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1. Crops can be produced on non-arable land (not fit for farming). Ex. Land with poor soils, and contamination (i.e., high heavy metal and salinity levels). *The grower doesn’t have to have good soil since the systems, bags, etc. are placed on top of the ground. 2. Isolation from diseases or insect pests usually found in the soil. *The plant roots are contained in systems, bags, etc. and do not grow through soil that might contain diseases or other pests such as insects and nematodes. *Additionally, white fabric ground covers can be placed on the greenhouse floor to further isolate the systems and plants from soil-borne pests. NOTE: The white fabric also reflects light back up into the canopy enhancing photosynthesis, allows for ease of cleaning and helps control humidity and weeds. 3. Direct and immediate control over the rhizosphere. *Since the roots are either growing in water or growing through an inert medium, whatever is in the nutrient solution is bathing the roots. Therefore, nutrient concentrations and pH can be adjusted quickly. 4. High planting densities are possible which minimizes use of land area. *For field tomatoes a typical planting density is 4000 to 5000 plants per acre. Greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes can be 10,000 to 11,000 plants per acre! *Plants can be grown closer together because of the use of indeterminant (“vining”) varieties that take up less area than do bush varieties usually used for field cropping. Also they need less root room – the plants are “spoon fed” the nutrient and water they need and do not have to grow a large root system to find these, as field tomatoes do in the soil. 5. Higher yields are ...
Like much of agriculture, Alabama’s aquacultural production sector has been under stress for several years. Alabama producers and intermediaries in the system face competition from others in the ﬁsh and seafood industry, both domestically and internationally, as well as from producers and handlers of other protein sources. Prices for farm level products have generally been depressed and input costs have been on the rise. Thus, proﬁt margins have become thin to nonexistent. Resource owners are interested in identifying and evaluating viable alternative uses for their productive assets. To cope in this environment and be proﬁtable, Alabama aquacultural producers must organize and operate to maximize efﬁciency and be innovative in decisions and actions. Existing ﬁsh production technologies and approaches, primarily pond culture, may not compete effectively. Increasing yield per unit of water, lowering cost per unit of product, and/or enhancing market access could improve the plight of producers. This study aims to identify and assess the technical and economic feasibility of an alternative production system that integrates hydroponic tomato production with production of channel catﬁsh or tilapia using recirculating water through a closed, controlled environment using separate greenhouses to produce tomatoes and ﬁsh throughout the year.
History of Hydroponics. • Hanging gardens of ... World War II-hydroponics in western Pacific. • Plastics .... TOV (tomato on the vine): Tradiro, Ambiance,. Balance ... History of Hydroponics • • • • • Hanging gardens of Babylon Aztec floating gardens World War II-hydroponics in western Pacific Plastics changed everything! Boom in 1990’s – – – – Space program Growing in deserts Vertical farming Large scale production Advantages •Crops can be grown where soil is unsuitable •Reduced plant disease •More control •Bigger yields Disadvantages •Initial costs higher •Deeper knowledge is needed •If introduced, diseases can easily spread •Needs more attention The basics • Growing substrates • Nutrient solution • System designs Growing Substrates • What makes a good media? – Provides support – Good pore size – Does not clog system – Does not affect nutrient solution Photo: /www.aquaponicsusa.com
Greenhouse tomato production has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production in order to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise. Marketing The development of farmers markets, roadside farm markets, and produce auctions across the state offer significant opportunities to sell produce from the farm. Tomatoes can be sold directly from the greenhouse at retail prices. Wholesale markets include supermarkets, restaurants, caterers, and wholesale distributors. Market Outlook The U.S. greenhouse tomato market is increasing dramatically as many consumers will now pay an increased price for a red, ripe tomato. It is possible for Kentucky growers to sell greenhouse tomatoes in this expanding market. Early-season tomato production may also capture higher prices resulting in profitability from intensive production systems. Excellent light, moderate heating costs, high yields, and good prices make spring the best time for greenhouse tomato production in Kentucky. On the other hand, fall and winter production generally results in low returns due to reduced yields and high fuel costs. For this reason, it is difficult to recommend production schedules where tomato harvest would be expected from December through mid February. Production Considerations Production systems There is no single best system for successfully growing greenhouse tomatoes. Many production systems will work if the grower correctly manages fertilization and watering. With experience, individual growers will be able to determine the best and most economic techniques to use in their greenhouse. A number of different types of growing media can be used for greenhouse tomatoes, including good field soil, packaged commercial mixes, and various types of hydroponic media. Use only materials that have been sterilized, pasteurized, or manufactured under clean, disease-free conditions. Small growers often use in-ground soil culture in the beginning, but generally switch to perlite or pinebark culture as they learn more about tomato production. A drip irrigation system is used for the distribution of water and nutrients. Tomatoes require 4 square feet of space per plant. This crop will require attention everyday to ensure success. Equipment (such as fans, vents,...
