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Nutrient Solution Formulation for Hydroponic (Perlite, Rockwool, NFT) Tomatoes in Florida1 George J. Hochmuth and Robert C. Hochmuth2 Plants require 16 elements for growth and these nutrients can be supplied from air, water, and fertilizers. The 16 elements are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl). The key to successful management of a fertilizer program is to ensure adequate concentrations of all nutrients throughout the life cycle of the crop. Inadequate or excessive amounts of any nutrient result in poor crop performance. Excessive amounts can be especially troublesome since they can damage the crop, waste money and fertilizer resources, and pollute the environment when fertilizer is released during flushing of the nutrient delivery system. problem comes early in the season when plants become too vegetative (bullish) from too much N. The bullish growth distorts the leaves and stems, causing cracks and grooves in the stems. These openings are excellent entry ports for decay-causing organisms such as soft rot. Bullish plants usually produce misshapen fruits often with significant amounts of blossom-end rot and cat-facing. Keeping the N level low (60 to 70 parts per million) early in the season helps eliminate bullishness. For Florida greenhouse vegetable producers, management focuses on all nutrients except for C, H, and O. The latter three elements are usually supplied in adequate amounts from air and water. Growers in northern climates, where greenhouses are not ventilated in the winter, see benefits from additions of C from carbon dioxide (CO2). Increased yields in Florida from additions of CO2 are unlikely due to the need for frequent ventilation. Nutrient management programs should begin with an understanding of the nutrient solution concentrations in parts per million (ppm) for the various nutrients required by tomato plants. By managing the concentrations of individual nutrients, growers can control the growth and yield of the crop. Table 1 presents the fertilizer recommendations for tomatoes for the various growth stages during the season in Florida. These recommendations are applicable to all types of production systems (perlite, rockwool, and NFT) in which healthy roots are maintained, and are a suitable base when determining a nutrient solution plan for cucumbers and peppers. However, cucumbers will need more N early in the season than tomato.
Reading and understanding centrifugal pump curves is key to proper pump selection, and to their reliable and efficient operation. This Tech Brief examines how pump curves can provide data about a pump’s ability to produce flow against certain head, shows how to read a typical centrifugal pump curve, and provides information about pump efficiency and brake horsepower. Pumps are the workhorses of any drinking water distribution or wastewater collection system. They operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year getting water to homes and business, and removing wastewater from them. A correctly sized pump will work efficiently for many years, saving a system money and energy. An incorrectly sized pump can fail if it’s too small or result in unnecessary expense if it’s too big. Pump curves provide a way to see the correct size a pump should be for specific conditions. Pump Terminology Before discussing specific details, it helps to understand typical terms associated with pump curves: Impeller—the moving element in a pump that drives the liquid. Volute—the spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharged by the impeller. Head—a measure of the pressure or force exerted by water expressed in feet. Centrifugal pump curves show pressure as head, which is the equivalent height of water with specific gravity = 1. Static Head—the vertical height difference from the surface of a water source to the centerline of the impeller. The vertical height difference from the centerline of the impeller to the discharge point is called discharge static head, while the vertical height difference from the surface of the water source to the discharge point is known as total static head. Total Head / Total Dynamic Head—the total height difference (total static head) plus friction losses and demand pressure from nozzles etc. (total discharge head) = total dynamic head. Capacity/Flow—the rate of liquid flow that can be carried, typically measured in gallons per minute (gpm). Net Positive Suction Head—how much suction lift a pump can achieve by creating a partial vacuum. Atmospheric pressure then pushes liquid into pump. A method of calculating if the pump will work or not. Cavitation—cavities or voids in liquid. Bubbles take up space leading to a drop in pump capacity. Collapsing bubbles can damage the impeller and volute, making cavitation a problem for both the pump and the mechanical seal. Specific Gravity—the weight of liquid in comparison to water at approximately 20° C (SG = 1). Specific Speed—a measure of the function of pump flow, head, and efficiency. Vapor Pressure—the force exerted by the gas released by a liquid in a closed space. If the vapor pressure of a liquid is greater than the surrounding air pressure, the liquid will boil. Viscosity—a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow (i.e., how thick it is). The viscosity determines the type of pump used, how fast it can run, and with gear pumps, the internal clearances required. Friction Loss—the amount of pressure / head required to force liquid through pipes and fittings.
