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The Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes that risk management is critical to acquisition program success (see the Defense Acquisition Guidebook (DAG), Section 11.4). The purpose of addressing risk on programs is to help ensure program cost, schedule, and performance objectives are achieved at every stage in the life cycle and to communicate to all stakeholders the process for uncovering, determining the scope of, and managing program uncertainties. Since risk can be associated with all aspects of a program, it is important to recognize that risk identification is part of the job of everyone and not just the program manager or systems engineer. That includes the test manager, financial manager, contracting officer, logistician, and every other team member. The purpose of this guide is to assist DoD and contractor Program Managers (PMs), program offices and Integrated Product Teams (IPTs) in effectively managing program risks during the entire acquisition process, including sustainment. This guide contains baseline information and explanations for a well-structured risk management program. The management concepts and ideas presented here encourage the use of risk-based management practices and suggest a process to address program risks without prescribing specific methods or tools. (Note: this guide does not attempt to address the requirements of DoDI 5000.1 to prevent and manage Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) hazards. The reader should refer to MIL STD 882D, Standard Practice for System Safety, for guidance regarding ESOH hazards). Since this is a guide, the information presented within is not mandatory to follow, but PMs are encouraged to apply the fundamentals presented here to all acquisition efforts—both large and small—and to all elements of a program (system, subsystem, hardware, and software). Risk management is a fundamental program management tool for effectively managing future uncertainties associated with system acquisition. The practice of risk management draws from...
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BPMN stands for Business Process Modeling Notation. It is the new standard for modeling business processes and web service processes, as put forth by the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI – www.BPMI.org). BPMN is a core enabler of a new initiative in the Enterprise Architecture world called Business Process Management (BPM). Business Process Management is concerned with managing change to improve business processes. BPMN consists of one diagram – called the Business Process Diagram (BPD). The BPMN Business Process Diagram has been designed to be easy to use and understand, but also provides the ability to model complex business processes. It has also been designed specifically with web services in mind. BPMN is only one of three specifications that the BPMI has developed – the other two are a Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) and a Business Process Query Language (BPQL). All have been developed using a solid mathematical foundation, which enables a BPMN Business Process Diagram to map directly to BPML, in the same way that a physical data model maps directly to Data Definition Language (DDL). There are competing standards to BPML, chief among them is the Business Process Execution Language For Web Services (BPEL4WS) created in a joint venture by BEA, IBM, Microsoft, and others. However, BPMI has created BPMN so that it maps readily to any business process execution language. Business Process Execution Languages themselves are run, controlled, and orchestrated on a Business Process Management System (BPMS). OASIS (www.oasis-open.org) is a not-for-profit, global consortium that drives the development, convergence and adoption of e-business standards. Both BPEL4WS and BPMI’s BPML have been submitted to OASIS to become a business process execution language standard. OASIS has created a subcommittee to decide upon a standard; the outcome of this committee is called Web Services – Business Execution Language (WS-BPEL). The OASIS WS-BPEL requires the development of new BPMS technologies as well. BPMN provides a number of advantages to modeling business processes over the Unified Modeling Language (UML). First, it offers a process flow modeling technique that is more conducive to the way business analysts model. Second, its solid mathematical foundation is expressly designed to map to business execution languages, whereas UML is not. BPMN can map to UML, and provide a solid business modeling front end to systems design with UML.
Business Process: One Word, Multiple Arenas of Application Criteria for a Business Process Modeling Standard State of the Industry XPDL, BPML, BPEL UML 1.x UML 2.0 BPMN – Business Process Modeling Notation ISO 9000/2000 BPDM – Business Process Definition Metamodel Microsoft: The Unknown Factor Summary MEGA’s Approach Introduction The emerging interest in the process approach is giving rise to numerous expectations and views. Whether it is Business Process Reengineering (BPR), Business Process Management (BPM), Activity Based Costing (ABC), or Business Activity Monitoring (BAM), process modeling is at the core of each of these approaches. The arrival of modeling standards is now resulting in the rationalization of process analysis methods and the creation of a knowledge base that can be shared by market participants. Substantial progress has been made in business process standardization. However, it is clear that the wide range of domain covered by business process modeling requires more that a single compacted standard. This article attempts to present the current status and the need to embrace the multiple dimensions of business process approaches. The perspectives given in this report are based on MEGA customer experience and our many years of participation in standardization groups. Business Process: One Word, Multiple Arenas Of Application Before creating a list of the modeling standards being developed, we will first address the following question: What business processes are we talking about? The term “business process” is often used in relation to very different types of projects. Of these, we are addressing the following three: The creation of a customer-oriented business management method. This means running the company via its business processes or value chains. The creation of procedures to oversee the organization’s operations. The integration of IT resources using a business process approach.
