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INSTRUCTIONS: NOZZLES SET-UP RECOMMENDATION 1. The main line from the pump to the metering valve connects to the fitting at the top of the metering valve. 2. The Secondary By-Pass Valve connects to the brass fitting opposite the throttle arm on the side of the metering valve. There are no jets to change in this valve. 3. The Hi Speed By-Pass (Cut Off) Valve (not on all units) connects to a pump outlet and returns the fuel to the tank. Each change in the main jet size should be accompanied by a change in the spacers as follows: • For every .005 richer on the main by pass jet, add a 1/32" spacer. • For every .005 leaner on the main by pass jet, remove a 1/32" spacer. FUEL INJECTION ENGR. CO. INC., 22892 GLENWOOD DR., ALISO VIEJO, CA 92656 • PH (949)360-0909 • FAX (949)360-0991 • www.hilborninjection.com #101
Data Sheet AAT001-10E TMR Angle Sensor Key Features • Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR) Technology • Very High Output Signal Without Amplification • Wide Airgap Tolerance • Very High Resistance for Extremely Low Power • Sine and Cosine Outputs for Direction Detection • Ultraminiature TDFN6 Package Typical Applications • Rotary Encoders • Batttery-Powered Rotary Position Sensors • Motor Shaft Position Sensors Description The AAT001-10E angle sensor is a low power, high output magnetic sensor element able to provide rotational position measurements when a rotating magnetic field is applied to the sensor. Sine and cosine signals are available for a quadrature output. The sensor element has a resistance of approximately 1.25 MΩ and can be operated at typical battery voltages to conserve power. Outputs are proportional to the supply voltage and peak-to-peak output voltages are much larger than other sensor technologies. The part is packaged in NVE’s 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm x 0.8 mm TDFN6 surface-mount package. Operation Each of the four sensor elements contains two magnetic layers: a “pinned,” or fixed direction layer; and a movable-direction, or “free” layer. The diagram below illustrates the configuration, using arrows to represent the magnetic orientation of the layers:...
GP2D12 Optoelectronic Device FEATURES • Analog output • Effective Range: 10 to 80 cm • LED pulse cycle duration: 32 ms 1 2 3 • Typical response time: 39 ms • Typical start up delay: 44 ms • Average current consumption: 33 mA PIN SIGNAL NAME • Detection area diameter @ 80 cm: 6 cm 1 VO DESCRIPTION 2 GND The GP2D12 is a distance measuring sensor with integrated signal processing and analog voltage output. 3 VCC GP2D12-8 Figure 1. Pinout VCC GND PSD SIGNAL PROCESSING CIRCUIT VOLTAGE REGULATOR OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT LED DRIVE CIRCUIT OUTPUT CIRCUIT LED VO DISTANCE MEASURING IC GP2D12-4 Figure 2. Block Diagram 1 Data Sheet GP2D12 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Absolute Maximum Ratings Ta = 25°C, VCC = 5 VDC PARAMETER SYMBOL RATING UNIT Supply Voltage VCC -0.3 to +7.0 V Output Terminal Voltage VO -0.3 to (VCC + 0.3) V Operating Temperature Topr -10 to +60 °C Storage Temperature Tstg -40 to +70 °C Operating Supply Voltage PARAMETER SYMBOL RATING UNIT Operating Supply Voltage VCC 4.5 to 5.5 V Electro-optical Characteristics Ta = 25°C, VCC = 5 VDC PARAMETER SYMBOL Measuring Distance Range ΔL Output Voltage VO CONDITIONS MIN. TYP. MAX. UNIT NOTES 10 80 cm 1, 2 0.25 L = 80 cm 0.4 0.55 V 1, 2 Output Voltage Difference ΔVO Output change at L change 1.75 (80 cm - 10 cm) 2.0 2.25 V 1, 2 Average Supply Current ICC L = 80 cm 33 50 mA 1, 2 - NOTES: 1. Measurements made with Kodak R-27 Gray Card, using the white side, (90% reflectivity). 