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pendahuluan islam

pedoman umum perencanaan pengadaan barang/jasa pemerintah ...

PEDOMAN UMUM PERENCANAAN PENGADAAN BARANG/JASA PEMERINTAH DI LINGKUNGAN KEMENTERIAN/LEMBAGA/SATUAN KERJA PERANGKAT DAERAH/INSTITUSI LAINNYA DAFTAR ISI BAB I KETENTUAN UMUM 1 1.1 Pendahuluan 1 1.2 Pengertian Istilah 1 1.3 Dasar Hukum 3 1.4 Maksud dan Tujuan 4 1.4.1 Maksud 4 1.4.2 Tujuan 4 1.5 Ruang Lingkup 1.5.1 4 Prosedur Penyusunan Rencana Umum Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 1.5.2 BAB II 4 Persiapan Pelaksanaan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 5 PROSEDUR PENYUSUNAN RENCANA UMUM PENGADAAN BARANG/JASA 6 2.1 Penyusunan RKA-K/L/D/I 6 2.2 Penyusunan Rencana Umum Pengadaan dan hubungannya dengan Penyusunan Rencana Kerja dan Anggaran K/L/D/I 2.2.1 Penyusunan Rencana hubungannya dengan Umum PP Pengadaan No.90/2010 dan 7 dan PP No.21/2004 2.2.2 Penyusunan 7 Rencana Umum Pengadaan dan hubungannya dengan PP No.58/2005 2.3 7 Tahapan Kegiatan Penyusunan Rencana Umum Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 11 2.3.1 Identifikasi Kebutuhan Barang/Jasa 11 2.3.2 Penyusunan dan Penetapan Rencana Penganggaran 17 2.3.3 Penetapan Kebijakan Umum Tentang Pemaketan Pekerjaan 18 2.3.4 Penetapan Kebijakan Umum Tentang Cara Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 2.3.5 Penetapan 19 Kebijakan Umum Tentang 22 Pengorganisasian Pengadaan 2.3.6 Penyusunan Kerangka Acuan Kerja (KAK) 22 2.3.7 Penyusunan Jadwal Kegiatan Pengadaan 23 2.3.8 Pengumuman Rencana Umum Pengadaan 24 Barang/Jasa BAB III PROSEDUR PERSIAPAN PELAKSANAAN PENGADAAN BARANG/JASA 25 3.1 25 Persiapan Pelaksanaan Pengadaan Swakelola 3.1.1 Pelaksanaan Swakelola oleh K/L/D/I Penanggung jawab Anggaran 3.1.2 25 Pelaksanaan Swakelola oleh Instansi Pemerintah Lain Pelaksana Swakelola 3.1.3 29 Pelaksanaan Swakelola oleh Kelompok Masyarakat Pelaksana Swakelola 3.2 Persiapan Pelaksanaan Pengadaan 34 Melalui Penyedia 38 Barang/Jasa 3.2.1 Perencanaan Pemilihan Penyedia Barang/Jasa 38 3.2.2 Pemilihan Sistem Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 38 3.2.3 Penetapan Metode Penilaian Kualifikasi Penyedia Barang/Jasa 3.2.4 42 Penyusunan Jadwal Pelaksanaan Pemilihan Penyedia Barang/Jasa 44 3.2.5 Penyusunan Dokumen Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 44 3.2.6 Penetapan Harga Perkiraan Sendiri (HPS) 47 BAB IV PEMANTAUAN DAN EVALUASI PERENCANAAN PENGADAAN BARANG/JASA 4.1 Maksud Dan Tujuan 53 4.2 Ruang Lingkup 53 4.3 Prosedur Pemantauan dan Evaluasi 54 4.3.1 Pemantauan 54 4.3.2 Evaluasi dan Pelaporan 54 4.3.3 BAB V 53 Pembinaan 54 PENUTUP 55 LAMPIRAN-LAMPIRAN 1. Lampiran (2 – 1) Bagan Alir Proses Penyusunan Rencana Kerja dan Anggaran Kementerian Negara/Lembaga (PP No.90/2010) 2. Lampiran (2 – 2) Bagan Alir Proses Penyusunan Rencana Kerja dan Anggaran Kementerian Negara/Lembaga (PP No.21/2004) 3. Lampiran (2 – 3) Bagan Alir Proses Penyusunan Rencana Kerja dan Anggaran SKPD (PP No.58/2005) 4. Lampiran (2 – 4) Contoh Format Daftar Pertanyaan Identifikasi Kebutuhan Barang K/L/D/I 5. Lampiran (2 – 5) Contoh Format Daftar Pertanyaan Identifikasi Kebutuhan Pekerjaan Konstruksi K/L/D/I 6. Lampiran (2 – 6) Contoh Format Daftar Pertanyaan Identifikasi Kebutuhan Jasa Konsultansi K/L/D/I 7. Lampiran (2 – 7) Contoh Format Daftar Pertanyaan Identifikasi Kebutuhan Jasa Lainnya K/L/D/I 8. Lampiran (2 – 8) Contoh Format Pengorganisasian Pengadaan 9. Lampiran (2 – 9) Contoh Format Kerangka Acuan Kerja Pengadaan Barang 10. Lampiran (2 – 10) Contoh Format Kerangka Acuan Kerja Pengadaan Pekerjaan Konstruksi 11. Lampiran (2 – 11) Contoh Format Kerangka Acuan Kerja untuk Pengadaan Jasa Konsultansi 12. Lampiran (2 – 12) Contoh Format Kerangka Acuan Kerja untuk Pengadaan Jasa Lainnya 13. Lampiran (2 – 13) Contoh Format Kerangka Acuan Kerja untuk Pengadaan Pekerjaan Swakelola 14. Lampiran (2 – 14) Contoh Format Jadwal Kegiatan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 15. Lampiran (2 – 15) Contoh Format Rencana Umum Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 16. Lampiran (2 – 16) Contoh Format Pengumuman Rencana Umum Pengadaan Barang/Jasa

