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Stability of wall modes in a flexible tube - Cambridge Journals

The asymptotic results (Kumaran 1998b) obtained for Λ ∼ 1 for the flow in a flexible tube are extended to the limit Λ 1 using a numerical scheme, where Λ is the dimensionless parameter Re1/3 (G/ρV 2 ), Re = (ρV R/η) is the Reynolds number, ρ and η are the density and viscosity of the fluid, R is the tube radius and G is the shear modulus of the wall material. The results of this calculation indicate that the least-damped mode becomes unstable when Λ decreases below a transition value at a fixed Reynolds number, or when the Reynolds number increases beyond a transition value at a fixed Λ. The Reynolds number at which there is a transition from stable to unstable perturbations for this mode is determined as a function of the parameter Σ = (ρGR 2 /η 2 ), the scaled wavenumber of the perturbations kR, the ratio of radii of the wall and fluid H and the ratio of viscosities of the wall material and the fluid ηr . For ηr = 0, the Reynolds number at which there is a transition from stable to 1, and the unstable perturbations decreases proportional to Σ 1/2 in the limit Σ neutral stability curves have a rather complex behaviour in the intermediate regime with the possibility of turning points and isolated domains of instability. In the limit Σ 1, the Reynolds number at which there is a transition from stable to unstable perturbations increases proportional to Σ α , where α is between 0.7 and 0.75. An increase in the ratio of viscosities ηr has a complex effect on the Reynolds number for neutrally stable modes, and it is observed that there is a maximum ratio of viscosities at specified values of H at which neutrally stable modes exist; when the ratio of viscosities is greater than this maximum value, perturbations are always stable.

fx-991ES PLUS C - Support - Casio
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Contents Important Information ............................................................. 2 Sample Operations .................................................................. 2 Initializing the Calculator ........................................................ 2 Safety Precautions .................................................................. 2 Handling Precautions.............................................................. 2 Removing the Hard Case ........................................................ 3 Turning Power On and Off ...................................................... 3 Adjusting Display Contrast .................................................... 3 Key Markings ........................................................................... 3 Reading the Display ................................................................ 4 Using Menus ............................................................................ 5 Specifying the Calculation Mode .......................................... 5 Configuring the Calculator Setup .......................................... 5 Inputting Expressions and Values ......................................... 7 Recurring Decimal Calculations ......................................... 10 Toggling Calculation Results ............................................... 14 Basic Calculations................................................................. 14 Remainder Calculations ....................................................... 18 Prime Factorization ............................................................... 19 Function Calculations ........................................................... 20 Complex Number Calculations (CMPLX) ........................... 25 Using CALC............................................................................ 26 Using SOLVE.......................................................................... 27 Statistical Calculations (STAT) ............................................. 29 Base-n Calculations (BASE-N) ............................................. 33 Equation Calculations (EQN) ............................................... 35 Matrix Calculations (MATRIX)............................................... 37 Creating a Number Table from Two Functions (TABLE) .... 39 Vector Calculations (VECTOR) ............................................. 41 Inequality Calculations (INEQ) ............................................ 43 Using VERIFY (VERIF) .......................................................... 45 Distribution Calculations (DIST) .......................................... 47 Scientific Constants .............................................................. 50 Metric Conversion ................................................................. 51 Calculation Ranges, Number of Digits, and Precision....... 52 Errors ...................................................................................... 54 Before Assuming Malfunction of the Calculator... ............. 56

The Intuitive Centrifugal Pump - Sorin

The Intuitive Centrifugal Pump Fast System Integration CP5 easily installs for immediate integration with the Sorin Group S5™ or C5® heart-lung machines. CP5 Main Features The Sorin Group CP5 is an all-in-one centrifugal pump with unique functions that combine maximum perfusion programming flexibility with safety: • Automatic ramp down and ramp up functionality may be individually selected for the following controls: –– Bubble –– Level –– Inlet Pressure –– Outlet Pressure –– Air Purge Control • Remote control of the Electronic Remote Controlled Arterial Clamp (ERC®) • Inlet pressure measurement or calculation • Outlet pressure management • Automatic controlled flow mode • Pulsatile flow mode The programmed functions, allocation of the sensors and accessories and all relevant numeric values (e.g. flow rate) and information are displayed on the control panel with icons and digital data fields. Connect the Drive Unit to the Control Panel… Intuitive Programming, Clear Perfusion Overview The touch screen gives a clear overview of the centrifugal pump activity, including allocated safety devices, alarm status and digital information read out for flow, RPM’s and pressures. Programming of the diverse CP5 parameters is as simple and intuitive as in the S5 and C5 Heart-Lung Machines.

