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In 2007, the Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) emerged after the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) aligned itself with Al-Qaeda. This development captured the world’s attention and led several scholars and policymakers to ask the question: Why did this merger take place and what does it say about the motivations of GSPC? This research investigates three hypotheses: (1) This merger is merely an ideological one without operational implications; (2) this merger is ideological, operational, and logistical; or (3) this merger is merely a rebranding of a failing organization that needed to survive and, therefore, is not a genuine threat to the United States and its European allies. Exploring the evolution of Algerian Islamism, from the rise of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) and the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) to the GSPC and AQIM, this study concludes that hypothesis 3 is the best explanation of the merger between GSPC and Al-Qaeda. Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503.
Why do the Islamic fundamentalists in general—and followers of al Qaeda in particular—resort to terrorist tactics against Americans and other Westerners around the globe? This question has haunted Americans since 9/11 and prompted a host of antiterrorist policies throughout the world. Much has been written and spoken on the subject, and more will be written and spoken in the years ahead. Political geography offers a frame of reference to learn about al Qaeda and other militant Islamic groups and their anti-West, anti–U.S. posture. To explore the point of view propounded by Osama bin Laden and others, this case study uses the ﬁve levels of analysis introduced in chapter three, examined here from a geopolitical perspective. The ﬁve levels of analysis are the: 1) international system, 2) regional, 3) state, 4) substate (tribal groups), and 5) individual. INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM LEVEL From the international system perspective, consider the following historical context of al Qaeda’s militant Islam. Militant Islamic fundamentalists and followers of Islam are heirs to one of the great civilizations of the world. While...
Department of History, American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt This article examines the nature of religious terrorism, principally with reference to al-Qaeda. It argues that a distinction must be made between the ultimate aims and the immediate objectives of ‘religious’ terrorists, and that while the ultimate aims will be religiously formulated, the immediate objectives will often be found to be almost purely political. This distinction is illustrated with reference to such premodern religious terrorists as the Assassins and Zealots. Immediate objectives, are for many purposes more important than ultimate aims. Although the immediate objectives of al-Qaeda on 9=11 cannot be established with certainty, it is highly probably that the intention was to provoke a response from the US that would have a radicalizing impact on al-Qaeda’s constituency. Reference to public opinion in the Middle East, especially in Egypt, shows that this is indeed what has happened. Such an impact is a purely political objective, familiar to historians of terrorism from at least the time of Errico Malatesta and the ‘propaganda of the deed’ in the 1870s. While no direct link between Malatesta and al-Qaeda exists, al-Qaeda was certainly in contact with contemporary theories that Malatesta would have recognized, and seems to have applied them. Even though its immediate objectives are political rather than religious, al-Qaeda is a distinctively Islamic group. Not only is its chosen constituency a confessional one, but al-Qaeda also uses—and when necessary adapts—well-known Islamic religious concepts to motivate its operatives, ranging from conceptions of duty to conceptions of ascetic devotion. This is demonstrated with reference to the ‘Last Night’ document of 9=11. The conclusion is that terrorism which can be understood in political terms is susceptible to political remedies.
A l-Qa’ida seems to be on its heels. The death of Osama bin Laden and the fall of Arab dictators have left its leadership in disarray, its narrative confused, and the organization on the defensive. One silver lining for al-Qaida, however, has been its affiliate organizations. In Iraq, the Maghreb, Somalia, Yemen, and elsewhere, alQa’ida has used local groups to expand its reach, increase its power, and grow its numbers. This string of mergers is not over. In places as diverse as the Sinai Peninsula and Nigeria, al-Qa’ida-linked organizations are emerging. However, the jihadist world is more fractured than it may appear at first glance. Many Salafi-jihadist groups have not joined with al-Qa’ida, and even if they have, tensions and divisions occur that present the United States and its allies with opportunities for weakening the bond. at the same time, several Salafi-jihadist groups chose not to affiliate with al-Qa’ida, including Egypt’s Gamaat al-Islamiyya and Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), and fighters in Chechnya, Gaza, and Pakistan maintained their distance as well. Motivations to the Affiliate for Joining There are a number of reasons why a group may choose to affiliate with al-Qa’ida, some practical, some ideological, and some personal: • • Al-Qa’ida has always been both a group with its own agenda and a facilitator of other terrorist groups. This meant that it not only carried out attacks on U.S. targets in Kenya, Tanzania, and Yemen throughout the 1990s, but it helped other jihadist groups with funding, training, and additional logistical essentials. Toward the end of the 1990s, alQa’ida incorporated Egyptian Islamic Jihad into its structure. After September 11, 2001, this process of deepening its relationship with outside groups took off, and today a number of regional groups bear the label “al-Qa’ida” in their name, along with a more local designation.
The attacks of September 11, 2001 have resulted in significant changes in both the geopolitical order of nations and in the lives of billions of citizens across the planet. From two wars and growing instability across the Middle East, to the powers that states are exercising upon each other and their citizens, to your removal of tennis shoes at the airport security gate, the forces unleashed on that dark day are still reverberating throughout the world. In the immediate weeks and months following 9/11, we felt a near-universal sense of horror and intense desire for effective response against the perpetrators of the attacks. We also felt urgency to do so, as another wave of terror seemed possible at any time. The anthrax scare reinforced the imperative that all other restraining considerations should be swept aside in the interests of protecting lives, and regular terror alerts kept apprehension palpable among policy-makers and the public. The psychology of most citizens across the world’s most powerful nation became focused: Islamic terrorism was the new evil, and it demanded an unprecedented response. Aggressive wars were launched, billions in new defense contracts signed, sweeping legislation empowering the executive approved, global and domestic surveillance operations unleashed, and a War President was born. In this climate there was neither political space nor institutional leadership for a proper forensic examination of what actually happened on September 11. It would take extended lobbying by increasingly exasperated family members of victims before any official investigation would be undertaken. Nonetheless, prior to, during and after the tenure of the 9/11 Commission a growing network of researchers developed an increasingly comprehensive map of the situation preceding, upon and following 9/11.
