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Spanish food has earned a big name and fame all over the world, and today, you can find exquisite Spanish food in Southeast Asian countries such as Singapore. The traditional Spanish cuisine got its enrichments through settlements of Roman, Greek, Moorish and Phoenician people influencing Spanish gastronomy in different eras.
All Style Interiors supply and install the Window Blinds Treatments, including Vertical Window Blind, Venetian, Roller, Roman and Timber in Perth, Australia. For more details about cost and information please contact at (08) 9317 7466.
Roman Blinds Applecross Perth is sold widely by plenty of stores offline and online and they are made of different patterns and designs. For more details about cost and information please contact at (08) 9317 7466.
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Men have always loved to flaunt rings in various deigns, patterns and sizes, be it the Greek or Roman Emperors of the past, or the successful men of today, looking for not just decorations but perfect status symbols.
The Kappe Library Guides identify general resources on broad topics to help researchers begin their work. Individual projects and practitioners are avoided; guides, indexes and general introductions are preferred to specialized works. Book citations that include a call number can be found at the Kappe Library; other books are identified by author, title and date. Magazine articles are selected from the Avery Index, Art Full Text and JStor databases. Where full-text articles are available on-line, the article title is hyperlinked to the full text. Web versions of this and all other Guides are available at http://www.sciarc.edu/portal/about/resources/library_documents.html Submit questions and suggestions to the library manager directly at email@example.com NOTE: This Guide covers the art & architecture of the late Roman Empire, divided into the Greek-speaking Eastern (Byzantine) Empire (4th to 15th centuries), and the Latin-speaking Western Empire (through it’s collapse in the 5th century, and up to its displacement by Charlemagne in the 8th century). Some material overlaps with Kappe Library Guides #79 Greece & Rome and #81 Carolingian, Romanesque & Gothic. THE LATE CLASSICAL EAST & WEST IN GENERAL John Beckwith, Early Christian and Byzantine art, N7832 .B3 Henry Scowcroft Bettenson, Documents of the Christian church, BR141 .D63 1999 G.W. Bowersock, Interpreting late antiquity: essays on the postclassical world, DE---3 .I6 2001 F.L. Cross, Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, BR--95.O8 1997 The Early Church Fathers, http://www.ccel.org/fathers.html (English full-text) Internet Medieval Sourcebook, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine architecture, NA4817 .K4 1986 The Labyrinth; resources for medieval studies, http://labyrinth.georgetown.edu/ Liturgical Texts Project, http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/Liturgy/Liturgics.html (Extensive collection covering East & West)
Much of early Byzantine architecture was built from a continuation of Roman architecture but having influences from the near east and from Greek cultures. The Byzantine Empire was located at the center of the capital of Constantinople. The Byzantine Empire started during the end of the Roman Empire. The empire lasted over a thousand year from the 4th century to 1453. After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Byzantine Empire had completely separated from the Roman Empire. Being a direct lineage to the Roman Empire, most of the Byzantine Empire’s structures were fabricated from old Roman structures. Some of the most influential architectural systems from the Roman Empire include arches and domes. The Hagia Sophia is a perfect example of Roman influence in Byzantine structures as the dome on top of the Hagia Sophia is very similar to the dome on the Pantheon. Arches from the Roman period are also evident in the Hagia Sophia and in the Basilica of Saint’Apollinare Nuovo. The Byzantine Empire built arenas that were similar to the Coliseum in Rome. They had stadiums just like the Circus Maixmus that was also located in Rome. The Byzantine Empire also used the remains of the Roman aqueducts into their own aqueduct system. The Greeks were very influential throughout history in Roman architectures and later in Byzantine structures. The Byzantines, in an effort to distinguish themselves from the Romans, were more oriented towards Greek culture. Most of the Byzantine Empire were pre-dominantly Greek-speaking rather than Latin-speaking and focused more on Christianity rather than roman paganism. Byzantine scholars concentrated on subjects such as literature, history and philosophy, rather than natural sciences or medicine. Most of the people who traveled through and lived in the Byzantine Empire were Greek or from some other area in the eastern Mediterranean. One of the most influential Greek element found in the Byzantine Empire were the Greek columns. These columns can be found in most of the basilica in the Byzantine Empire such as the basilica of San Vitale. Another Greek architecture found in the Byzantine Empire is the Greek cross plan used in most of the church’s structure. The Byzantine churches also had clerestory which could have been adapted from Greek buildings such as the Parthenon. The Byzantine Empire, however,...