This section introduces the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), developed under the coordination of the Object Management Group. Version 2 of this international standard introduces a series of modiﬁcations, including a new extension of the acronym. BPMN used to stand for Business Process Modeling Notation. In Version 2, the standard also deﬁnes a meta-model, so that Business Process Meta Model and Notation would have been a valid choice. Unfortunately, the term meta was dropped, resulting in the rather imprecise oﬃcial extension we now see in this section’s heading. In the remainder of this book, we will mostly use the acronym. The intent of the BPMN for business process modelling is very similar to the intent of the Uniﬁed Modeling Language for object-oriented design and analysis. To identify the best practices of existing approaches and to combine them into a new, widely accepted language. The set of ancestors of BPMN includes graph-based and Petri-net-based process modelling languages, such as UML activity diagrams and event-driven process chains. While these modelling languages focus on diﬀerent levels of abstraction, ranging from a business level to a more technical level, the BPMN aims at supporting the complete range of abstraction levels, from a business level to a technical implementation level. This goal is also laid out in the standards document, which states that “The primary goal of BPMN is to provide a notation that is readily understandable by all business users, from the business analysts that create the initial drafts of the processes, to the technical developers responsible for implementing the technology that will perform those processes, and ﬁnally, to the business people who will manage and monitor those processes. Thus, BPMN creates a standardized bridge for the gap between the business process design and process implementation.” The BPMN deﬁnes several diagram types for specifying both process orchestrations and process choreographies. Since this chapter focuses on orchestrations, only business process diagrams and collaboration diagrams are discussed in this section. Diagram types regarding process choreographies, that is, conversation diagrams and choreography diagrams, will be discussed in the next chapter. To classify the level of support that a particular BPMN software tool provides, the standard introduces so called conformance classes.
Today, analysis and design of business processes are the major tasks of business engineering [Scheer (1994), Österle (1997), Hammer et al. (1993), Davenport (1993)]. In research as well as in practice, the Architecture of integrated Information Systems (ARIS) [Scheer (1992)] is accepted as a standard framework for business process (re-)engineering. It supports the whole process management life cycle consisting of process design, process management, process workflow and process application implementation [Scheer (1996)]. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) [Rational Software (editor) (1997)] is a common standard for object-oriented modeling. The UML is derived of a shared set of commonly accepted concepts which have successfully been proven in the modeling of large and complex systems, especially software systems. With the UML extension for business modeling, a first object-oriented UML terminology has been defined for the domain of business modeling. ARIS as well as UML are based on integrated meta models supported by several modeling tools. The core business modeling concepts of both methodologies will first be introduced and compared afterwards. The method of Event-driven Process Chains (EPC) [Keller et al. (1992), Nüttgens (1997)] has been developed within the framework of ARIS in order to model business processes. In the EPC model, a process consists of sequences of events triggering business functions, which are themselves the results of other functions apart from initial events triggering the whole process. By introducing boolean operators (''and'', ''or'', ''exclusive or''), the event-driven control structure can be expanded to a complex control flow illustrating business relevant decisions. This basic model of the EPC can be extended by further semantic components of description. The illustration of data flows, responsibility of organization units and the use of IT systems are examples for such an extension (see figure 1). Furthermore, on the basis of formal descriptions of the EPC method, tool-supported concepts for analysis and simulation are being developed. The approach of Langner/Schneider/Wehler [Langner et al. (1997)] aims at the translation of EPC models into petri networks and at the algorithmic verification of the resulting networks. In contrast to this, the approaches of Rump [Rump (1997)] and of Keller/Teufel [Keller and Teufel (1997)] are based on a formal description of the EPC.
Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is a graphical notation that describes the logic of steps in a business process. This notation has been especially designed to coordinate the sequence of processes and messages that flow between participants in different activities. Why is it important to model with BPMN? • BPMN is an internationally accepted process modeling standard. • BPMN is independent of any process modeling methodology. • BPMN creates a standardized bridge which reduces the gap between business processes and their implementation. • BPMN enables you to model processes in a unified and standardized way so that everyone in an organization can understand each other. Introduction to BPMN The Business Process Modeling Notation - BPMN – provides a common language which allows all the parties involved to communicate processes clearly, completely and efficiently. In this way, BPMN defines the notation and semantics of a Business Process Diagram (BPD). BPD is a diagram based on the ‘Flowchart’ technique, designed to present a graphical sequence of all the activities that take place during a process. It also includes all relative information for making an analysis. BPD is a diagram designed for the use of process analysts who design, control and manage processes. In a BPD diagram there are a series of graphical elements that are grouped into categories. To introduce BPMN, the reader will find throughout this document a series of examples revolving around a Consumer Credit Application process. A Credit Application process begins with the recording of the application where the client expresses an interest in acquiring credit. This stage includes the presentation of the application, and the required documents to the organization for verification. This is followed by an analysis or study of the credit application and finally we find the activities needed to either disburse the credit or to notify the client in case of rejection.