Microsoft Excel 2010 Formulas & Functions

Excel 2010 Formulas and Functions One of Excel's most useful features is that it allows users to create custom formulas to perform calculations on their data. Excel also contains built-in formulas called functions that make it easy to perform common calculations on data. Here you will find step by step tutorials, tips and shortcuts on how to use formulas and the common and less common functions available in Excel. Formula Basics Formulas in Microsoft Excel begin with an equal sign. The equal sign tells Excel that the succeeding characters constitute a formula. If you don't enter the equal sign, Excel will treat your entry as text and the calculation will fail. To show how formulas work, we'll begin with a simple exercise by selecting blank cell A1. Then type =5+5, and press Enter. Excel performs the calculation and produces a result of 10 in cell A1. Notice the formula bar shows the formula you just typed. What appears in the cell is the result; what appears in the formula bar is the underlying value, which is a formula in this case.

Use SIFs and Flexibilities in CAESAR II® - Paulin Research Group

Using SIFs and Flexibilities in CAESAR II® Use SIFs and Flexibilities in CAESAR II® The following methods are recommended for pipe intersections when the stress intensification factors (SIFs) need to be considered per ASME B31.3 Appendix D Note 12. Simple and comprehensive methods are described below for using SIFs and flexibilities in a pipe stress analysis. Simple Method 1. Insert in-plane and out-plane SIFs for the branch element as shown below (next page). 2. Specify the general intersection type on any of the elements framing into the intersection. CAESAR II will provide header SIFs. 3. Model the intersection using three pipe elements. Do not enter stiffnesses and do not use any rigid elements to define the intersection. Notes: 1. Use the typical intersection model with three beam elements (not rigid elements) framing into the common intersection point. 2. The SIF should be specified on the intersection node of the branch element (node 10120 on the element 10110 to 10120 in the example below). 3. Specify the intersection type and any other data that is applicable in CAESAR II. CAESAR II will automatically calculate B31 SIFs for the header elements. 4. Always check the CAESAR stress reports to be sure that entered SIFs are used properly. (Input values for ii and io override the effective section modulus calculation. Stresses (even at intersections) are calculated using (i)(M/Z) when the SIF is entered. 5. CAESAR II will properly orient the SIFs providing all three elements that frame into the intersection are pipe elements. 6. Users can override CAESAR calculated header SIFs also. FESIF calculates SIFs for header elements. These SIFs are often considerably lower than Code calculated values when branch to header diameter ratio (d/D) is much less than 0.5. Copyright© 2008 - Paulin Research Group

Pipe Stress Analysis - CADWorx, CAESAR II & PV Elite: Insider Blog

Caesar II servatively, resulting in a lot of money being wasted. Since the calculation model is already built-up, this feature is worth using. It includes seismic load evaluation, forced vibration, hammer loads, natural frequency, response spectrum, time history analysis, slug flow and more. Isogen is a performant solution for the consequent automation of piping isometric drawing production and the de facto standard CAD system for drawing piping isometrics included in Caesar II. All the relevant data can easily be picked and placed on an isometric output. Company profiles can be used to deliver high quality outputs. With the Isogen wizard I-Configure, all parameters can be simply chosen from a list of options. A preview is used to shift all the data into place. Experienced users can also use the Project Manager. After this setup, isometric drawings can be generated for different projects in the same professional quality. A lot of the features of Caesar II improve results and help users find the best engineering. For instance, the Expansion Loop wizard generates the best possible loop for a given value. All the different options are calculated and the best is chosen for each specific case. The seismic wizard transforms the data provided into simple G loads. A lot of hanger producers made their data available for Caesar II and the user just has to select one item of this information to get the best results in this mode. There is no need to import further data from other sources. The same easy option can be chosen for expansion joints — just choose a company and the wizard inserts all the relevant components into the model. Line numbers...

The Programs for Strength Calculation in Pipelines

This paper draws on ongoing PhD thesis “Piping optimization on the basis of strength condition analysis”. The paper is structured as follows. After an overview of the theoretical issues the paper will provide an overview of the programs analysis for pipeline construction. The paper considers the description of four different programs (START, RAMPA, LV pipe II, CAESAR II) for strength calculation. The programs are analyzed by standard, program developer, technical specs, language, application areas, graphics function, error checker and reports. to choose the configuration of pipeline and, at the same time, to avoid unnecessary pipeline complication. It is necessary to arrange the supports taken into consideration so that they do not reduce pipeline compensating capacity. Strength calculation allows finding correct solution for supports placements, their types and characteristics. Programs characteristic and comparison Requirements to technical calculation of program The main requirements to technical calculation of the program are considered in this part of paper. The program is supposed to calculate: Reactions, forces and moments in supports and connected equipment • Pipeline forces and moments • Displacements • Strength and stress calculations according to standard EVS-EN 13480 • Nozzle loads • Wind loads • Friction • Fatigue The main characteristics of strength calculation programs are given in Table 1....