Nutrient Solution Formulation for Hydroponic (Perlite, Rockwool, NFT) Tomatoes in Florida1 George J. Hochmuth and Robert C. Hochmuth2 Plants require 16 elements for growth and these nutrients can be supplied from air, water, and fertilizers. The 16 elements are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl). The key to successful management of a fertilizer program is to ensure adequate concentrations of all nutrients throughout the life cycle of the crop. Inadequate or excessive amounts of any nutrient result in poor crop performance. Excessive amounts can be especially troublesome since they can damage the crop, waste money and fertilizer resources, and pollute the environment when fertilizer is released during flushing of the nutrient delivery system. problem comes early in the season when plants become too vegetative (bullish) from too much N. The bullish growth distorts the leaves and stems, causing cracks and grooves in the stems. These openings are excellent entry ports for decay-causing organisms such as soft rot. Bullish plants usually produce misshapen fruits often with significant amounts of blossom-end rot and cat-facing. Keeping the N level low (60 to 70 parts per million) early in the season helps eliminate bullishness. For Florida greenhouse vegetable producers, management focuses on all nutrients except for C, H, and O. The latter three elements are usually supplied in adequate amounts from air and water. Growers in northern climates, where greenhouses are not ventilated in the winter, see benefits from additions of C from carbon dioxide (CO2). Increased yields in Florida from additions of CO2 are unlikely due to the need for frequent ventilation. Nutrient management programs should begin with an understanding of the nutrient solution concentrations in parts per million (ppm) for the various nutrients required by tomato plants. By managing the concentrations of individual nutrients, growers can control the growth and yield of the crop. Table 1 presents the fertilizer recommendations for tomatoes for the various growth stages during the season in Florida. These recommendations are applicable to all types of production systems (perlite, rockwool, and NFT) in which healthy roots are maintained, and are a suitable base when determining a nutrient solution plan for cucumbers and peppers. However, cucumbers will need more N early in the season than tomato.
Introducing the revolutionary new Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1 from the world’s largest IT manufacturer. Push the boundaries on what you view – and now on what you can create. With the innovative S Pen’s writing capabilities, you can take handwritten notes and view, create, and edit everything from text documents and spreadsheets to presentations and PDFs. Samsung also helps ensure that an organization’s mobile workforce is protected through features like on-device encryption and partnerships with leading Mobile Device Management (MDM) companies. Enhanced features that maximize efficiency and productivity through Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity and enhanced corporate Email/Calendar/Contact features make Samsung Galaxy devices the ultimate solutions for business professionals on the move. Galaxy Note 10.1 Wi-Fi 16GB White $499.99 Discover Powerful Performance 16GB Gray $499.99 • nnovative S Pen™ allows accurate, 1024-point pressure-sensitive I writing and sketching with S Pen Optimized Apps* • Android™ 4.0 OS Ice Cream Sandwich • Fast 1.4 GHz quad core processor with 2GB of internal memory • eatures include multiscreen, drag and drop, handwriting-to-text F conversion and more • uilt-in microSD™ card slot lets users add up to 32GB additional B storage, or transfer files easily • irelessly connects with DLNA-compatible devices to display W PowerPoint® and other content on TVs using AllShare • i-Fi (802.11 a/b/g/n), Bluetooth 3.0, Dual Band and USB 2.0 W • ntegrated IR blaster controls