1) In this tutorial you will practice how to build basic surfaces from two dimensional elements. You will use the Generative Shape Design and the Sketcher workbenches 2) Start by launching the CATIA Software. The PRODUCT design workbench appears as a default interface. On the top is the Workbenches toolbar. Access the Generative Shape Design Workbench by: a) clicking once the indicated icon or b) Find the command in the Start pull-down menu. 3) Once you enter the Generative Shape Design you can see how the Structure Three has changed to Part.1; it also contains the basic structure: a) Reference planes b) Part Body and c) Open body.1. The part design host surface and solid components, as well as all two dimensional entities. 4) Around the screen you can find the Toolbars for construction of threedimentional entities: points, lines, planes, splines. CREATING A PLANE: 5) Start by clicking once in the plane icon. A dialog box called plane definition appears with the options and parameters. From the to select offset from plane option and select the YZ plane. The selected plane highlights indicating that the selection has been made. 6) A plane appears both in the screen and the the Structure Tree. Type in the distance you want the new plane to be located. 7) Once all parameters have been defined click apply to update the screen. If you are satisfied click OK. The dialog box closes and the plane in defined. 8) If the parameters are incorrect you can make the necessary adjustments and see the changes by clicking Apply before clicking OK 9) Once the plane is defined it can be redefined by: a) double click on the plane; and b) double click in the corresponding name in the Structure Tree. The same definition dialog box appears...
You demand a lot from yourself. And you’re equally demanding of your pick-up – when working and in your time off. This is why you challenged us to make the best Ford Ranger ever. We heard you loud and clear. And we love pick-ups. So we immediately set to work. We were relentless, leaving no stone unturned in our determination to set new standards in pick-up design. This is the result. The Ford Ranger: engineered to excel in every area so that it can make your work life easier and your leisure time more fun. Main image shows a Ford Ranger Double Cab Wildtrak 4x4 with Wildtrak Orange metallic paint (option). Driven by your work When you need to get to a remote location in a hurry, you need power, torque and an abundance of traction. Introducing Ford Ranger’s all-new four-wheel drive system. “My job takes me to some remote locations – and I rely on my pick-up to get me there.” All-new four-wheel drive system Electronic Stability Programme (ESP)Ø1) All-new range of engines The grip provided by Ford Ranger’s new four-wheel drive system is optimised by a comprehensive ESP system. Part of the system is Traction Control – which has three driverswitchable settings – resulting in excellent off-road driving capabilities. ESP is designed to help you maintain control in extreme driving conditions. It senses when you are deviating from your chosen line and aims to keep you on track by automatically regulating braking and engine output. ESP is standard on all Ford Ranger models. An all-new pick-up deserves all-new engines – and Ford Ranger does not disappoint. Powerful new leading-edge technology 2.2 and 3.2-litre Duratorq TDCi diesel engines provide all the power and torque you need for real pulling power when you need it. Main image shows a Ford Ranger Double Cab Limited 4x4 with Performance Blue metallic paint (option).
For information on reprint requests of more than 101 and commercial reprints contact: Authors: Philip E. Cryer, Lloyd Axelrod, Ashley B. Grossman, Simon R. Heller, Victor M. Montori, Elizabeth R. Seaquist, and F. John Service Co-sponsoring Associations: American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and European Society of Endocrinology Affiliations: Washington University School of Medicine (P.E.C.), St. Louis, Missouri; Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (L.A.), Boston, Massachusetts; Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London (A.B.G.), London, United Kingdom; University of Sheffield (S.R.H.), Sheffield, United Kingdom; University of Minnesota (E.R.S.), Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Mayo Clinic (V.M.M., F.J.S.), Rochester, Minnesota Disclaimer Statement: Clinical Practice Guidelines are developed to be of assistance to endocrinologists by providing guidance and recommendations for particular areas of practice. The Guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper approaches or methods, or exclusive of others. The Guidelines cannot guarantee any specific outcome, nor do they establish a standard of care. The Guidelines are not intended to dictate the treatment of a particular patient. Treatment decisions must be made based on the independent judgment of health care providers and each patient’s individual circumstances. The Endocrine Society makes no warranty, express or implied, regarding the Guidelines and specifically excludes any warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular use or purpose. The Society shall not be liable for direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages related to the use of the information contained herein. Evidence-based reviews for this guideline were prepared under contract with The Endocrine Society. Menna Burgess Reprint Sales Specialist Cadmus Professional Communications Phone: Fax: Email: 410.819.3960 410.684.2789 reprints2@ cadmus.com