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Panduan penulisan Penerbitan Buku Teks - PDPT

Panduan Penulisan Buku Panduan ini merupakan petunjuk penulisan buku pelajaran (ilmiah populer) yang digunakan untuk menentukan kelayakan naskah bagi penerbit. Panduan ini membahas pengertian buku pelajaran & diktat, tujuan penulisan buku pelajaran, isi buku pelajaran, sampul buku, bagian pembuka, bagian utama dan bagian penutup serta ketentuan jumlah halaman. Buku Pelajaran (Text book) & Diktat Buku pelajaran adalah bahan/materi pelajaran yang dituangkan secara tertulis dalam bentuk buku dan digunakan sebagai bahan pelajaran (sumber informasi) sebuah mata kuliah bagi mahasiswa dan pengajar susuai dengan kebutuhan lapangan/industry dan tuntutan perkembangan teknologi dan atau kurikulum. Diktat adalah catatan tertulis suatu bidang studi yang disiapkan oleh guru/dosen untuk mempermudah pengayaan materi pelajaran atau bidang studi yang dibahas dalam proses pembelajaran (Ilvandri, 2011). Diktat yang baik merupakan draft buku ajar yang belum diterbitkan. Tujuan penulisan buku pelajaran a. Menyediakan buku susuai dengan kebutuhan mahasiswa, institusi dan lapangan/ industry serta serta tuntutan perkembangan teknologi atau kurikulum. b. Mendorong penulis/dosen untuk berkreasi dan kreatif membagikan ilmunya kepada masyarakat. c. Mendorong penulis untuk meng-update ilmunya sesuai dengan kriteria tuntutan buku layak terbit mencakup subdstansi, bahasa dan potensi pasar. d. Mendukung penulis untuk menerbitkan buku bila belum terbit. Isi Buku Pelajaran Isi buku pelajaran berupa teori, konsep, formula atau aturan terkini dilengkapi dengan contoh-contoh masalah atau studi kasus serta solusinya. Isi buku harus orsinil dengan merujuk dari berbagai sumber. Informasi tepat, dapat dipercaya dan dipertanggungjawabkan kepada pembaca dan semua pihak terkait. Isi tersusun dengan baik atau dengan alur informasi yang mudah dipahami. Buku pelajaran dan diktat yang baik memenuhi tiga aspek pendidikan yaitu ilmu pengetahuan (knowledge), keterampilan (skills) dan sikap atau perilaku (attitude). Aspek tersebut seperti yang dinyatakan oleh UNESCO (1994) yaitu...

Fossil Energy Study Guide: Natural Gas - Office of Fossil Energy

Fossil Energy Study Guide: Natural Gas NATURAL GAS—FUELING THE BLUE FLAME Natural Gas: It is colorless, shapeless, and in its pure form, odorless. For many years, it was discarded as worthless. Even today, some countries (although not the United States) still get rid of it by burning it in giant flares, so large they can be seen from the Space Shuttle. Yet, it is one of the most valuable fuels we have. Natural gas is made up mainly of a chemical called methane: a Methane simple compound that has a carbon atom surrounded by four (CH4) hydrogen atoms. Methane is highly flammable and burns almost completely. There is no ash and very little air pollution. Natural gas provides nearly one-quarter of all the energy used in the United States. It is especially important in homes, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy used for cooking, heating, and for fueling other types of home appliances. Because natural gas has no odor, gas companies add a chemical to it that smells a little like rotten eggs. The odor makes it easy to smell if there is a gas leak in your house. THE HISTORY OF NATURAL GAS The ancient “eternal fires” in the area of present day Iraq that were reported in Plutarch’s writings around 100 to 125 A.D. probably were from natural gas escaping from cracks in the ground and ignited by lightning...

