerves such as diabetes, herpes zoster, trauma, and rarely cancer may also cause symptoms of CAWP (1). Occasionally abdominal wall hematomas (blood filled collections), hernias and painful rib ("slipped rib") may account for abdominal wall pain (7). How is abdominal wall pain diagnosed? CAWP is most commonly diagnosed on the basis of a patient's history and a physical examination. CAWP more commonly involves right side of the abdomen and may be at or close to an old surgical scar or, in the absence of a scar, it is frequently at the outer edge of the abdominal muscle (rectus abdominis). The pain experienced is usually sharp and there is often extreme tenderness upon gentle stroking or pinching in that area of the skin. The patient may guard the area from light touch, sometimes by seizing the examiner's hand. The pain may extend backwards and up to the vertebral body if its origin is related to nerve root in the spinal cord. An important finding is that...

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