TV I • 1080p playback in Full HD (1280 x 800) *Included S Pen-Optimized Apps 32GB Gray $549.99 Learn more } S Note™ • Polaris™ Office • Adobe® Photoshop® Touch • Kno™ • Crayon Physics 1-800-SAMSUNG | 1-866-SAM4BIZ | samsung.com/b2b-galaxy or samsung.com/business Follow us on Twitter@SamsungBizUSA The S Pen is pressure-sensitive, for more accurate handwriting, signature capture and drawing. View, create, and edit Word®, Excel®, PowerPoint® and PDF documents directly with Polaris Office. Multiscreen capability allows you to multitask two applications. Handwritten notes and mathematical formulas are easily converted to text. Empower your creativity with Adobe Photoshop Touch and easily combine edited photos and add effects to enhance your communication. Collaborate with co-workers with ChatON, Skype™, Google Talk, AllShare Group Cast and more. Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1 Accessories Item Description Model Number Book Cover EFC-1G2NGECXAR Pouch EFC-1B1LBECXAR S Pen (for built-in pen slot, compatible with Note 10.1 only) ETC-S1G2BEGXAR S Pen Holder Kit ET-S110EBEGXAR Universal Desktop Dock EDD-D100BEGXAR USB Connection Kit EPL-1PLOBEGXAR HDMI Adapter* EPL-3PHPBEGXAR Travel Charger ETA-P11JBEGXAR Compatible with a Wide Array of Solutions Samsung Galaxy devices are compatible with a wide variety of horizontal and vertical solutions including Microsoft® Exchange ActiveSync®, AirWatch®, Sybase®, SOTI®, MobileIron® and many more. *Not compatible with Galaxy Tab 2 7.0 For complete product information and accessories, visit samsung.com/b2b-galaxy or samsung.com/business Follow us on Twitter@SamsungBizUSA Product Support: 1-800-SAMSUNG 1-866-SAM-4BIZ ©2012 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Samsung, Galaxy Tab and Galaxy Player are registered trademarks of Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Adobe and Flash are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. All other brand, product, service names and logos are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers and/or owners. Appearance of devices may vary. Screen images are...
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. TABLE OF CONTENTS GET STARTED 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Install the battery 1 Charge the Battery 2 Turn your Phone On 2 Activation and Service 3 Create Your Account and Pick Your Plan 3 Activate Your Phone 4 Manage Your Account 4 Top-Up Your Account 4 Additional Information 5 Complete the Setup 5 Set Up Voicemail 6 Memory Card 6 Install a microSD Card 7 Remove a microSD Card 7 View microSD Card Memory 7 Format a microSD Card 7 Unmount a microSD Card 8 PHONE BASICS Your Phone’s Layout Key Functions 9 9 9 Turn Your Phone On and Off 10 Turn Your Screen On and Off 10 Touchscreen Navigation 11 Multi Window 16 Your Home Screen 17 Creating Shortcuts 18 Adding and Removing Primary Shortcuts 18 Adding and Removing Widgets 19 Extended Home Screens 19 Recent Apps 20 i Status Bar 20 Enter Text 21 Touchscreen Keyboards 21 Text Input Methods 22 Google Voice Typing 22 Samsung Keyboard 23 Swype 23 Tips for Editing Text 24 PHONE CALLS Make Phone Calls 26 26 Call Using the Keypad 26 Call from Logs 26 Call from Contacts 26 Call a Number in a Text Message 27 Call a Number in an Email Message 27 Call Emergency Numbers 27 Enhanced 911 (E911) Information 28 Receive Phone Calls 28 Answer an Incoming Call 28 Mute the Ringing Sound 28 Reject an Incoming Call 29 Voicemail 29 Retrieve Voicemail Messages 29 Voicemail Notification 29 Visual Voicemail 30 Phone Call Options 30 Dialing Options 30 Caller ID 30 Call Waiting 31 3-Way Calling 31 Call Forwarding 31 In-call Options 32 Speed Dialing 33 Logs 33 View Logs 34 Logs Options 34 Clear Logs 34 ii CONTACTS 35 Get Started with Contacts 35 Access Contacts 35 Add a Contact 35 Save a Phone Number 36 Edit a Contact 36 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 37 Assign an Image to a Contact 37 