KAJIAN TEORI - Deskripsi Teoretik Buku Pelajaran

Buku merupakan salah satu media pembelajaran yang berupa tulisan yang dituangkan ke dalam kertas atau buku dapat digolongkan ke media pembelajaran berupa media cetak. Dalam salah satu hierarki media yang paling kompleks yaitu menurut Gagne (dalam Arief Sadiman, 2011: 23), Gagne mennggolongkan media yang dikaitkan dengan kemampuan memenuhi fungsi menurut hierarki belajar yang dikembangkan yaitu pelontar stimulus belajar, penarik minat belajar, memberi kondisi eksternal, contoh perilaku belajar, memberi kondisi eksternal, menuntun cara berpikir, memasukkan alihilmu, menilai prestasi, dan pemberi umpan balik. Dari beberapa fungsi tersebut, Media cetak memiliki keterbatasan pada aspek stimulus dan alih kemampuan. Sedangkan pada fungsi pengarah perhatian/kegiatan, contoh kemampuan terbatas yang diharapkan, isyarat eksternal, tuntutan cara berpikir penilaian hasil dan umpan balik sudah terdapat didalamnya. Proses belajar mengajar pada hakikatnya adalah proses mentransfer ilmu maupun nilai agar peserta didik bertambah nilai dirinya. Menurut Arief Sadiman (2011: 11-12), proses belajar mengajar adalah proses komunikasi, yaitu proses penyampaian pesan dari sumber pesan melalui saluran media tertentu ke penerima pesan. Dalam hal ini saluran media merupakan media pembelajaran. Menurut Umar Suwito (dalam Suharsimi Arikunto, 1987: 15) media pembelajaran adalah salah satu sarana yang digunakan untuk menampilkan pelajaran. Sedangkan pengretian lebih luasnya, media pendidikan adalah sarana pendidikan yang digunakan sebagai perantara dalam proses belajar mengajar untuk lebih mempertinggi efektivitas dan efisiensi dalam mencapai tujuan pembelajaran. Fungsi dari media pembelajaran adalah (1) memperjelas penyajian pesan agar tidak terlalu bersifat versibilatas, (2) mengatasi keterbatasan ruang, waktu dan daya indra, (3) penggunaan media pendidikan secara tepat dan bervariasi dapat mengatasi sikap pasif peserta didik, dan (4) dengan sifat yang unik pada setiap anaka ditambah lagi dengan lingkungan dan pengalaman yang berbeda, sedangkan kurikulum dan materi pendidikan ditentukan sama untuk setiap siswa, maka guru banyak mengalami kesulitan bilamana semuanya itu harus diatasi sendiri (Arief Sadiman, 2011: 17). Pengelompokan berbagai jenis media telah dikemukakan oleh berbagai ahli. Menurut Leshin, Pollock & Reigulth (dalam Azhar Arsyad, 2011: 36) mengklasifikasikan media menjadi 5 macam, yaitu: 1. Media berbasis manusia (guru, instruktur, tutor, main peran, field-trip, kegiatan kelompok), 2. Media berbasis cetak (buku, penuntun, buku latihan (worksheet), alat kerja bantu, lembar lepas), 3. Media berbasis visual (buku, alat bantu kerja, bagan grafik, peta, gambar transparansi, slide), 4. Media berbasis audio visual (video, film, ...