Pedoman umum perencanaan pengadaan barang/jasa

DAFTAR ISI BAB I KETENTUAN UMUM 1 1.1 Pendahuluan 1 1.2 Pengertian Istilah 1 1.3 Dasar Hukum 3 1.4 Maksud dan Tujuan 4 1.4.1 Maksud 4 1.4.2 Tujuan 4 1.5 Ruang Lingkup 1.5.1 4 Prosedur Penyusunan Rencana Umum Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 1.5.2 BAB II 4 Persiapan Pelaksanaan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 5 PROSEDUR PENYUSUNAN RENCANA UMUM PENGADAAN BARANG/JASA 6 2.1 Penyusunan RKA-K/L/D/I 6 2.2 Penyusunan Rencana Umum Pengadaan dan hubungannya dengan Penyusunan Rencana Kerja dan Anggaran K/L/D/I 2.2.1 Penyusunan Rencana hubungannya dengan Umum PP Pengadaan No.90/2010 dan 7 dan PP No.21/2004 2.2.2 Penyusunan 7 Rencana Umum Pengadaan dan hubungannya dengan PP No.58/2005 2.3 7 Tahapan Kegiatan Penyusunan Rencana Umum Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 11 2.3.1 Identifikasi Kebutuhan Barang/Jasa 11 2.3.2 Penyusunan dan Penetapan Rencana Penganggaran 17 2.3.3 Penetapan Kebijakan Umum Tentang Pemaketan Pekerjaan 18 2.3.4 Penetapan Kebijakan Umum Tentang Cara Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 2.3.5 Penetapan 19 Kebijakan Umum Tentang 22 Pengorganisasian Pengadaan 2.3.6 Penyusunan Kerangka Acuan Kerja (KAK) 22 2.3.7 Penyusunan Jadwal Kegiatan Pengadaan 23 2.3.8 Pengumuman Rencana Umum Pengadaan 24 Barang/Jasa BAB III PROSEDUR PERSIAPAN PELAKSANAAN PENGADAAN BARANG/JASA 25 3.1 25 Persiapan Pelaksanaan Pengadaan Swakelola 3.1.1 Pelaksanaan Swakelola oleh K/L/D/I Penanggung jawab Anggaran 3.1.2 25 Pelaksanaan Swakelola oleh Instansi Pemerintah Lain Pelaksana Swakelola 3.1.3 29 Pelaksanaan Swakelola oleh Kelompok Masyarakat Pelaksana Swakelola 3.2 Persiapan Pelaksanaan Pengadaan 34 Melalui Penyedia 38 Barang/Jasa 3.2.1 Perencanaan Pemilihan Penyedia Barang/Jasa 38 3.2.2 Pemilihan Sistem Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 38 3.2.3 Penetapan Metode Penilaian Kualifikasi Penyedia Barang/Jasa 3.2.4 42 Penyusunan Jadwal Pelaksanaan Pemilihan Penyedia Barang/Jasa 44 3.2.5 Penyusunan Dokumen Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 44 3.2.6 Penetapan Harga Perkiraan Sendiri (HPS) 47 BAB IV PEMANTAUAN DAN EVALUASI PERENCANAAN PENGADAAN BARANG/JASA 4.1 Maksud Dan Tujuan 53 4.2 Ruang Lingkup 53 4.3 Prosedur Pemantauan dan Evaluasi 54 4.3.1 Pemantauan 54 4.3.2 Evaluasi dan Pelaporan 