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Henan Li Marine Technology Submission date: June 2012 Supervisor: Svein Sævik, IMT Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Marine Technology THESIS WORK SPRING 2012 for Stud. tech. Henan Li Flexible Pipe Stress and Fatigue Analysis Spennings- og utmatnings-analyse av fleksible stigerø r The flexible riser represents a vital part of many oil and gas production systems. During operation of such risers, several failure incidents may take place e.g. caused by fatigue and corrosion. In limit cases where inspections indicate damage, the decision making with regard to continue operation or replacing the riser may have large economic and environmental consequences. Hence, the decision must be based on accurate models to predict the residual strength of the pipe. In most applications, one or several steel layers are used to carry the hoop stress resulting from internal pressure. This is further combined with two layers of cross-wound armour tendons (typically 40-60 tendons in one layer installed with an angle of 35o with the pipe’s length axis) acting as the steel tensile armour to resist the tension and end cap wall force resulting from pressure. The riser fatigue performance may in many cases be governed by the dynamic stresses in the tensile armour. The existing lifetime models for such structures is primarily based on inherent assumptions with respect to the slip properties of the tensile armour. This thesis work focus on establishing a FEM based model for analysis of the tensile armour, so as to analyse the stress and slip behaviour when exposed to different load conditions. The thesis work is to be based on the project work performed and shall include the following steps: 1) Literature study, including flexible pipe technology, failure modes and design criteria, analytical methods for stress analysis of flexible pipes,...
DESCRIPTION OF A COFLEXIP® FLEXIBLE LINE The Coflexip® Flexible Line Coflexip® products are designed for oilfield services, both on and offshore, where heavy duty is required in combination with Flexible lines are manufactured in long continuous sections (up to several kilometres) and are cut to fit each client's requirements. End fittings with the most common types of end connectors are kept in stock thus minimising delivery times. End connectors not kept in stock will be machined or obtained according to the client's specifications. Delivery time depends mainly on the type of end connectors required and our client’s particular specifications. The pipe structure Coflexip® pipes are composed of successive layers of steel and thermoplastic to produce unique structures that have the strength and durability of steel pipes combined with the flexibility of reinforced rubber hoses. Each layer works independently from the others, as no vulcanisation is used during manufacturing. This results in the structural stability of the pipe. flexibility and Functions of Coflexip® pipe components reliability. These requirements are in applications such as: Choke and kill lines Rotary and vibrator lines Test lines Hydraulic lines Acid and cement lines Nitrogen lines Coflexip® flexible pipes for drilling and service applications are manufactured by the Drilling & Refining Applications Division of the Technip Group 2 1. The thermoplastic inner tube makes the pipe leak-tight. 2. The interlocked zeta and flat steel spiral pressure carcass resist internal pressure and external crushing loads. 3. The intermediate thermoplastic sheath is an anti-friction layer. 4. The double crosswound steel armours resist axial loads, protect the pipe from torsional strain resulting from handling and working conditions. 5. The thermoplastic outer jacket protects the armours from external corrosion. 6. The Stainless Steel Outer Wrap (SSOW), protects the pipe from mechanical impact, abrasion, weathering and accidental mishandling.
When a ﬂow is driven through a deformable channel or tube, interactions between ﬂuid-mechanical and elastic forces can lead to a variety of biologically signiﬁcant phenomena, including nonlinear pressure-drop/ﬂow-rate relations, wave propagation, and the generation of instabilities. Understanding the physical origin and nature of these phenomena remains a signiﬁcant experimental, analytical, and computational challenge, involving unsteady ﬂows at low or high Reynolds numbers, large-amplitude ﬂuid-structure interactions, free-surface ﬂows, and intrinsically 2D or 3D motion. Whereas frequently the internal ﬂow involves a single ﬂuid phase (albeit often of a complex biological ﬂuid such as blood), in many instances the presence of two or more distinct ﬂowing phases is of primary importance (as is the case for air-liquid ﬂows in peripheral lung airways, for example). We divide this review accordingly: Section 2 treats single-phase ﬂows in collapsible tubes, Section 3 covers recent applications of such ﬂows to a wide range of physiological 0066-4189/04/0115-0121$14.00
RCC Turbos - Stage 1 Turbo Install: Suzuki Hayabusa (Gen 1) • Preparation/Disassembly: Remove the seat. Disconnect negative terminal on the battery. Drain the fuel tank. Remove the fuel tank. Remove the stock fuel pump from the tank. Remove the air box. Remove the MAP sensor and temperature sensor from the air box. Remove left and right side fairings. Drain engine oil. Drain engine coolant. Remove the oil filter Remove the oil restrictor, behind the filter. Remove the oil cooler lines. Remove the radiator and oil cooler, as one unit, leaving only the bracket/support for radiator (before reinstalling the radiator please remove all the tabs along the bottom of the radiator). Remove the entire exhaust system. Remove the PAIR system. Remove the oil pan from the engine. • Sensor Bracket Modification: On the left hand side of bike, on the inside of the frame, you will see a bracket, with a plastic vacuum canister, vacuum control solenoid valve, atmospheric pressure sensor, and some vacuum lines, with a check valve in the vacuum line. Please remove this entire bracket, eliminate all the vacuum lines, the plastic canister, and the control solenoid valve, and also cut off the metal tab that held the vacuum canister. Then reinstall this bracket with only the atmospheric pressure sensor, and plug the wires back in. • Tap/plug PAIR System Holes: Tap the four small PAIR system holes, above the exhaust ports, with an M6 x 1.0 tap. Install the four small M6 screws into the exhaust holes after tapping them. • Modify the Oil Pan: Drill a ¾” hole on the left side of the oil pan. Use thread sealant on the washer, and red Loctite on the threads. Make sure the sealing washer is against the inside of pan, then the stainless flat washer, then the nut. Once the fitting is installed, reinstall the oil pan. • Install Header/Turbo/Oil Lines/Exhaust: Install the header and turbo as a unit, but with the bolts loose. Use four of your original header bolts on the top of the turbo header (Allen head). Use the four new bolts on the bottom row of the header (M8, 10mm flange head). PLEASE NOTE! After installing the dump pipes and waste gate, the nipple on the top of the waste gate remains open, and no hose gets installed on the top fitting. The top fitting is used for boost control on Stage 2 and higher end kits. It is not used on Stage 1 kits.