Comparison of WiMAX coverage at 450MHz and 3.5 GHz

Comparison of WiMAX coverage at 450MHz and 3.5GHz Tomaz Javornik, Gorazd Kandus, Andrej Hrovat, Igor Ozimek Department of Communication Systems Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39 Ljubljana, Slovenia tomazJavornikijssi, gorazd.kandus Abstract In this paper we calculate, analyze and compare area covered by radio signal based on WiMAX standard at two carrier frequencies, namely 450MHz and 3.5GHz in flat rural, hilly rural and urban environment. The channel model proposed by WiMAX forum has been applied as path loss model at 3.5GHz for cell coverage prediction, while at 450MHz the Longley-Rice model for rural areas and Okumura Hata channel models for urban area is used. The cell size prediction strongly suggests to limit the 3.5GHz frequency band to urban areas, where the higher system capacity is required, while in rural areas the 450MHz carrier frequency provide good compromise between coverage and system capacity. - the Index Terms- HPA, WiMAX, system capacity, calculation coverage INTRODUCTION T he provision of Internet access and broadband multimedia services to residential users via wireless communication systems attracted an increasing interest of the research community, service providers and the telecommunication industry. The WiMAX specifications [1], which are a subset of IEEE 802.16 standard, seems to be the winner for providing a wireless access in urban, suburban and rural environment with non line of sight (NLOS) propagation, thus in a harsh multipath propagation environment. The WiMAX specification proposes 256 orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) approach to cope with expected channel impairments. Among all subcarriers only 192 of them...

BLENDING OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM - Yokogawa

T he purpose of blending in a petroleum refinery is to mix semi-finished products that have been rectified during various refining processes so as to manufacture a product that meets specification. Traditional blending operations have not been able to avoid the following issues involving property control: • Manual adjustment by the operator cannot control the properties ideally and is liable to cause giveaway (an excess in quality). • A conventional analyzer, typically a knockmeter, requires a large amount of labor and high costs for installation and maintenance. The objectives of the development of this blending optimization system are, first, to employ an optimization calculation in the blend ratio calculation, and further, by structuring an integrated system package including analyzers, to reduce costs and labor drastically for users employing the system (the troublesome testing of system connections, etc.). *1 Systems Business Division *2 CENTUM is a registered trademark of Yokogawa Electric Corporation.