Over the years, we have received thousands of letters and photos from all over the country. They got us thinking that we should find a way for everyone to share their stories with others who have the same passion for trucks. What we came up with is lmctrucklife.com. We have shared some of these stories on this site and we were fortunate to meet some of these truck owners. They allowed us to spend a couple of days with them and let us film them telling their story. We will add more, but we would like to hear your stories, however you want to tell them. We hope you like what you find here because we have enjoyed setting it up. You will find the story of our first truck journey — Lowla — on this site as well. Your Truck … Your Story Share your truck journey at lmctrucklife.com. Thanks,... Cooling & Heating Long Motor Corporation, the parent company of LMC Truck, has been a stable force in the automotive industry for 30 years. With a wide variety and large inventory of parts, plus great customer service, LMC Truck has been here to serve you over the years and is proud to provide you quality truck parts for the long haul. Grilles Custom Lighting Emblems / Molding All of the products you see in LMC Truck's catalogs or on our website are in stock and ready to be shipped to you. LMC Truck has done extensive research on the parts we sell, so we know they are the right part for your vehicle. Accessories / Wheels Ordering is convenient; you can order online, over the phone, fax or through the mail. Visa, MasterCard, American Express, Discover, checks and COD's are all easy methods of payment. LMC Truck ships within 48 business hours and a tracking number is emailed to you. When you call to place an order or check order status, you will be speaking with our call center in Lenexa, Kansas. Our toll free number is (800) 562-8782. We respect your privacy and keep your personal information private. We do not sell, rent, trade or provide any of your information to a third party. Fuel Clutch Steering Suspension USA & CANADA: Ordering Hours: onday - Friday: M
Biopesticides Market research report categorizes the global market on the basis of Active ingredient, applications, product types, crop type, and geography; forecasting revenue. http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/biopesticides-267.html
Published by the Iowa High School Athletic Association The keys to developing wrestling potential are a healthy, balanced diet, acquiring the needed wrestling skills, proper conditioning, and getting adequate rest. By following sound advice about wrestling nutrition and weight control, wrestlers can improve their performance on the mat and in the classroom. The benefits of proper nutrition and weight control, to the mind and the body, have been well documented. Likewise, the hazards of extreme weight loss and poor nutritional habits are also well documented. Mood swings, irritability, decrease in academic performance, and loss of athletic performance can all result from extreme weight loss and poor nutritional habits. The best weight for wrestlers, or anyone for that matter, is one that is safe and can be comfortably maintained by eating a healthy, balanced diet. Wrestlers should be able to concentrate more on developing wrestling skills, than on maintaining, or losing, weight. Those who spend more time thinking about food than wrestling are probably trying to lose too much weight and/or eating the wrong foods. Appropriate wrestling weight is that weight which can be maintained by eating a healthy, balanced diet. Seven percent (7%) body fat has been established by many medical authorities across the country as the safe, minimal percent body fat for high school wrestlers. Body fat testing is the only scientific method of predicting a safe, minimal wrestling weight. By losing weight too quickly, or going below 7% body fat, a wrestler risks losing muscle along with fat. This results in decreased muscular endurance and strength. Not every wrestler can, or should, attempt to reach 7% body fat. Most high school wrestlers will perform very well at a body fat percentage above 7%. If a wrestler is above 7% body fat, there is no reason to believe that wrestling performance will improve simply by losing weight. The Iowa High School Athletic Association’s Body Composition Testing Rule states, “The lowest certifiable wrestling weight of each wrestler will be