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 37 Link a Contact 38 Delete a Contact 38 Add Contacts to Your Favorites 38 Create Groups 39 Create a New Group 39 Add a Contact to a Group 39 Send a Message to Group Members 39 Share a Contact ACCOUNTS AND MESSAGING Google 40 41 41 Create a Google Account 41 Access Gmail 41 Send a Gmail Message 42 Read and Reply to Gmail Messages 42 Email 43 Add an Email Account 43 Add a Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync Account 43 Compose and Send Email 44 View and Reply to Email 45 Manage Your Email Inbox 45 Edit Email Settings 46 Delete an Email Account 49 Text and Multimedia Messaging 49 Send a Message 49 New Messages Notification 50 Managing Message Conversations 50 Messaging Settings 52 Social Networking Accounts 54 iii Flipboard 54 Google+ 54 Hangouts 54 YouTube 55 APPS AND ENTERTAINMENT Samsung Link 56 56 Configure Samsung Link Settings 56 Use Samsung Link to Share Media with Another Device 57 Group Play 57 DivX 58 DivX Legal Information 59 Locating Your VOD Registration Number 59 Register Your DivX Device for VOD Playback of Purchased Movies 59 Google Play Store 60 Find and Install an App 60 Create a Google Wallet Account 61 Open an Installed App 61 Uninstall an App 61 Google Play Books 61 Google Play Magazines 62 Google Play Movies & TV 62 Google Play Music 62 Music App 62 Google Maps 63 WEB AND DATA 64 Internet 64 Chrome 64 Data Services (3G and 4G) 64 Your Data Services User Name 64 4G Services 65 Wi-Fi 65 Turn Wi-Fi On and Connect to a Wireless Network Bluetooth 65 66 Turn Bluetooth On or Off 66 Connect a Bluetooth Headset or Car Kit 67 Reconnect a Headset or Car Kit 67 Disconnect or Unpair from a Bluetooth Device 68
Samsung Galaxy S® II Software Upgrade Samsung has released a software update for the C Spire Samsung Galaxy S II(SCH-R760), OS Jelly Bean software version 4.1.2 version build GB28. Please follow the instructions below to download and install Simple Upgrade Tool using your Windows PC. This software upgrade is only valid for the C Spire Samsung Galaxy S II (SCH-R760). It is incompatible with all other models. Requirements Computer Desktop/Laptop computer running either Microsoft Windows 7, Vista, or XP Currently, there is no support at this time for Apple computers All firewall & anti-virus programs should be disabled Administrative privileges required to download & install software including drivers An available USB port on the PC that supports 2.0 USB Mobile Device Fully charged battery Other USB data cable (included in Retail Box) Note: this is the same cable used to charge your device Direct connection of the USB cable to the computer's USB port is strongly advised. The use of a USB hub or docking station is not recommended. Your PC must be connected to a live internet connection to download the SimpleDL tool Back Up Your Information Important: This update was designed to simply upgrade the operating system of the device while leaving certain types of user data intact. This user data includes pictures, videos, messages and contacts. Certain settings, such as wallpaper and ringtone assignments, may be reset back to factory default. To be safe, it is best practice to always back up all data and assume that everything will be lost. Below you will find options to backup contacts, messages and help to reinstall third party applications. Note: When you sync to your Google Gmail and Exchange ActiveSync® accounts, you are backing up your information. Google Gmail and Exchange ActiveSync information on your device including contacts are stored remotely on the Google and Microsoft Exchange server. Contacts Save Contacts to SD Card Export to SD Card 1. From the Home screen, touch Contacts > Menu > More. 2. Touch Import/Export > Export to SD card. 3. Confirm export by selecting OK. Import to SD Card 1. From the Home screen, touch Contacts > Menu > More. 2. Touch Import/Export, then touch Import from SD card. 3. Confirm export by selecting OK.