download Pelajaran Bahasa Jepang SMA 2.pdf

PUSAT KURIKULUM DAN PERBUKUAN Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional Hak Cipta pada Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional Dilindungi oleh Undang-Undang Pelajaran Bahasa Jepang SMA Puji syukur kami panjatkan ke hadirat Allah SWT, berkat rahmat dan karunia-Nya, Pemerintah, dalam hal ini, Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional, sejak tahun 2007, telah membeli hak cipta buku teks pelajaran ini dari penulis/penerbit untuk disebarluaskan kepada masyarakat melalui situs internet (website) Jaringan Pendidikan Nasional. Buku teks pelajaran ini telah dinilai oleh Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan dan telah ditetapkan sebagai buku teks pelajaran yang memenuhi syarat kelayakan untuk digunakan dalam proses pembelajaran melalui Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 32 Tahun 2010 tanggal 12 November 2010. Kami menyampaikan penghargaan yang setinggi-tingginya kepada para penulis/penerbit yang telah berkenan mengalihkan hak cipta karyanya kepada Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional untuk digunakan secara luas oleh para siswa dan guru di seluruh Indonesia. Buku-buku teks pelajaran yang telah dialihkan hak ciptanya kepada Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional ini, dapat diunduh (download), digandakan, dicetak, dialihmediakan, atau difotokopi oleh masyarakat. Namun, untuk penggandaan yang bersifat komersial harga penjualannya harus memenuhi ketentuan yang ditetapkan oleh Pemerintah. Diharapkan bahwa buku teks pelajaran ini akan lebih mudah diakses sehingga siswa dan guru di seluruh Indonesia maupun sekolah Indonesia yang berada di luar negeri dapat memanfaatkan sumber belajar ini. Kami berharap, semua pihak dapat mendukung kebijakan ini. Kepada para siswa kami ucapkan selamat belajar dan manfaatkanlah buku ini sebaik-baiknya. Kami menyadari bahwa buku ini masih perlu ditingkatkan mutunya. Oleh karena itu, saran dan kritik sangat kami harapkan. gala puji dan syukur penulis panjatkan ke hadirat Allah SWT., karena hanya atas izinNya penyusunan buku pelajaran bahasa Jepang untuk SMA yang diberi judul 2 ini dapat diselesaikan sesuai harapan. Buku yang disusun berdasarkan kurikulum yang berlaku saat ini ditujukan bagi para pembelajar bahasa Jepang di tingkat SMA, agar dapat berkomunikasi dalam bahasa Jepang, baik lisan maupun secara tulis. Tujuan penyusunan buku ini adalah untuk mempermudah para guru bahasa Jepang, dalam menciptakan kegiatan pembelajaran bahasa Jepang yang menarik dan bermakna. Oleh karena itu dalam proses penyususnannya (pemilihan materi, bentuk latihan dan gambar pendukung), tidak terlepas dari berbagai pertimbangan yang mengacu pada Teori Pendidikan (Paedagogi) dan Teori Perkembangan Kepribadian. Penyusun berharap kepada Allah SWT, semoga buku pelajaran bahasa Jepang ini dapat bermanfaat bagi pengembangan pembelajaran bahasa Jepang di SMA, dalam rangka turut berpartisipasi meningkatkan kualitas sumber daya manusia Indonesia.. Amin yaa Robbal Alamin...