2. L = Distance to reflective object. VCC (POWER SUPPLY) 38.3 ms ±9.6 ms DISTANCE MEASURMENT OPERATING 1st MEASUREMENT 2nd MEASUREMENT nth MEASUREMENT VO (OUTPUT) UNSTABLE OUTPUT 1st OUTPUT 2nd OUTPUT nth OUTPUT 5.0 ms MAX. GP2D12-5 Figure 3. Timing Diagram 2 Data Sheet GP2D12 RELIABILITY The reliability of requirements of this device are listed in Table 1. Table 1. Reliability TEST ITEMS TEST CONDITIONS FAILURE JUDGEMENT CRITERIA SAMPLES (n), DEFECTIVE (C) Temperature Cycling One cycle -40°C (30 min.) to +70°C in 30 minutes, repeated 25 times n = 11, C = 0 High Temperature and High Humidity Storage +40°C, 90% RH, 500h n = 11, C = 0 High Temperature Storage +70°C, 500h n = 11, C = 0 Low Temperature Storage -40°C, 500h Operational Life (High Temperature) +60°C, VCC = 5 V, 500h Mechanical Shock 100 m / s2, 6.0 ms 3 times / ±X, ±Y, ±Z direction n = 6, C = 0 Variable Frequency Vibration 10-to-55-to-10 Hz i n 1 minute Amplitude: 1.5 mm 2 h i n e a c h X, Y, Z direction n = 6, C = 0 Initial × 0.8 > VO VO > Initial × 1.2 n = 11, C = 0 n = 11, C = 0 NOTES: 1. Test conditions are according to Electro-optical Characteristics, shown on page 2. 2. At completion of the test, allow device to remain at nominal room temperature and humidity (non-condensing) for two hours. 3. Confidence level: 90%, Lot Tolerance Percent Defect (LTPD): 20% / 40%. MANUFACTURER’S INSPECTION Inspection Lot Inspection shall be carried out per each delivery lot. Inspection Method A single sampling plan, normal inspection level II based on ISO 2859 shall be adopted. Table 2. Quality Level DEFECT INSPECTION ITEM and TEST METHOD AQL (%) Major Defect Electro-optical characteristics defect 0.4 Minor Defect Defect to appearance or dimensions (crack, split, chip, scratch, stain)* 1.0 NOTE: *Any one of these that affects the Electro-optical Characteristics shall be considered a defect.
PING)))™ Ultrasonic Distance Sensor (#28015) The Parallax PING))) ultrasonic distance sensor provides precise, non-contact distance measurements from about 2 cm (0.8 inches) to 3 meters (3.3 yards). It is very easy to connect to BASIC Stamp® or Javelin Stamp microcontrollers, requiring only one I/O pin. The PING))) sensor works by transmitting an ultrasonic (well above human hearing range) burst and providing an output pulse that corresponds to the time required for the burst echo to return to the sensor. By measuring the echo pulse width the distance to target can easily be calculated. The PING))) sensor has a male 3-pin header used to supply power (5 VDC), ground, and signal. The header allows the sensor to be plugged into a solderless breadboard, or to be located remotely through the use of a standard servo extender cable (Parallax part #805-00002). Standard connections are show in the diagram to the right. Quick-Start Circuit This circuit allows you to quickly connect your PING))) sensor to a BASIC Stamp® 2 via the Board of Education® breadboard area. The PING))) module’s GND pin connects to Vss, the 5 V pin connects to Vdd, and the SIG pin connects to I/O pin P15. This circuit will work with the example program Ping_Demo.BS2 listed on page 7. Servo Cable and Port Cautions If you want to connect your PING))) sensor to a Board of Education using a servo extension cable, follow these steps: 1. When plugging the cable onto the PING))) sensor, connect Black to GND, Red to 5 V, and White to SIG. 2. Check to see if your Board of Education servo ports have a jumper, as shown at right. 3. If your Board of Education servo ports have a jumper, set it to Vdd as shown. 4. If your Board of Education servo ports do not have a jumper, do not use them with the PING))) sensor. These ports only provide Vin, not Vdd, and this may damage your PING))) sensor. Go to the next step. 5. Connect the servo cable directly to the breadboard with a 3-pin header. Then, use jumper wires to connect Black to Vss, Red to Vdd, and White to I/O pin P15. Board of Education Servo Port Jumper, Set to Vdd © Parallax, Inc. • PING)))TM Ultrasonic Distance Sensor (#28015) • v1.3 6/13/2006
The guar gum has gained wide usage especially in the crude extraction industry. Further research has shown that it can be modified to increase its effectiveness oil well fracturing.