All Intellectual Property, as defined below, owned by or which is otherwise the property of Samsung or its respective suppliers relating to the SAMSUNG Phone, including but not limited to, accessories, parts, or software relating there to (the “Phone System”), is proprietary to Samsung and protected under federal laws, state laws, and international treaty provisions. Intellectual Property includes, but is not limited to, inventions (patentable or unpatentable), patents, trade secrets, copyrights, software, computer programs, and related documentation and other works of authorship. You may not infringe or otherwise violate the rights secured by the Intellectual Property. Moreover, you agree that you will not (and will not attempt to) modify, prepare derivative works of, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble, or otherwise attempt to create source code from the software. No title to or ownership in the Intellectual Property is transferred to you. All applicable rights of the Intellectual Property shall remain with SAMSUNG and its suppliers. Open Source Software Some software components of this product incorporate source code covered under GNU General Public License (GPL), GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), OpenSSL License, BSD License and other open source licenses. To obtain the source code covered under the open source licenses, please visit: http://opensource.samsung.com. Disclaimer of Warranties; Exclusion of Liability EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN THE EXPRESS WARRANTY CONTAINED ON THE WARRANTY PAGE ENCLOSED WITH THE PRODUCT, THE PURCHASER TAKES THE PRODUCT "AS IS", AND SAMSUNG MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCT, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE MERCHANTABILITY OF THE PRODUCT OR ITS FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE; THE DESIGN, CONDITION OR QUALITY OF THE PRODUCT; THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PRODUCT; THE WORKMANSHIP OF THE PRODUCT OR THE COMPONENTS CONTAINED THEREIN; OR COMPLIANCE OF THE PRODUCT WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF ANY LAW, RULE, SPECIFICATION OR CONTRACT PERTAINING THERETO. NOTHING CONTAINED IN THE INSTRUCTION MANUAL SHALL BE CONSTRUED TO CREATE AN EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCT. IN ADDITION, SAMSUNG SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES OF ANY KIND RESULTING FROM THE PURCHASE OR USE OF SCH-R760_UM_Eng_FE19_CH_062012_F5 THE PRODUCT OR ARISING FROM THE BREACH OF THE EXPRESS WARRANTY, INCLUDING INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, OR LOSS OF ANTICIPATED PROFITS OR BENEFITS. SAMSUNG IS NOT LIABLE FOR PERFORMANCE ISSUES OR INCOMPATIBILITIES CAUSED BY YOUR EDITING OF REGISTRY SETTINGS, OR YOUR MODIFICATION OF OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE. USING CUSTOM OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE MAY CAUSE YOUR DEVICE AND APPLICATIONS TO WORK IMPROPERLY.
Using this manual Thank you for choosing this Samsung mobile device. This device will provide you with high-quality mobile communication and entertainment based on Samsung’s exceptional technology and high standards. This manual has been specially designed to guide you through the functions and features of your device. Read me first Before using your device, read the entire manual and all safety instructions to ensure safe and proper use. ●● The descriptions in this manual are based on the default settings of your device. ●● The images and screenshots used in this manual may differ from the actual product. ●● The contents of this manual may differ from the product, or from software provided by service providers or carriers, and are subject to change without prior notice. Access the Samsung website (www.samsung.com) for the latest version of the manual. ●● Available features and additional services may vary by device, software, or service provider. ●● Formatting and delivery of this manual is based on Android operating systems and may vary depending on the user’s operating system. ●● Applications on this device may perform differently from comparable computer applications and may not include all functions available in the computer version. Applications and their functions may vary by region or hardware specifications. Samsung is not liable for performance issues caused by third-party applications. ●● Samsung is not liable for performance issues or incompatibilities caused by edited registry settings or modified operating system software. Attempting to customise the operating system may cause your device or applications to work improperly. ●● You can upgrade your device’s software by accessing the Samsung website (www.samsung.com). ●● Software, audio, wallpapers, and images provided in this device are licensed for limited use between Samsung and their respective owners. Extracting and using these materials for commercial or other purposes is an infringement of copyright laws. Samsung is not liable for such copyright infringement by users. ●● You may incur additional charges for data services, such as messaging, uploading and downloading, auto-syncing, or using location services. To avoid additional charges, select an appropriate data tariff plan. For details, contact your service provider. ●● Please keep this manual for future reference. ●● Using this manual