15-Panduan penulisan Penerbitan Buku Teks

PANDUAN PENULISAN & PENERBITAN BUKU TEKS Panduan ini merupakan petunjuk penulisan buku pelajaran (ilmiah populer) yang digunakan untuk menentukan kelayakan naskah bagi penerbit. Panduan ini membahas pengertian buku pelajaran & diktat, tujuan penulisan buku pelajaran, isi buku pelajaran, sampul buku, bagian pembuka, bagian utama dan bagian penutup serta ketentuan jumlah halaman. Buku Pelajaran (Text book) & Diktat Buku pelajaran adalah bahan/materi pelajaran yang dituangkan secara tertulis dalam bentuk buku dan digunakan sebagai bahan pelajaran (sumber informasi) sebuah mata kuliah bagi mahasiswa dan pengajar susuai dengan kebutuhan lapangan/industry dan tuntutan perkembangan teknologi dan atau kurikulum. Diktat adalah catatan tertulis suatu bidang studi yang disiapkan oleh guru/dosen untuk mempermudah pengayaan materi pelajaran atau bidang studi yang dibahas dalam proses pembelajaran (Ilvandri, 2011). Diktat yang baik merupakan draft buku ajar yang belum diterbitkan. Tujuan penulisan buku pelajaran a. Menyediakan buku susuai dengan kebutuhan mahasiswa, institusi dan lapangan/ industry serta serta tuntutan perkembangan teknologi atau kurikulum. b. Mendorong penulis/dosen untuk berkreasi dan kreatif membagikan ilmunya kepada masyarakat. c. Mendorong penulis untuk meng-update ilmunya sesuai dengan kriteria tuntutan buku layak terbit mencakup subdstansi, bahasa dan potensi pasar. d. Mendukung penulis untuk menerbitkan buku bila belum terbit. Isi Buku Pelajaran Isi buku pelajaran berupa teori, konsep, formula atau aturan terkini dilengkapi dengan contoh-contoh masalah atau studi kasus serta solusinya. Isi buku harus orsinil dengan merujuk dari berbagai sumber. Informasi tepat, dapat dipercaya dan dipertanggungjawabkan kepada pembaca dan semua pihak terkait. Isi tersusun dengan baik atau dengan alur informasi yang mudah dipahami. Buku pelajaran dan diktat yang baik memenuhi tiga aspek pendidikan yaitu ilmu pengetahuan (knowledge), keterampilan (skills) dan sikap atau perilaku (attitude). Aspek tersebut seperti yang dinyatakan oleh UNESCO (1994) yaitu: Learn to know, Learn to do, Learn to be dan Learn to live together. Ketiga aspek tersebut dipertimbangkan sesuai dengan jenjang pendidikan dan kebutuhan. Sampul Buku Sampul buku bagian depan memuat: a. Judul buku : Judul harus spesifik dan relevan sesuai dengan isi buku dan menggunakan kata-kata kunci dan powerful. b. Nama penulis : Nama penulis ditulis lengkap, tidak menggunakan nama samaran sesuai dengan ketentuan penulis buku ilmiah. c. Logo atau nama penerbit bila sudah diterbitkan...

Chemistry Practical Manual BICM 101
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PRACTICAL MANUAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY To understand the molecular logic of life, one needs to see the relationship between a molecular structure and the function it carries out in a cell. The structure plays a major role in emphasizing the function. If the structure is altered then the function is lost. One has to see the structure in relation to various atoms. Physical models play an important role to over come this problem to some extent. Let us see how to build the atomic models of amino acids. Amino acids: Amino acids are alpha amino carboxylic acids. In amino acids, there are two functional groups, an amino group and a carboxylic group. Both these groups are attached to the α carbon atom only. The carbon atom which is tetrahedral in shape where the various groups attached to it are placed in different positions. Since the valence of the carbon atom is four, four groups can be attached to the carbon atom. Based on the groups attached to the carbon atom it may be of two types. 1. Symmetric carbon atom: When the valence of the carbon is satisfied by more than one similar atoms/ groups then the particular carbon atom is called as symmetric carbon atom. Eg : Glycine Compounds containing symmetric carbon atoms are optically inactive since they cannot rotate the plane of polarized light. 2. Asymmetric carbon atom: When the valence of the carbon is satisfied by four different groups, then that particular carbon atom is called as asymmetric carbon atom. Eg: Alanine In amino acids, to α carbon atom, an amino group, a carboxylic group and a hydrogen atom are attached and the fourth group is the R group which varies for each amino acid. All amino acids except glycine have at least one asymmetric carbon atom, hence they are optically active. The structure of proteins can be easily understood by molecular models like ball and stick models. This was further modified by Cochranes to make it a sufficiently accurate. In this concept the atoms are represented by plastic spheres with holes in it pertaining to its valency. The atoms are joined by plastic sticks to show the bond formation. To make it more accurate each atom is represented by different colour. Let us prepare the models of amino acids First prepare molecular model of amino acids and then go on substituting the R groups to see the structure of each amino acid...