54 4.3.3 BAB V 53 Pembinaan 54 PENUTUP 55 LAMPIRAN-LAMPIRAN 1. Lampiran (2 – 1) Bagan Alir Proses Penyusunan Rencana Kerja dan Anggaran Kementerian Negara/Lembaga (PP No.90/2010) 2. Lampiran (2 – 2) Bagan Alir Proses Penyusunan Rencana Kerja dan Anggaran Kementerian Negara/Lembaga (PP No.21/2004) 3. Lampiran (2 – 3) Bagan Alir Proses Penyusunan Rencana Kerja dan Anggaran SKPD (PP No.58/2005) 4. Lampiran (2 – 4) Contoh Format Daftar Pertanyaan Identifikasi Kebutuhan Barang K/L/D/I 5. Lampiran (2 – 5) Contoh Format Daftar Pertanyaan Identifikasi Kebutuhan Pekerjaan Konstruksi K/L/D/I 6. Lampiran (2 – 6) Contoh Format Daftar Pertanyaan Identifikasi Kebutuhan Jasa Konsultansi K/L/D/I 7. Lampiran (2 – 7) Contoh Format Daftar Pertanyaan Identifikasi Kebutuhan Jasa Lainnya K/L/D/I 8. Lampiran (2 – 8) Contoh Format Pengorganisasian Pengadaan 9. Lampiran (2 – 9) Contoh Format Kerangka Acuan Kerja Pengadaan Barang 10. Lampiran (2 – 10) Contoh Format Kerangka Acuan Kerja Pengadaan Pekerjaan Konstruksi 11. Lampiran (2 – 11) Contoh Format Kerangka Acuan Kerja untuk Pengadaan Jasa Konsultansi 12. Lampiran (2 – 12) Contoh Format Kerangka Acuan Kerja untuk Pengadaan Jasa Lainnya 13. Lampiran (2 – 13) Contoh Format Kerangka Acuan Kerja untuk Pengadaan Pekerjaan Swakelola 14. Lampiran (2 – 14) Contoh Format Jadwal Kegiatan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 15. Lampiran (2 – 15) Contoh Format Rencana Umum Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 16. Lampiran (2 – 16) Contoh Format Pengumuman Rencana Umum Pengadaan Barang/Jasa 17. Lampiran (3 – 1) Contoh Format Harga Perkiraan Sendiri (HPS) untuk Pengadaan Barang 18. Lampiran (3 – 2) Contoh Format Harga Perkiraan Sendiri (HPS) untuk Pengadaan Pekerjaan Konstruksi 19. Lampiran (3 – 3) Contoh Format Harga Perkiraan Sendiri (HPS) untuk Pengadaan Jasa Konsultansi 20. Lampiran (3 – 4) Contoh Format Harga Perkiraan Sendiri (HPS) untuk Pengadaan Jasa Lainnya 21. Lampiran (3 – 5) Contoh Format Rencana Anggaran Biaya Pekerjaan Swakelola 22. Lampiran (3 – 6) Contoh Format Naskah Kesepakatan Kerja Sama Pengadaan Swakelola 23. Lampiran (4 – 1) Contoh Format Daftar Simak Pemantauan dan Evaluasi Perencanaan Pengadaan DAFTAR PUSTAKA

ISIS L has nothing to do with Islam. They are paid by Saudi Arabia to wipe out all Shiite governments in preparation of attack on Iran