The research reported in this document was made possible through support extended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Research Laboratory of Electronics, jointly by the Army Signal Corps, the Navy Department (Office of Naval Research), and the Army Air Forces (Air Materiel Command), under the Signal Corps Contract No. W-36-039 sc-32037. An analysis of impulse noise in an ideal (amplitude insensitive) FM receiver has indicated that the effect of impulse noise should be negligible. From the analysis additional transient functions of a limiter are inferred. These functions are shown to be approximated by two germanium crystals paralleled with reversed polarities. Experimental results are shown in the form of oscillograms. It is a generally accepted fact today that frequency modulation (FM) is a realizable means of faithfully transmitting intelligence, and one which offers many advantages and improvements over amplitude modulation (AM). The development of FM, extending back to approximately the beginning of this century, has not been an easy task. One of the more important problems has been the development of a successful FM receiver. This hurdle has been responsible, more than any other single factor, for the failure of many early attempts to use FM, and, in fact, today still presents a reduced, but definite, limitation of the FM system. The difficulty in realizing a satisfactory FM receiver can in general be narrowed down to the development of its two basic component parts - the limiter and the TI detector, since, with the exception of these two elements, the FM receiver may be considered similar to the conventional AM receiver.
The design of the All Digital FM Receiver circuit in this project uses Phase Locked Loop (PLL) as the main core. The task of the PLL is to maintain coherence between the input (modulated) signal frequency, ωi and the respective output frequency, ωo via phase comparison. This self-correcting ability of the system also allows the PLL to track the frequency changes of the input signal once it is locked. Frequency modulated input signal is assumed as a series of numerical values (digital signal) via 8-bit of analog to digital conversion (ADC) circuit. The FM Receiver gets the 8 bit signal every clock cycle and outputs the demodulated signal. The All Digital FM Receiver circuit is designed using VHDL, then simulated and synthesized using ModelSim SE 6 simulator and Xilinx ISE 6.3i, respectively. FPGA implementation also provided, here we use Virtex2 device. The real measurement is done using ChipScope Pro 6.3i. The system of All Digital FM Receiver consists of a digital PLL cascaded with digital low pass filter. The block diagram of system is shown in Fig. 1.
The purpose of these diagrams is to graphically explain the overall operation of AM, PM, and FM communications systems using very little mathematics. This explanation is accomplished by tracing a simple sinusoidal signal through all stages of each system. Although students who are "mathematically challenged" will find these diagrams very helpful, most students who are beginning the study of electrical communications systems can benefit from these same diagrams. More advanced courses can also use these diagrams as a basis on which to organize and present abstract mathematics. ● S tudents: M. B. Suranga Perera, Nikolay Ostrovskiy and Johnny Lam. They produced the professional graphics in these vector art diagrams and created the pages. To pay these students, the following persons or organizations at NYCCT generously offered financial advice or funds: The unique features of these diagrams are the following: presenting the signal in both the time domain and frequency domain together at each stage of the communication process ● using a color code to show the distribution of information in the signals in both the time domain and frequency domain simultaneously. ● Former Dean Phyllis Sperling of the School of Technology & Design ● ● Former Dean Annette Schaefer of the School of Arts and Sciences ● Professor Joseph Rosen, head of the Freshman Year Program at NYCCT and current acting Dean of the School of Liberal Arts and Sciences The history of preparing this booklet is a long one. Before beginning the arduous work of producing these diagrams, we inspected about 70 standard textbooks on electrical communications to determine whether we could save ourselves a lot of effort by simply using their diagrams; but none of those books contained the above simultaneous diagrams. Some of the basic ideas underlying these diagrams were presented by us in 2001 at a conference of FIE (Frontiers In Education) in Reno, Nevada. Completion of this booklet took about three more years of devoted labor, research, and collaboration. Ms. Jewel Escobar, Executive Director of NYCCT Foundation
This USB FM Radio design is intended as a reference for incorporating FM radio functionality into a USB product. The design consists of two major components, the Si4701 FM radio receiver and the C8051F321 microcontroller with a built-in universal serial bus (USB) peripheral. Due to the high level of system integration of both of these components, the total design is very small with fewer external components than many other solutions. The software, firmware, schematic, and layout source for this design are located in AN264SW.zip. The latest version of these files as well as this document itself can be found at the following URL: http://www.silabs.com/usbradio The system consists of a Windows® application that communicates with the C8051F321 using the USB connection. The C8051F321 microcontroller controls the Si4701 using the serial peripheral interface (SPI). The Si4701 audio outputs are sampled using the C8051F321’s analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and sent to the host across the USB interface. The Windows application plays the audio using the PC speakers or headphones.
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