determined by predicting a wrestler’s weight at 7% body fat, minus 3% body weight (due to the approximate error in testing methods).” A wrestler’s lowest certifiable weight is not necessarily the weight he should be trying to achieve, but it is the minimum, safe weight he could achieve under ideal circumstances. If a wrestler does decide to lose weight to reach their lowest, certifiable weight, they should lose no more than 2-3 pounds per week. The only way the body can lose more than 3 pounds a week is through dehydration and excessively 1 restricted food intake. Both of these practices cause the body to lose muscle and water along with the fat. Dehydration and excessively restricted food intake result in decreased strength, muscular endurance, stamina, and concentration. Dehydration is the most detrimental method of losing weight and causes the most rapid decrease in strength, endurance, and mental alertness. Research indicates that the loss of as little as 2% of one's body weight through dehydration can cause significant performance loss! A 2% weight loss for someone weighing 150 pounds is only 3 pounds! To prevent dehydration, the use of rubber, vinyl, and plastic suits, saunas, whirlpools, diuretics, or other methods of quick weight loss must be eliminated. They are against the rules, hurt performance, and can prove to be dangerous to one's health. A simple, effective method of determining adequate hydration is to check the color of one’s urine! Yellow urine indicates dehydration and pale, or clear urine, indicates adequate hydration. The following guidelines will also help ensure proper hydration: 1) drink at least 8, 8 ounce glasses of fluids a day, 2) drink 5-6 swallows of fluids every 15-20 minutes during exercise, 3) for each pound of weight lost during practice, drink 2, 8 ounce glasses of fluids, 4) thirst is a poor indicator of how much to drink; drink more than just enough to ...
Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. Healthy Eating Plan 1800 Calorie Plan There are many different types of eating plans available; however, the key to success is finding one that works for you. One key ingredient for a meal plan to work is consistency. Many of us fail to keep consistency in our lives or we stay consistent with bad habits. Two examples that come to mind include skipping meals and breakfast. Failure to break-the-fast every day and skipping meals improves the chance that you will fail to reach your goals. Eating breakfast and consuming small meals (4 to 6 per day) prevents binge eating, nighttime snacking, and weight gain. It also keeps your metabolic rate at an optimal pace. The body requires fuel to keep your metabolism burning. Think of metabolism as a campfire. To keep a fire burning strong, it must be fed small doses of wood (i.e., fuel). Dropping a large log onto the fire will keep the fire burning, but not as effectively as if it was fed small portions of wood. With the fire still in mind, you have to look at its preferred fuel choice. Adding paper or “empty calories”, the fire will burn through it very quickly. As a result, the fire becomes starved and must be fed very often. Now if you added a mixture of paper and wood, the fire will have enough fuel to burn for a longer period of time. The wood will satisfy the fire’s appetite more than the paper. Wood is to fire as protein is to humans. Your diet should always include a source of protein at each meal and snack. Serving Sizes Serving sizes are not designed to tell you how much you should eat at each meal, but rather, to give you a pattern with which to compare your intake with your goals. Based your specific goals, try to consume the appropriate amount of food based on the following serving sizes. Breads, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta Group One serving = 80 calories or one of the following: 1 slice bread, 2 slices “extra thin” or “diet” bread, ½ English muffin, ½ frankfurter or hamburger bun, 1 small dinner roll, ½ cup starchy vegetables, ½ cup mashed or 1 small baked potato, ½ cup cooked cereal, pasta, rice, 1 tortilla 6” across, 1 ounce cold cereal, 4-6 crackers, 3 cups air popped popcorn, 2 rice cakes or 5 mini cakes. Fruits One serving = 60-80 calories or one of the following: 1 medium portion of fresh fruit: orange, apple, banana, 2 Tbsp raisins, ¼ cup dehydrated fruit; ½ cup cooked or canned fruit, ½ cup fruit juice ...