Download (PDF) - Bushnell Europe
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PRODUCT GUIDE RIFLESCOPES 2013 P R O U D USA C O M PA N Y Every shot is once in a lifetime. Honor it. An expression of our unwavering focus-maximizing your accuracy at the moment of truth. You’ll find the cold, hard proof in the industry’s most advanced family of riflescopes. Enter our flagship FEATURES RainGuard HD® u Ultra Wide Band Coating u Fully multi-coated optics u Magnum recoilproof construction u 30mm one-piece tube u 100% waterproof, fogproof and shockproof u Argon purged u 1⁄4 MOA fingertip, audible and resettable windage and elevation adjustment u The 651624E and 652165E models feature an illuminated etched reticle with digital intensity adjustment u Side parallax adjustement* (from 10yds/9m to infinity on 2.5-16x models from 25yds/22m to infinity on 4.5-30x models) *except models 651624E and 651832M ARGON PURGING An improvement over traditional nitrogen purging, argon purging delivers the ultimate in long-term waterproof integrity. It’s longer lasting thanks to a larger atom size, provides superior protection against thermal shock and won’t bond with other elements like nitrogen. ULTRA WIDE BAND COATING An anti-reflection coating process that is customized for every lens element in the optical path, in order to allow the best possible light from the front glass all the way back to the eyepiece. The result? Optimum brightness and true color across the light spectrum. RAINGUARD® HD Without it, you’re not ready. A wet lens or a misguided breath that would fog conventional glass will never cost you a view. This patented, permanent, water-repellent coating causes moisture from rain, snow, sleet or condensation to bead up and scatter less light, so you get a clear, bright view when other optics would be rendered useless. E L I T E ® 6 5 0 0 RIFLESCOPES Inspired by a combined commitment to heritage and innovation to create the sharpest, clearest and brightest optics available today. 651624E Reticle: Etched 4A w/illum. u Finish: Matte u Special Features: Illuminated reticle w/digital intensity adjustment, Tube: 30mm 4.5-30x 50mm Extreme brightness and high-end magnification for the longest shots. 654305M Reticle: Fine Multi X® u Finish: Matte u Special Features: 5”/127mm sunshade, Side parallax adjustment, Tube: 30mm. 654305MD Reticle: Mil-Dot u Finish: Matte u Special Features: 5”/127mm sunshade, Side parallax adjustment, Tube: 30mm. 2.5-16x 50mm Our 2.5-16x versatile riflescope now...