The U.S. neocons are the real power behind the rise of Islamic radicals such as Al Qaida, Al Nusra Front, ISIS and the U.S, neocons are behind the rise of neo fascists in the Baltic E. Europe, Poland and W. Ukraine.
Explain how Europe benefited from cultural diffusion during the period c. A.D. 1000 - 1500. Hagia Sophia Hagia Sophia is one of the greatest surviving examples of Byzantine architecture. Of great artistic value was its decorated interior with mosaics and marble pillars and coverings. An interesting fact about the original structure of the dome was how the architects were able to place forty windows around the base of the dome. Hagia Sophia is famous for the mystical quality of light that reflects everywhere in the interior of the nave, which gives the dome the appearance of hovering above the nave. The Hagia Sofia remained the largest cathedral for 1,000 years up until the completion of the cathedral in Seville in Spain. Artist rendition of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople prior Interior of the dome of Hagia Sophia. The hanging to the Ottoman conquest of 1453. emblems are islamic and placed after Constantinople was captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. San Marco di Venezia (Church of San Marco at Venice) CDP - Architecture 2 of 2 http://www.asn.am/cdp/topics/architecture.php
In this paper we will examine the role of geometry in selected examples of art and architecture from selected regions of the Western World. We will start from the Byzantine Empire. In the beginning we will briefly look at the role of geometry in Byzantine architecture and architectural decorations. Then we will explore other types of architectural decorations where geometry was used while creating these decorations. We will examine selected Cosmati designs in Roman architecture and then we will show the geometry behind the Gothic tracery (part 2 of this paper). Most of the designs discussed in this paper are based on circular and interlaced shapes. We will show how these designs were created. We will use Geometer’s Sketchpad to recreate them. For most of us the word 'art' is a synonym of painting, sculpture and sometimes calligraphy. We consider also music as a form of art. For an average person art has nothing in common with mathematics or even geometry. However, if we look into the textbooks of history then we will find that ancient Greeks considered art and mathematics as tightly connected disciplines. There were many artists who have been inspired by mathematics and studied mathematics as a mean of complementing their works. The Greek sculptor Polykleitos recommended a series of mathematical proportions for carving the ideal male nude. Renaissance painters turned to mathematics and many of them became accomplished mathematicians themselves. We can find mathematics in creations of the middle century Islamic artists as well as in works of Gothic masons.
Puji syukur penulis sampaikan ke hadirat Tuhan Yang Mahaesa. Oleh karunia dan rahmatNya penyusunan buku Sains Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, untuk kelas 3 SD dapat penulis selesaikan dengan baik. Penulisan buku ini bertujuan agar para siswa dapat lebih memahami sains sebagai suatu hal yang secara nyata terdapat pada kehidupan sehari-hari. Dalam buku ini memuat berbagai hal yang memenuhi petunjuk pengembangan buku ajar khususnya untuk pelajaran anak SD. Pada setiap bab juga terdapat berbagai bentuk evaluasi sebagai bentuk umpan balik terhadap materi yang disampaikan sebelumnya. Evaluasi berupa soal refleksi, pilihan ganda, isian, dan esai. Untuk memperkaya pengetahuan siswa, juga ditambahkan Wacana Salingtemas. Aspek afektif dan psikomotorik terasah melalui Tugas Proyek Sains. Di akhir setiap bab diberikan rangkuman materi terkait. Selain itu, juga diberikan Latihan Ulangan Umum Semester 1 dan 2. Buku ini juga dilengkapi berbagai ilustrasi dan gambar-gambar. Hal ini dilakukan agar anak-anak lebih tertarik dan mudah mempelajari materi yang disajikan. Bahasa yang digunakan telah disesuaikan dengan kemampuan penguasaan bahasa Indonesia untuk siswa SD. Dengan demikian, diharapkan para siswa lebih mudah mempelajarinya. Mudah-mudahan buku ini dapat dipergunakan dengan baik dan menjadi penunjang belajar anak. Jakarta, Mei 2008 Penyusun
This report attempts to assess al-Qaeda’s presence in Libya. Al-Qaeda Senior Leadership (AQSL) and al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) have sought to take advantage of the Libyan Revolution to recruit militants and to reinforce their operational capabilities in an attempt to create a safe haven and possibly to extend their area of operations to Libya. Reports have indicated that AQSL is seeking to create an al-Qaeda clandestine network in Libya that could be activated in the future to destabilize the government and/or to offer logistical support to alQaeda’s activities in North Africa and the Sahel. AQIM has reportedly formed sleeper cells that are probably connected to an al-Qaeda underground network in Libya, likely as a way, primarily, to secure the supply of arms for its ongoing jihadist operations in Algeria and the Sahel. This report discusses how al-Qaeda and its North African affiliate are using communications media and face-to-face contacts to shift the still-evolving post-revolutionary political and social dynamic in Libya in a direction that is conducive to jihad and hateful of the West. The information in this report is drawn largely from the Internet and Western and Libyan online publications. Particular attention has been given to AQSL and AQIM sources, especially propaganda videos featuring their leaders and a written essay from ‘Atiyah al-Libi, an influential...