Helpful Guidelines for Successful Weight Loss Weight loss should occur when you eat fewer calories than you burn. Increasing physical activity while limiting your calories will increase your rate of weight loss. Increasing physical activity will also help you to maintain your weight after weight loss. Discuss appropriate calorie levels and serving sizes with your dietitian. 1. Keep a written food and physical activity journal. 2. Weigh yourself once per week at the same time of day, with the same amount of clothing, and on the same scale. 3. Eat breakfast everyday and do not skip meals. Skipping meals can lead to extreme hunger, overeating and poor food choices. 4. Plan your meals and eat around the same time every day. 5. Pick an eating area at home and/or work. 6. Turn off the TV and/or computer during meals and snacks. 7. Eat slowly. Take 30 minutes for a meal. It takes 20 minutes before you feel full, so wait 20 minutes after your first serving before taking a second serving. 8. Eat protein foods first to help you feel full sooner. 9. Read food labels to help control portions of food. 10. Eat less fat and sugar. Eat more fiber, including fresh fruits/vegetables and whole grains. 11. Limit restaurant and fast food meals. 12. Don’t keep problem foods around the house and/or at work. A problem food is a food that you are likely to eat too much of or too often if readily available. 13. Drink at least 8 cups (64 ounces) of liquids per day. Focus on calorie-free, caffeine-free beverages. 14. Get adequate sleep each night (7-9 hours). Clinical Dietitians, Food & Nutrition Services, UC Davis Medical Center (3/06) © 2006 The Regents of the University of California. All Rights Reserved. Food Preparation Use lowfat cooking methods such as baking, grilling, boiling, poaching, broiling, roasting, steaming or microwaving without additional fat. Avoid or limit frying. Place meat on a rack so the fat will drain off during cooking. Remove skin from poultry before cooking. Trim all visible fat from food (i.e. poultry and meat) before cooking. Use non-stick cookware or cooking sprays. Use egg whites or egg substitute in place of whole eggs. Season food with spices, butter flavoring (such as Butter Buds®), lemon or low-fat dressings. Limit high-fat sauces or gravies such as sour cream, regular salad dressings, full-fat gravy, and cream or cheese sauces (such as Hollandaise or Alfredo sauce). Use a sugar substitute in place of sugar. Replace sugar in recipes with a sugar substitute that can be used in baking or cooking.
Achieve Your Vision You utilize every tool at your disposal to create an environment that seamlessly blends high design with high performance. And of all the environments you create, very few are revered as much as the kitchen. Which is why each and every Electrolux ICON® appliance utilizes the expertise of the world’s foremost leaders from their conception to final assembly. For more than 80 years, Electrolux appliances have graced the kitchens of some of Europe’s finest homes and restaurants. And we are proud to bring this thoughtful design heritage to North America with our renowned Electrolux ICON® appliances. Available in a bold professional series and a graceful designer series, they fit easily into any design style while delivering a versatile array of power, performance and functionality to meet your clients’ needs. Electrolux ICON® appliances will help you achieve your vision. Contents cooking Ranges Electric Wall Ovens Microwave Combination Ovens Cooktops Warmer Drawers Microwaves Ventilation refrigeration Electrolux ICON ® Electrolux ICON ® professional series designer series All Freezer & All Refrigerator 42" Built-In Refrigerators French Door Refrigerators Side-by-Side Refrigerators Ignite the Passion Performance Meets Elegance dishcare Bold looks. Expert design. Flawless engineering. Electrolux ICON® professional series is ideal for those who are passionate about cooking – or anyone who wants a more professional cooking experience at home. Featuring large, restaurantstyle knobs and handles, clean lines and polished stainless steel accents, the professional series’ style and versatility have made it the choice of professional chefs at hotels and restaurants throughout Europe. Your kitchen design will not only create your client’s environment, it will embody her passion. She demands appliances that are smart and purposeful yet elegant and sophisticated. She demands Electrolux ICON® designer series appliances. Featuring stainless steel styling and gracefully curved handles that fit the palm of her hands, each appliance model was created following extensive market research and the strict input and opinions of our chief designer – the consumer. Built-In Dishwashers specialty Under-Counter Refrigerator Drawers Under-Counter Wine Coolers Under-Counter Ice Makers Under-Counter Trash Compactors Built-In Coffee Maker project planning General Installation Guidelines Refrigeration Trim Kits Built-In-Cooking Combination Installations Slide-In Gas Cooktop Power Cord Relocation Instructions Electrolux ICON® products are available in both 20/20 and ARCAT programs, to aid in the production and accuracy of your kitchen designs. To locate the Electrolux ICON® showroom and dealer nearest you, visit us on the web at electroluxicon. com or call us at 1-877-4electrolux (877-435-3287).
