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Men have always loved to flaunt rings in various deigns, patterns and sizes, be it the Greek or Roman Emperors of the past, or the successful men of today, looking for not just decorations but perfect status symbols.
The Kappe Library Guides identify general resources on broad topics to help researchers begin their work. Individual projects and practitioners are avoided; guides, indexes and general introductions are preferred to specialized works. Book citations that include a call number can be found at the Kappe Library; other books are identified by author, title and date. Magazine articles are selected from the Avery Index, Art Full Text and JStor databases. Where full-text articles are available on-line, the article title is hyperlinked to the full text. Web versions of this and all other Guides are available at http://www.sciarc.edu/portal/about/resources/library_documents.html Submit questions and suggestions to the library manager directly at email@example.com NOTE: This Guide covers the art & architecture of the late Roman Empire, divided into the Greek-speaking Eastern (Byzantine) Empire (4th to 15th centuries), and the Latin-speaking Western Empire (through it’s collapse in the 5th century, and up to its displacement by Charlemagne in the 8th century). Some material overlaps with Kappe Library Guides #79 Greece & Rome and #81 Carolingian, Romanesque & Gothic. THE LATE CLASSICAL EAST & WEST IN GENERAL John Beckwith, Early Christian and Byzantine art, N7832 .B3 Henry Scowcroft Bettenson, Documents of the Christian church, BR141 .D63 1999 G.W. Bowersock, Interpreting late antiquity: essays on the postclassical world, DE---3 .I6 2001 F.L. Cross, Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, BR--95.O8 1997 The Early Church Fathers, http://www.ccel.org/fathers.html (English full-text) Internet Medieval Sourcebook, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine architecture, NA4817 .K4 1986 The Labyrinth; resources for medieval studies, http://labyrinth.georgetown.edu/ Liturgical Texts Project, http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/Liturgy/Liturgics.html (Extensive collection covering East & West)
Much of early Byzantine architecture was built from a continuation of Roman architecture but having influences from the near east and from Greek cultures. The Byzantine Empire was located at the center of the capital of Constantinople. The Byzantine Empire started during the end of the Roman Empire. The empire lasted over a thousand year from the 4th century to 1453. After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Byzantine Empire had completely separated from the Roman Empire. Being a direct lineage to the Roman Empire, most of the Byzantine Empire’s structures were fabricated from old Roman structures. Some of the most influential architectural systems from the Roman Empire include arches and domes. The Hagia Sophia is a perfect example of Roman influence in Byzantine structures as the dome on top of the Hagia Sophia is very similar to the dome on the Pantheon. Arches from the Roman period are also evident in the Hagia Sophia and in the Basilica of Saint’Apollinare Nuovo. The Byzantine Empire built arenas that were similar to the Coliseum in Rome. They had stadiums just like the Circus Maixmus that was also located in Rome. The Byzantine Empire also used the remains of the Roman aqueducts into their own aqueduct system. The Greeks were very influential throughout history in Roman architectures and later in Byzantine structures. The Byzantines, in an effort to distinguish themselves from the Romans, were more oriented towards Greek culture. Most of the Byzantine Empire were pre-dominantly Greek-speaking rather than Latin-speaking and focused more on Christianity rather than roman paganism. Byzantine scholars concentrated on subjects such as literature, history and philosophy, rather than natural sciences or medicine. Most of the people who traveled through and lived in the Byzantine Empire were Greek or from some other area in the eastern Mediterranean. One of the most influential Greek element found in the Byzantine Empire were the Greek columns. These columns can be found in most of the basilica in the Byzantine Empire such as the basilica of San Vitale. Another Greek architecture found in the Byzantine Empire is the Greek cross plan used in most of the church’s structure. The Byzantine churches also had clerestory which could have been adapted from Greek buildings such as the Parthenon. The Byzantine Empire, however,...