College Algebra and Trigonometry - Cengagebrain.co.uk

Licensed to: iChapters User 7th edition College Algebra and Trigonometry College Algebra and Trigonometry Richard N. Aufmann Vernon C. Barker Richard D. Nation 7th edition Cengage Learning developed and published this special edition for the benefit of students and faculty outside the United States and Canada. Content may significantly differ from the North American college edition. If you purchased this book within the United States or Canada, you should be aware that it has been imported without the approval of the publisher or the author. Aufmann Barker Nation Thank you for choosing a Cengage Learning International Edition. Cengage Learning’s mission is to shape the future of global learning by delivering consistently better learning solutions for students, instructors, and institutions worldwide. This textbook is the result of an innovative and collaborative global development process designed to engage students and deliver content and cases with global relevance. NOT AUTHORIZED FOR SALE IN THE U.S.A. OR CANADA For product information: www.cengage.com/international Visit your local office: www.cengage.com/global Visit our corporate website: www.cengage.com 1439049394_ise_cvr.indd 1 ISE/Aufmann/Barker/Nation, College Algebra and Trigonometry, 7th Edition ISBN-1-4390-4939-4 ©2011 Designer: Denise Davidson Text printer: Quebecor World/Taunton Cover printer: Quebecor World/Taunton Binding: Case Trim: 8.5" x 10" CMYK 1/9/10 5:07 PM 49394_00_FM.qxd 1/9/10 Licensed to: iChapters User 12:09 PM Page iv College Algebra and Trigonometry, Seventh Edition Richard N. Aufmann, Vernon C. Barker, Richard D. Nation Acquisitions Editor: Gary Whalen Developmental Editor: Carolyn Crockett Assistant Editor: Stefanie Beeck © 2011, 2008 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Editorial Assistant: Guanglei Zhang Media Editor: Lynh Pham Marketing Manager: Myriah Fitzgibbon Marketing Assistant: Angela Kim Marketing Communications Manager: Katy Malatesta For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706. For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions. Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com. Content Project Manager: Jennifer Risden Creative Director: Rob Hugel Library of Congress Control Number: 2009938510 Art Director: Vernon Boes International Student Edition: Print Buyer: Karen Hunt ISBN-13: 978-1-4390-4939-6 Rights Acquisitions Account Manager, Text: Roberta Broyer ISBN-10: 1-4390-4939-4 Rights Acquisitions Account Manager, Image: Don Schlotman Production Service: Graphic World Inc. Text Designer: Diane Beasley Brooks/Cole 20 Davis Drive Belmont, CA 94002-3098 USA Photo Researcher: Prepress PMG Copy Editor: Graphic World Inc. Illustrator: Network Graphics; Macmillan Publishing Solutions Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local office at www.cengage.com/global. Cover Designer: Lisa Henry Cover Image: Chad Ehlers, Getty Images Compositor: Macmillan Publishing Solutions Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. To learn more about Brooks/Cole, visit www.cengage.com/brookscole Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.CengageBrain.com. Printed in Canada 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. 48610_01_ch0p_s01_001-016.qxd Licensed to: iChapters User CHAPTER 10/14/09 5:16 PM P Page 1 PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS AFP/Getty Images P.1 The Real Number System P.2 Integer and Rational Number Exponents P.3 Polynomials P.4 Factoring P.5 Rational Expressions P.6 Complex Numbers Albert Einstein proposed relativity theory more than 100 years ago, in 1905. Martial Trezzini/epa/CORBIS Relativity Is More Than 100 Years Old The Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Atomic particles are accelerated to high speeds inside the long structure in the photo above. By studying particles moving at speeds that approach the speed of light, physicists can confirm some of the tenets of relativity theory. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans, the temperature of Earth’s crust, smoke detectors, neon signs, carbon dating, and the warmth we receive from the sun may seem to be disparate concepts. However, they have a common theme: Albert Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity. When Einstein was asked about his innate curiosity, he replied: The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of this mystery every day. Today, relativity theory is used in conjunction with other concepts of physics to study ideas ranging from the structure of an atom to the structure of the universe. Some of Einstein’s equations require working with radical expressions, such as the expression given in Exercise 139 on page 31; other equations use rational expressions, such as the expression given in Exercise 64 on page 59. 1 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. 48610_01_ch0p_s01_001-016.qxd Licensed to: iChapters User 2 CHAPTER P 10/14/09 5:16 PM Page 2 PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS SECTION P.1 Sets Union and Intersection of Sets Interval Notation Absolute Value and Distance Exponential Expressions Order of Operations Agreement Simplifying Variable Expressions The Real Number System Sets Human beings share the desire to organize and classify. Ancient astronomers classified stars into groups called constellations. Modern astronomers continue to classify stars by such characteristics as color, mass, size, temperature, and distance from Earth. In mathematics it is useful to place numbers with similar characteristics into sets. The following sets of numbers are used extensively in the study of algebra. 