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS Please read all safety instructions before using your new Electrolux range. ! WARNING To reduce the risk of fire, electrical shock, or injury when using your wall oven, follow basic precautions including the following: If the information in this manual is not followed exactly, a fire or explosion may result causing property damage, personal injury or death. FOR YOUR SAFETY: — Do not store or use gasoline or other flammable vapors and liquids in the vicinity of this or any other appliance. — WHAT TO DO IF YOU SMELL GAS: • Do not try to light any appliance. • Do not touch any electrical switch; do not use any phone in your building. • Immediately call your gas supplier from a neighbor's phone. Follow the gas supplier's instructions. • If you cannot reach your gas supplier, call the fire department. — Installation and service must be performed by a qualified installer, servicer or the gas supplier. • All ranges can tip. • Injury to persons could result. • Install anti-tip device packed with range. • See Installation instructions. To reduce the risk of tipping of the range, the range must be secured by properly installed anti-tip bracket(s) provided with the range. To check if the bracket (s) is installed properly, remove the lower panel or storage drawer and verify that the anti-tip bracket (s) is engaged. Refer to the installation instructions for proper anti-tip bracket(s). • Remove all tape and packaging wrap before using the appliance. Destroy the carton and plastic bags after unpacking the appliance. Never allow children to play with packaging material. • Proper Installation-Be sure your appliance is properly installed and grounded by a qualified technician in accordance in United States with the National Fuel Gas Code ANSI Z223.1 latest edition, and National Electrical Code ANSI/NFPA No. 70 latest edition, and local code requirements, and in Canada with Canadian Standards CAN/CGA B149.1, and CAN/CGA B149.2 and Canadian Electrical Code, CSA C22.1 part 1, and local requirements. Install only per installation instructions provided in the literature package for this range. Ask your dealer to recommend a qualified technician and an authorized repair service. Know how to disconnect the electrical power to the range at the circuit breaker or fuse box in case of an emergency. • • User Servicing—Do not repair or replace any part of the appliance unless specifically recommended in the manuals. All other servicing should be done only by a qualified technician to reduce the risk of personal injury and damage to the appliance. Never modify or alter the construction of a range by removing leveling legs, panels, wire covers, anti-tip brackets/screws, or any other part of the product. Safety Stepping, leaning or sitting on the door or drawer of this appliance can result in serious injuries and may also cause damage to the appliance. Do not allow children to climb or play around the appliance. The weight of a child on an open door may cause the appliance to tip, resulting in serious burns or other injury. An open drawer, when hot, may cause burns. Do not use the oven or warmer drawer (if equipped) for storage. • Storage in or on Appliance—Flammable materials should not be stored in an oven, near surface units or in the drawer (if equipped). This includes paper, plastic and cloth items, such as cookbooks, plasticware and towels, as well as flammable liquids. Do not store explosives, such as aerosol cans, on or near the appliance. Flammable materials may explode and result in fire or property damage. NEVER use this appliance as a space heater to heat or warm the room. Doing so may result in carbon monoxide poisoning and overheating of the oven. Do not store items of interest to children in the cabinets above the appliance. Children climbing on the range to reach items could be seriously injured. • Do not leave children alone. Children should not be left alone or unattended in the area where an appliance is in use. They should never be allowed to sit or stand on any part of the appliance...
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