Byzantine Architecture By Colleen Messina In the Dark Ages, one building was so stunning that it was said to be "suspended by a golden chain from heaven." What kind of building would seem so divine? The heavenly building was the church of Hagia Sophia. The historian Procopius said that it seemed suspended from heaven. He was specifically talking about its big concrete dome that seemed to float in space. This church's name meant Divine Wisdom. It was built from 532 to 537 A.D. under the emperor Justinian I. This church was a great example of Byzantine architecture. Roman builders created many great structures. Then Rome fell. The empire split into western and eastern halves. Emperor Justinian I ruled the eastern section of the old Roman Empire. He revolutionized architecture, and he loved to build churches. His empire was called the Byzantine Empire, and its center was Byzantium. This eastern empire lasted for more than 1,000 years. Justinian I gave the job of designing his most important church to an amazing man. Anthemius of Tralles was well-educated. He understood architecture, math, and mechanics. He was also an artistic genius. He decided to do something bold for this special church. Hagia Sophia became his masterpiece. The boldest part of Anthemius' design was a huge central dome. No one had ever built anything like it. The dome's weight was supported by smaller domes that surrounded it. That meant that it had no columns. This made a large, open space inside. It seemed like the dome was floating in space! Anthemius did not realize that his creation would inspire other architects for centuries. This building was called a domed basilica. The bottom section of the building was built in the shape of a cross.
In this paper we will examine the role of geometry in selected examples of art and architecture from selected regions of the Western World. We will start from the Byzantine Empire. In the beginning we will briefly look at the role of geometry in Byzantine architecture and architectural decorations. Then we will explore other types of architectural decorations where geometry was used while creating these decorations. We will examine selected Cosmati designs in Roman architecture and then we will show the geometry behind the Gothic tracery (part 2 of this paper). Most of the designs discussed in this paper are based on circular and interlaced shapes. We will show how these designs were created. We will use Geometer’s Sketchpad to recreate them. For most of us the word 'art' is a synonym of painting, sculpture and sometimes calligraphy. We consider also music as a form of art. For an average person art has nothing in common with mathematics or even geometry. However, if we look into the textbooks of history then we will find that ancient Greeks considered art and mathematics as tightly connected disciplines. There were many artists who have been inspired by mathematics and studied mathematics as a mean of complementing their works. The Greek sculptor Polykleitos recommended a series of mathematical proportions for carving the ideal male nude. Renaissance painters turned to mathematics and many of them became accomplished mathematicians themselves. We can find mathematics in creations of the middle century Islamic artists as well as in works of Gothic masons.
Menimbang : a. bahwa Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah yang efisien, terbuka dan kompetitif sangat diperlukan bagi ketersediaan Barang/Jasa yang terjangkau dan berkualitas, sehingga akan berdampak pada peningkatan pelayanan publik; b. bahwa untuk mewujudkan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah sebagaimana dimaksud pada huruf a, perlu pengaturan mengenai tata cara Pengadaan Barang/Jasa yang sederhana, jelas dan komprehensif, sesuai dengan tata kelola yang baik, sehingga dapat menjadi pengaturan yang efektif bagi para pihak yang terkait dengan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah; c. bahwa berdasarkan pertimbangan sebagaimana dimaksud pada huruf a dan huruf b, perlu menetapkan Peraturan Presiden tentang Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah; Mengingat : 1. Pasal 4 ayat (1) Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945; 2. Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 2004 tentang Perbendaharaan Negara (Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2004 Nomor 5, Tambahan Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Nomor 4355); 3. Peraturan ... - 2 3. Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 29 Tahun 2000 tentang Penyelenggaraan Jasa Konstruksi (Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2000 Nomor 64, Tambahan Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Nomor 3956); 4. Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 6 Tahun 2006 tentang Pengelolaan Barang Milik Negara/Daerah (Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2006 Nomor 20, Tambahan Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Nomor 4609) sebagaimana telah diubah dengan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 38 Tahun 2008 (Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2008 Nomor 78, Tambahan Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Nomor 4855);