SIS/L has nothing to do with Islam. They are paid by Saudi Arabia to wipe out all Shiite governments in preparation of attack on Iran. That is what Saudi Arabia financed in Syria

the shared trajectories of al qaeda and the ku klux klan

Thomas J. Ward serves as ihe Dean of the International College at the University of Bridgeport. He edited Development, Social justice, and Civil Society: An Introduction to the Political Economy of NGOs and has written numerous articles on comparative models of sodoeconomie development and the history of political thought, in 2009 he was appointed to the Policy Advisory Council on International Education tor the State of Connecticut. This article compares the numerous philosophical, organizational and operational parallels between Al Qaeda, a religious supremacist Islam, like Christianity and Hinduism, has had its advocates of peace and its advocates of violence, Mohandas organization, and the Ku Klux Klan, Gandhi and his Muslim counterpart a racial supremacist organization. Abdul Ghaffar Khan believed that their Unlike Germany and Japan after WWII, where pockets of resistance strategy of nonviolent, proactive resis were quelled quickly, the U.S. tance or satyagraba' was the most effec military presence in Iraq and tive vehicle for ending Britain's military, Afghanistan has met continued resistance. This prolonged resistance political, and economic occupation of is compared to the Klan in the South Asia and for realizing the Asian U.S. South. The Klan fought subcontinent's independence. Along inclusive democracy and pluralism for more than a century. In the with fellow Khudai Khidmatgars,2 a South, White Christians ultimately nonviolent army composed of devout opposed the Klan to the point Pashtun Muslims, Khan endured...

THE MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD - Discover the Networks

The Muslim Brotherhood (al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun) 1 was founded as an Islamic revivalist movement in the Egyptian town of Isma’iliyaa in March 1928 by school teacher Hassan al-Banna (1906-1949). 2 The Brotherhood’s goal has been to promote the implementation of Shari’ah (Islamic law derived from the Quran and the Sunnah). 3 Early in its history, the Brotherhood focused on education and charity. It soon became heavily involved in politics and remains a major player on the Egyptian political scene, despite the fact that it is an illegal organization. The movement has grown exponentially, from only 800 members in 1936, to over 2 million in 1948, to its current position as a pervasive international Sunni Islamist movement, with covert and overt branches in over 70 countries. “I did not want to enter into competition with the other orders,” al-Banna once said. “And I did not want it to be confined to one group of Muslims or one aspect of Islamic reform; rather I sought that it be a general message based on learning, education, and jihad.” 4 According to al-Banna, “It is the nature of Islam to dominate, not to be dominated, to impose its law on all nations and to extend its power to the entire planet.” 5 That helps explain the Muslim Brotherhood’s motto: “Allah ghayatuna Al-rasul za'imuna. Al-Qur'an dusturuna. Al-jihad sabiluna. Al-mawt fi sabil Allah asma amanina. Allah akbar, Allah akbar.” (“God is our goal, the Quran is our Constitution, the Prophet is our leader, struggle [jihad] is our way, and death in the service of God is the loftiest of our wishes. God is great. God is great.”) 6

Download the Al Qaeda full report - World Almanac of Islamism

Al-Qaeda QUICK FACTS Geographical Areas of Operation: East Asia, Eurasia, Europe, Latin America, Middle East and North Africa, North America, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa Numerical Strength (Members): Exact numbers unknown Leadership: In May 2011, Osama Bin Laden was killed in Abbotabad, Pakistan during a raid by U.S. commandos. Al-Qaeda’s second-in-command, Ayman alZawahiri, was formally appointed as Bin Laden’s successor in June 2011. Religious Identification: Sunni Islam (Quick Facts courtesy of the U.S. State Department’s Country Reports on Terrorism) Al-Qaeda remains the most notorious Islamic terrorist group in existence today. In the years since it orchestrated the devastating September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, its former leader, Osama bin Laden, and its current chief, Ayman al-Zawahiri, have become internationally recognized figures and heroes to Islamists and aspiring jihadists the world over. Indeed, al-Qaeda has taken on a truly global reach, boasting such an array of groups affiliated with it and others that are simply stirred by its ideology to the point that it is often difficult to discern between the two.

Litvinjenkov otac misli da ga je Berezovski likvidirao

Sami Litvinjenko, iako jevrejin, je presao u Islam i bio vrlo aktivan u pomaganju Cecenskih terorista- pored njegovih ostalih veza sa raznim obavjestajnim sluzbama. ******* ЛИТВИЊЕНКО БЕРЕЗОВСКИ