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2014

Sep 20, 2013 ... Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2014 Author: Address: Symbol Values Unit File: Porticos_Robot_2D.rtd Project: Porticos_Robot_2D Symbol description MEMBER: 842 Section ; COORDINATE: x = 0.59 L = 4.72 m Cross-section properties: HEA340-M Vao_Int_11m Ax 12721.50 mm2 Cross-section area Ay 9900.00 mm2 Shear area - y-axis Az 2821.50 mm2 Shear area - z-axis Ix 950452.21 mm4 Torsional constant Iy 747723684.63 mm4 Moment of inertia of a section about the y-axis Iz 74271220.03 mm4 Moment of inertia of a section about the z-axis Wply 1761321.37 mm3 Plastic section modulus about the y (major) axis Wplz 749201.06 mm3 Plastic section modulus about the z (minor) axis h 330.00 mm Height of cross-section b 300.00 mm Top flange width b2 300.00 mm Bottom flange width tf 16.50 mm Top flange thickness tf2 16.50 mm Bottom flange thickness tw 9.50 mm Web thickness ry 242.44 mm Radius of gyration - y-axis rz 76.41 mm Radius of gyration - z-axis Anb 1.00 Net area to gross area ratio (6.2.2.2) Eta 1.00 Factor for Av calculation (6.2.6.(3)) Material: Name S 275 ( S 275 ) fy 275.00 MPa Design yield strength of material (3.2) fu 430.00 MPa limit tensile stress - characteristic value (3.2) gM0 1.00 Partial safety factor (6.1.(1)) gM1 1.00 Partial safety factor (6.1.(1)) gM2 1.25 Partial safety factor (6.1.(1)) Designations of additional codes: EN112 EN 1991-1-2:2003 - Fire loads on a structure EN312 EN 1993-1-2:2005 - Steel structures - fire design EN313 EN 1993-1-3:2005 - Steel structures from cold-formed sections EN315 EN 1993-1-5:2005 - Steel structures - plated elements ECCS No111:2001 - Guidebook with recommendations for fire calculations ENV 1993-1-1:1992 - Steel structures - general code EC111 ENV311 Class of section cf1 141.45 mm upper flange width (Table 5.2) tf1 16.50 mm upper flange thickness (Table 5.2) Flange slenderness (Table 5.2) Flange class (5.5.2) cf1/tf1 KLF 8.57 2 cf2 141.45 mm lower flange width (Table 5.2) tf2 16.50 mm lower flange thickness (Table 5.2) Flange slenderness (Table 5.2) cf2/tf2 Date : 20/09/13 8.57 Page : 1 Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2014 Author: Address: Symbol Values Unit KLF2 2 cw File: Porticos_Robot_2D.rtd Project: Porticos_Robot_2D Symbol description Section Flange class (5.5.2) 289.40 mm Web height (Table 5.2) 9.50 mm Web thickness (Table 5.2) Web slenderness (Table 5.2) Relative extent of the compressed plastic zone (Table 5.2) Stress or strain ratio (Table 5.2) Web class (5.5.2) tw cw/tw 30.46 alfa 0.15 psi -1.30 KLW 1 (hw/tw)lim 66.56 limit slenderness of a web for shear EN315(5.1) hw/tw 31.26 web slenderness for shear EN315(5.1) KLSZ Plastic Web class (shear) EN315(5.1) Section type (5.5.2) KL 2 Parameters of lateral-torsional buckling analysis: General method [6.3.2.2] Lcr,upp 2.20 m Lateral buckling length of upper flange active Lcr,low 7.34 m Lateral buckling length of lower flange C1 1.00 Factor for Mcr calculations C2 0.00 Factor for Mcr calculations inactive ENV311(F.1.2.( 5)) ENV311(F.1.2.( C3 1.00 4885653729.08 .08 0.00 Factor for Mcr calculations mm6 5240.73 kN*m Iw zg Mcr Lam_LT Non-dimens. slend. ratio for lat.-tors. buckling mm 0.30 Curve,LT c Warping constant Distance from the point where the load is applied to the shear center Critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling 5)) ENV311(F.1.2.( 5)) (6.3.2.2) ENV311(F.1.2.( 1)) ENV311(F.1) (6.3.2.2.(1)) Lateral buckling curve (6.3.2.2.(2)) alfa,LT 0.49 Imperfection factor for lateral buckling curves (Table 6.3) fi,LT 0.57 Coefficient for calculation of XLT (6.3.2.2.(1)) XLT 0.95 Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling (6.3.2.2.(1)) Internal forces at characteristic points of cross section N,Ed -528.99 kN My,Ed 472.49 kN*m Vz,Ed -0.03 kN axial force N.Ed bending moment My.Ed shear force Vz.Ed Design forces: Nt,Rd 3498.41 kN Mb,Rd 458.74 kN*m Design tension resistance (6.2.3) Design buckling resistance moment (6.3.2.1) About the y axis of cross-section My,pl,Rd 484.36 kN*m Design plastic resistance moment (6.2.5.(2)) My,el,Rd 1246.21 kN*m Design elastic resistance moment (6.2.5.(2)) My,c,Rd 484.36 kN*m Design moment resistance (6.2.5.(2)) MN,y,Rd 473.29 kN*m Reduced design plastic resistance moment (6.2.9.1) Vz,c,Rd 447.97 kN Design plastic shear resistance (6.2.6.(2)) Verification formulas: Section strength check: UFS[Nt] 0.15 N,Ed/Nt,Rd (6.2.3.(1)) UFS[My] 0.98 My,Ed/My,c,Rd (6.2.5.(1)) Date : 20/09/13 Page : 2 Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2014 Author: Address: Symbol Values Unit File: Porticos_Robot_2D.rtd Project: Porticos_Robot_2D Symbol description Section UFS[NtMy] 1.00 My,Ed/MN,y,Rd (6.2.9.1.(2)) UFS[Vz] 0.00 Vz,Ed/Vz,c,Rd (6.2.6.(1)) My,Ed/Mb,Rd (6.3.2.1.(1)) Global stability check of member: UFB[My] 1.03 Ratio: RAT Date : 20/09/13 1.03 Incorrect section Efficiency ratio Page : 3

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