bahwa berdasarkan ketentuan Pasal 1 angka 3 dan Pasal 2 angka 4 Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 146 Tahun 2000 tentang Impor dan atau Penyerahan Barang Kena Pajak Tertentu dan atau Penyerahan Jasa Kena Pajak Tertentu yang Dibebaskan dari Pengenaan Pajak Pertambahan Nilai sebagaimana telah diubah dengan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 38 Tahun 2003, diatur bahwa atas impor dan/atau penyerahanbuku-buku pelajaran umum, kitab suci, dan buku-buku pelajaran agama dibebaskan dari pengcmaan PajakPertambahan Nilai; b. Mengingat a. bahwa berdasarkan pertimbangan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam huruf a dan untuk melaksanakan ketentuan Pasal 5 Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 146 Tahun 2000 tentang Impor dan atau Penyerahan Barang Kena Pajak Tertentu dan atau Penyerahan. Jasa Kena Pajak Tertentu yang Dibebaskan dari ,pengenaan Pajak Pertambahan Nilai sebagaimana telah diubah dengan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 38 Tahun 2003, perlu menetapkan Peraturan Menteri Keuangan tentang BukucBuku Pelajaran Umum,' Kitab Suci, dan Buku-Buku Pelajaran Agama yang atas Impar danl atau Penye'rahannya Dibebaskan dari Pengenaan Pajak Pertambahan Nilai;
SALINAN PERATURAN MENTERI PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 71 TAHUN 2013 TENTANG BUKU TEKS PELAJARAN DAN BUKU PANDUAN GURU UNTUK PENDIDIKAN DASAR DAN MENENGAH DENGAN RAHMAT TUHAN YANG MAHA ESA MENTERI PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA, Menimbang : a. bahwa dalam rangka melaksanakan ketentuan Pasal 43 ayat (5) Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 32 Tahun 2013 tentang Perubahan Atas Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan, Tim Penelaah Buku telah melakukan penilaian kelayakan isi, kebahasaan,penyajian, dan kegrafikaan buku teks pelajaran dan buku panduan guru untuk digunakan dalam pembelajaran; b. bahwa berdasarkan pertimbangan sebagaimana dimaksud pada huruf a perlu menetapkan Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan tentang Buku Teks Pelajaran dan Buku Panduan Guru untuk Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah; Mengingat :...
This user’s guide gives hardware specifications and explains web configuration and command line configuration for the FXS Gateway SP5002, and SP5004. Online Upgrade Please refer to http://www.micronet.info/ for additional support documentation. General Syntax Conventions Mouse action sequences are denoted using a comma. For example, click start, Settings, Control Panel, Network means first you click Start, Click or move the mouse pointer over Settings the click or move the mouse pointer over Control Panel and finally click (or double-click) Network. “Enter” means to type one or more characters. Predefined choices are in Bold Arial Font. Button and field labels, link s and screen names in are in Bold Times New Roman font. A single keystroke is in Arial font and enclosed in square brackets. [Enter] means the Enter. For brevity’s sake, we will use “e.g.,” as shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” for “that is” or “in other words.” Related Documentation This user’s guide provides hardware connection details and configuration and management instruction for the managements FXS Gateway. Please refer to http://www.micronet.info/ for additional support documentation.
Times New Roman, 12 punto ve sayfayı ortalayacak şekilde olmalıdır. Başlıklar koyu (bold) ve numaralandırılmış olarak yazılmalıdır. Satır aralığı 1,15 olmalıdır. Rapor uzunluğu en az 4 sayfa olmalıdır, bu sayıya kapak sayfasını dahil etmeyiniz. Örnek rapor için EK-1’e bakınız. 2. Kapak Sayfası Kapak sayfası örneği için EK-2’e bakınız. 3. Kaynak Gösterimi Kaynak gösteriminde, metin içinde kaynak gösterme ve kaynakça için dipnot kullanmayınız. Çalışmada kullanılan tüm kaynaklar doğru ve tam olarak listelenmelidir. Kaynak gösterimi iki farklı başlık altında incelenmiştir: metin içinde kaynak gösterimi ve kaynakça oluşturmada kaynak gösterimi. Kaynakça bölümünde, rapor içinde doğrudan gönderme yapılmayan kaynaklara yer verilmez. Kaynaklar, yazarların soyadlarına göre alfabetik olarak sıralanmalıdır. Yazar adı bilinmeyen yapıtlar ile kurumsal yapıtların listelenmesinde başlığın ilk harfleri esas alınımalıdır. Kitap ve dergi başlıklarının standart olmayan yazılış özellikleri taklit edilmeye çalışılmamalı, özel bir durum olmadıkça standartlaştırılmalıdır. Farklı kaynak türlerinin gösterimi ile ilgili aşağıdaki örneklerden faydalanınız.