Factsheet about 9/11 - 9/11 Education Programme

Factsheet about 9/11 What happened on 11 September 2001? In the early morning of 11 September 2001, 19 hijackers took control of four airliners taking off from different airports in the US – Boston, Washington DC and Newark in New Jersey. View of the World Trade Center, New York, under attack on 11 September 2001 At 8.46am, American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York. Seventeen minutes later, United Airlines Flight 175 crashed into the South Tower. The third airliner, American Airlines Flight 77, crashed into the Pentagon in Washington DC at 9.37am, and the final plane, United Airlines Flight 93, crashed en route to Washington after passengers on board had fought with the hijackers. It is thought that the hijackers were aiming to hit either the Capitol building in Washington or the White House. All US airports were quickly shut down and all aircraft on their way to the country were turned away. The search for survivors at the sites of the attacks began immediately, although with little hope of success. At 9.59am, the fire that had been started by the crash caused the South Tower of the World Trade Center to collapse; this was followed by the collapse of the North Tower at 10.28am. Nearly 3,000 people were killed – most of them instantly. These horrific events were witnessed on TV by millions of people around the world, who by now had realised that the USA was coming under massive terrorist attack. Find out more by visiting: www.911educationprogramme.co.uk The Pentagon, Washington DC, minutes after it had been attacked on 11 September 2001 Page 2 At 8.30pm, US President of the George W. Bush addressed the nation on television and said: “Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts. These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat. But they have failed. Our country is strong.” After the broadcast, he met his advisers to review the day. They already had evidence that the attacks had been organised by Osama bin Laden – the leader of the extreme terrorist group Al-Qaeda, which was based in Afghanistan. From his base in Afghanistan, bin Laden supported an increasing number of suicide missions against the USA during the 1990s. The attacks were planned with increasing care and attention to detail – and with a desire to capture the attention of the world. Osama bin Laden in 1997 Why did the attacks on the USA happen? In 2004, Osama bin Laden finally admitted that Al-Qaeda, an extremist terrorist organisation, had been responsible for organising the 9/11 attacks. This confirmed what the US Government had believed all along. For many years, Osama bin Laden had called on Muslims to attack US soldiers and citizens wherever they could. He saw the US as an arch enemy of Islam. His aim was to get the US military out of their bases in Saudi Arabia, where they had remained after the Gulf War in 1991. Saudi Arabia is home to Islam’s most holy sites in the cities of Mecca and Medina, and bin Laden felt that America’s presence there was an affront to all Muslims. He also strongly objected to America’s support for Israel, which he believed wrongly occupied lands that belonged to fellow Muslims....

Aygül Özkan und die Vielgötterei - Institut für Medienverantwortung

Aygül Özkan und die Vielgötterei Immer wieder fällt auf, dass in Bezug auf Islam und Muslime in öffentlichen Debatten laizistisch argumentiert wird. Da ist von „Trennung von Religion und Staat“ die Rede bis hin zur Forderung nach der „Verbannung religiöser Symbole aus öffentlichen Einrichtungen“. Ansonsten beruft man sich eher auf die säkulare Ordnung, in der (christlich) religiöse Symbole als schützenswerte Elemente inkludiert sind. Nun hatte die designierte Sozialministerin Niedersachsens, Aygül Özkan, genau diese Unterscheidung aufzuheben versucht, indem sie gleichwertig die Verbannung von christlichen und islamischen Erkennungsmerkmalen wie (das staatliche verordnete Kreuz und (das private) Kopftuch aus Klassenzimmern forderte. Dies führte zu einer ersten Entschuldigung gegenüber ihrer Partei, der CSU, aus deren Reihen große Empörung zu vernehmen war: wegen der Bedrohung der Kreuze. Als mehrfach markierte Politikerin hätte Frau Özkan die besonders kritische Beobachtung, unter der sie steht, einkalkulieren müssen. Als Frau, Muslimin und mit türkischem Migrationshintergrund ist eine Skepsis auf der Basis lange gepflegter Vorurteile ihr gegenüber erwartbar. Deshalb war spätestens zu dem Zeitpunkt des Rückziehers und der Entschuldigung klar, dass sie fürderhin unter noch akribischerer Beobachtung stehen würde – und sie die Eidesformel auf keinen Fall schadlos überstehen könnte. Hätte sie auf einen Gottesbezug verzichtet, hätte man ihr Verrat an den deutschen (parlamentarischen?) Werten vorwerfen können. Hätte Sie das fremdsprachige Wort „Allah“ verwendet, hätte man ihr vermutlich das gleiche vorgeworfen. Die integrative Übersetzung des arabischen Terminus für Gott aber empfanden wiederum einige als Vereinnahmungsversuch. Vor allem aus kirchlichen Kreisen wurde ihr „so wahr mir Gott helfe“ als Anmaßung abgewehrt und die Begründung war teilweise delikat. Sie kommt auch in einem online-Kommentar zum Kommentar von Jost Müller-Neuhof im Tagesspiegel vom 2. Mai 2010 zum Ausdruck: „Auch wenn sich Frau Özkan „ausdrücklich auf den einen und einzigen Gott“ beruft, der bei ihnen Allah heißt, ist dieser - siehe auch diverse Kirchenkommentare - sicher nicht mit dem Gott und Jesus unseres Glaubens gleichzusetzen (sic!). Nennt man das Häresie?“ Die an die Meinungsäußerung angeschlossene Frage richtet sich freilich an Frau Özkan. Dabei müsste man den Schreiber und einige sich presserklärende Kirchenvertreter fragen, ob sie nicht mit dieser Art der Abgrenzungsargumentation „Häresie“ betreiben. Denn, wenn man darauf besteht, dass Gott und Allah nicht identisch sind, dann würde das ja bedeuten, dass es mehrere Götter gibt. Ausgerechnet die Vertreter christlicher Provenienz beschwören mit ihren Stellungnahmen also einen Polytheismus herauf, der jeglichem Selbstverständnis eigentlich widersprechen müsste. Ist der Ablehnungsimpuls gegenüber einer Ministerin, die Muslimin ist, so stark, dass man diesen Widerspruch selbst nicht bemerkt?...

Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence ...

Al Qaeda (AQ) has evolved into a significantly different terrorist organization than the one that perpetrated the September 11, 2001, attacks. At the time, Al Qaeda was composed mostly of a core cadre of veterans of the Afghan insurgency against the Soviet Union, with a centralized leadership structure made up mostly of Egyptians. Most of the organization’s plots either emanated from the top or were approved by the leadership. Some analysts describe pre-9/11 Al Qaeda as akin to a corporation, with Osama Bin Laden acting as an agile Chief Executive Officer issuing orders and soliciting ideas from subordinates. Some would argue that the Al Qaeda of that period no longer exists. Out of necessity, due to pressures from the security community, in the ensuing years it has transformed into a diffuse global network and philosophical movement composed of dispersed nodes with varying degrees of independence. The core leadership, headed by Bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, is thought to live in the mountainous tribal belt of northwest Pakistan bordering Afghanistan, where it continues to train operatives, recruit, and disseminate propaganda. But Al Qaeda franchises or affiliated groups active in countries such as Yemen and Somalia now represent critical power centers in the larger movement. Some affiliates receive money, training, and weapons; others look to the core leadership in Pakistan for strategic guidance, theological justification, and a larger narrative of global struggle. Over the past year senior government officials have assessed the trajectory of Al Qaeda to be “less centralized command and control, (with) no clear center of gravity, and likely rising and falling centers of gravity, depending on where the U.S. and the international focus is for that period.” While a degraded corporate Al Qaeda may be welcome news to many, a trend has emerged over the past few years that some view as more difficult to detect, if not potentially more lethal. The Al Qaeda network today also comprises semi-autonomous or self radicalized actors, who often have only peripheral or ephemeral ties to either the core cadre in Pakistan or affiliated groups elsewhere. According to U.S. officials Al Qaeda cells and associates are located in over 70 countries. Sometimes these individuals never leave their home country but are radicalized with the assistance of others who have traveled abroad for training and indoctrination through the use of modern technologies. In many ways, the dispersion of Al Qaeda affiliates fits into the larger strategy of Bin Laden and his associates. They have sought to serve as the vanguard of a religious movement that inspires Muslims and other individuals aspiring to join a jihadi movement to help defend and purify Islam through violent means. The name “Qaeda” means “base” or “foundation,” upon which its members hope to build a robust, geographically diverse network. Understanding the origins of Al Qaeda, its goals, current activities, and prospective future pursuits is key to developing sound U.S. strategies, policies, and programs. Appreciating the adaptive nature of Al Qaeda as a movement and the ongoing threat it projects onto U.S. global security interests assists in many facets of the national security enterprise, including securing the homeland; congressional legislative process and oversight; alignment of executive branch resources and coordination efforts; and prioritization of foreign assistance. The focus of this report is on the history of Al Qaeda, known (or attributed) actions and suspected capabilities of the organization and non-aligned entities, and an analysis of select regional Al Qaeda affiliates. This report may be updated as events warrant. Congressional Research Service Al Qaeda and Affiliates

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