Byzantine Architecture By Colleen Messina In the Dark Ages, one building was so stunning that it was said to be "suspended by a golden chain from heaven." What kind of building would seem so divine? The heavenly building was the church of Hagia Sophia. The historian Procopius said that it seemed suspended from heaven. He was specifically talking about its big concrete dome that seemed to float in space. This church's name meant Divine Wisdom. It was built from 532 to 537 A.D. under the emperor Justinian I. This church was a great example of Byzantine architecture. Roman builders created many great structures. Then Rome fell. The empire split into western and eastern halves. Emperor Justinian I ruled the eastern section of the old Roman Empire. He revolutionized architecture, and he loved to build churches. His empire was called the Byzantine Empire, and its center was Byzantium. This eastern empire lasted for more than 1,000 years. Justinian I gave the job of designing his most important church to an amazing man. Anthemius of Tralles was well-educated. He understood architecture, math, and mechanics. He was also an artistic genius. He decided to do something bold for this special church. Hagia Sophia became his masterpiece. The boldest part of Anthemius' design was a huge central dome. No one had ever built anything like it. The dome's weight was supported by smaller domes that surrounded it. That meant that it had no columns. This made a large, open space inside. It seemed like the dome was floating in space! Anthemius did not realize that his creation would inspire other architects for centuries. This building was called a domed basilica. The bottom section of the building was built in the shape of a cross.
In this paper we will examine the role of geometry in selected examples of art and architecture from selected regions of the Western World. We will start from the Byzantine Empire. In the beginning we will briefly look at the role of geometry in Byzantine architecture and architectural decorations. Then we will explore other types of architectural decorations where geometry was used while creating these decorations. We will examine selected Cosmati designs in Roman architecture and then we will show the geometry behind the Gothic tracery (part 2 of this paper). Most of the designs discussed in this paper are based on circular and interlaced shapes. We will show how these designs were created. We will use Geometer’s Sketchpad to recreate them. For most of us the word 'art' is a synonym of painting, sculpture and sometimes calligraphy. We consider also music as a form of art. For an average person art has nothing in common with mathematics or even geometry. However, if we look into the textbooks of history then we will find that ancient Greeks considered art and mathematics as tightly connected disciplines. There were many artists who have been inspired by mathematics and studied mathematics as a mean of complementing their works. The Greek sculptor Polykleitos recommended a series of mathematical proportions for carving the ideal male nude. Renaissance painters turned to mathematics and many of them became accomplished mathematicians themselves. We can find mathematics in creations of the middle century Islamic artists as well as in works of Gothic masons.
Buku pelajaran sebagai sasaran evaluasi karena buku pelajaran memiliki potensi menjadi agen perubahan yang efektif (Hutchinson and Torres, 1994:322) dan buku pelajaran digunakan di seluruh sekolahsekolah yang ada di pelosok tanah air. Umumnya, pada saat guru mengajar, terutama untuk tingkat sekolah dasar, guru cenderung hanya berpedoman ada buku pelajaran, baik urutannya maupun materinya bukan pada kurikulum. Berdasarkan hal ini diduga ada sesuatu yang tidak diajarkan oleh buku pelajaran sehingga daya kreatif siswa tidak berkembang dengan baik. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan evaluasi buku pelajaran. Kreativitas merupakan sintesa dari keseluruhan fungsi yang tediri dari: (1) pemikiran rasional, (2) pengembangan tingkat tinggi dari emosional/ perasaan, (3) pengembangan tingkat tinggi dari mental dan fisikal, dan (4) kesadaran tingkat tinggi, hasil imajinasi, fantasi, dan pemecahan permasalahan yang cepat. Daya kreatif siswa dapat diteliti pada saat proses belajarmengajar berlangsung tetapi dapat juga diteliti dengan cara mengevaluasi buku pelajaran yang digunakan dalam proses belajarmengajar di kelas. Dalam hal ini, tulisan ini hanya dilakukan pada buku pelajaran saja yaitu dari latihan-latihan dan tugas-tugas yang tertera di dalam buku pelajaran.