51, 2, 3, 4, Á 6 Natural numbers 5 Á , -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, Á 6 Integers 5all terminating or repeating decimals6 Rational numbers 5all nonterminating, nonrepeating decimals6 Irrational numbers 5all rational or irrational numbers6 Real numbers If a number in decimal form terminates or repeats a block of digits, then the number is a rational number. Here are two examples of rational numbers. 0.75 is a terminating decimal. 0.245 is a repeating decimal. The bar over the 45 means that the digits 45 repeat without end. That is, 0.245 = 0.24545454 Á . p , where p and q are inteq gers and q Z 0. Examples of rational numbers written in this form are Rational numbers also can be written in the form 3 4 Note that Math Matters Archimedes (c. 287–212 B.C.) was the first to calculate p with any degree of precision. He was able to show that 3 10 1 6 p 6 3 71 7 from which we get the approximation 3 1 22 = L p 7 7 The use of the symbol p for this quantity was introduced by Leonhard Euler (1707–1783) in 1739, approximately 2000 years after Archimedes. 27 110 - 5 2 7 1 -4 3 7 n = 7, and, in general, = n for any integer n. Therefore, all integers are rational 1 1 numbers. p , the decimal form of the rational q number can be found by dividing the numerator by the denominator. When a rational number is written in the form 3 = 0.75 4 27 = 0.245 110 In its decimal form, an irrational number neither terminates nor repeats. For example, 0.272272227 Á is a nonterminating, nonrepeating decimal and thus is an irrational number. One of the best-known irrational numbers is pi, denoted by the Greek symbol p . The number p is defined as the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. Often in applications the rational number 3.14 or the rational 22 number is used as an approximation of the irrational number p. 7 Every real number is either a rational number or an irrational number. If a real number is written in decimal form, it is a terminating decimal, a repeating decimal, or a nonterminating and nonrepeating decimal. Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. 48610_01_ch0p_s01_001-016.qxd Licensed to: iChapters User 10/14/09 5:16 PM Page 3 P.1 The relationships among the various sets of numbers are shown in Figure P.1. Math Matters Sophie Germain (1776–1831) was born in Paris, France. Because enrollment in the university she wanted to attend was available only to men, Germain attended under the name of Antoine-August Le Blanc. Eventually her ruse was discovered, but not before she came to the attention of Pierre Lagrange, one of the best mathematicians of the time. He encouraged her work and became a mentor to her. A certain type of prime number is named after her, called a Germain prime number. It is a number p such that p and 2p + 1 are both prime. For instance, 11 is a Germain prime because 2(11) + 1 = 23 and 11 and 23 are both prime numbers. Germain primes are used in public key cryptography, a method used to send secure communications over the Internet. Alternative to Example 1 For each number, check all that apply. N = Natural I = Integer Q = Rational R = Real N Ϫ57 3.3719 7.42917 0 1.191191119 . . . 101 3 THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM I Q R Positive integers (natural numbers) 7 1 103 Integers Zero 0 −201 7 0 Rational numbers 3 4 −5 Real numbers 3 4 3.1212 −1.34 −5 3.1212 −1.34 7 Irrational numbers Negative integers −201 −8 1 −5 −0.101101110... √7 π −0.101101110... √7 π −5 0 103 −201 Figure P.1 Prime numbers and composite numbers play an important role in almost every branch of mathematics. A prime number is a positive integer greater than 1 that has no positiveinteger factors1 other than itself and 1. The 10 smallest prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, and 29. Each of these numbers has only itself and 1 as factors. A composite number is a positive integer greater than 1 that is not a prime number. For example, 10 is a composite number because 10 has both 2 and 5 as factors. The 10 smallest composite numbers are 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 18. EXAMPLE 1 Classify Real Numbers Determine which of the following numbers are a. integers b. rational numbers c. irrational numbers d. real numbers e. prime numbers f. composite numbers -0.2, 0, 0.3, 0.71771777177771 Á , p, 6, 7, 41, 51 Solution a. Integers: 0, 6, 7, 41, 51 b. Rational numbers: -0.2, 0, 0.3, 6, 7, 41, 51 c. Irrational numbers: 0.71771777177771..., p d. Real numbers: -0.2, 0, 0.3, 0.71771777177771 Á , p, 6, 7, 41, 51 e. Prime numbers: 7, 41 f. Composite numbers: 6, 51 Try Exercise 2, page 14 Each member of a set is called an element of the set. For instance, if C = 52, 3, 56, then the elements of C are 2, 3, and 5. The notation 2 ʦ C is read “2 is an element of C.” 1 A factor of a number divides the number evenly. For instance, 3 and 7 are factors of 21; 5 is not a factor of 21. Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part...

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