Recent report published by MarketsandMarkets forecast that the value of pressure sensor market was $5.11 billion in 2011 and is expected to reach $7.34 billion in 2017, at an estimated CAGR of 6.3% from 2012 to 2017.
This report was produced by an advisory committee chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, for the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, and at the request of the U.S. Government. Therefore, the report is in the public domain. Some materials used in the report are copyrighted and permission was granted to the U.S. government for their publication in this report. For subsequent uses that include such copyrighted materials, permission for reproduction must be sought from the copyright holder. In all cases, credit must be given for copyrighted materials. First published 2009 Printed in the United States of America A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library. ISBN 978-0-521-14407-0 paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work are correct at the time of first printing, but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Recommended Citation: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, (eds.). Cambridge University Press, 2009.
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greenhouse vegetables Hydroponic Tomatoes Maximizing yields from hydroponic tomato crops has long been the main objective of commercial growers. However, there’s growing consumer pressure to produce high-quality, great-tasting fruit that stores and handles well in the retail sector. By Lynette Morgan T Top: Properly grown hydroponic tomatoes are often ﬁt to be framed; Bottom: This single-truss crop is being grown on greenhouse benches in NFT. (Photos courtesy of Lynette Morgan) Hydroponic Resource Are you looking to grow more greenhouse vegetables or growing hydroponically? GPN will bring you a few articles a year, but if you want in-depth information year-round, research such as this can be found in The Growing Edge magazine. It is a great resource for hydroponic growers. Visit www.growingedge.com or call (800) 888-6785 for subscription and other information. 78 GPN October 2003 omatoes, the biggest hydroponically produced crop on a worldwide scale, are complex in their physiology and response to crop management techniques since vegetative growth, ﬂowering and fruiting all need to be continually maintained simultaneously on the plant. Obtaining economic yields of highquality fruit while minimizing the use of pesticides and other agrichemicals has put commercial tomato growers under increasing pressure, and many are now looking to modiﬁed hydroponic systems where higher proﬁts are possible. Many of these new tomato-growing techniques involve the production of “spray-free” crops and using organically based systems. Today’s selection includes a wide range of new, fresh tomato products, such as lowacid fruit; on-the-truss, cluster or vine-ripened fruit; and many new....
Installation Instructions BEFORE YOU BEGIN Over the Range Microwave Oven Read these instructions completely and carefully. • IMPORTANT – Save these instructions for • Proper installation is the responsibility of the installer. local inspector's use. • • Product failure due to improper installation is not covered under the Warranty. • Please read all instructions thoroughly before installing the Over the Range Microwave Oven. Two people are recommended to install this product. • If a new electrical outlet is required, its installation should be completed by a qualified electrician before the Microwave Oven is installed. See 3 ELECTRICAL GROUNDING INSTRUCTIONS on page 2. IMPORTANT – Observe all governing codes and coordinates. • Note to Installer – Be sure to leave these • Note to Consumer – Keep these instruc- instructions with the Consumer. tions for future reference. • Skill Level – Installation of this appliance requires basic mechanical and electrical skills. UNPACKING AND EXAMINING YOUR OVEN Open the bottom of the carton, bend the carton flaps back and tilt the oven over to rest on plastic foam pad. Lift carton off oven and remove all packing materials, WALL and TOP CABINET TEMPLATE, Turntable, and Turntable Support. SAVE THE CARTON AS IT MAY MAKE INSTALLATION EASIER. 1. Remove the feature sticker from the outside of the door, if there is one. 2. DO NOT REMOVE THE WAVEGUIDE COVER, which is located on the right side wall of the oven cavity. Check to see that there is a Wall TEMPLATE and Top CABINET Template. Read enclosures and SAVE the Operation Manual. Oven Cavity Hinges Door seals and Safety door sealing surfaces latches Check the oven for any damage, such as misaligned or bent door, damaged door seals and sealing surfaces, broken or loose door hinges and latches and dents inside the cavity or on the door. If there is any damage, do not operate the oven and contact your dealer or ELECTROLUX AUTHORIZED SERVICER. See Installation Instructions for more details. NEED HELP? For customers in the United States, call: 1-800-944-9044 For customers in Canada, call: 1-800-213-9397 (English) 1-800-668-4606 ext.8199 (French) READ CAREFULLY. KEEP THESE INSTRUCTIONS.