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# pasang ficd vacuum

### Reading Centrifugal Pump Curves - National Environmental ...

by marechausse 0 Comments 3 Viewed 0 Times

Reading and understanding centrifugal pump curves is key to proper pump selection, and to their reliable and efficient operation. This Tech Brief examines how pump curves can provide data about a pump’s ability to produce flow against certain head, shows how to read a typical centrifugal pump curve, and provides information about pump efficiency and brake horsepower. Pumps are the workhorses of any drinking water distribution or wastewater collection system. They operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year getting water to homes and business, and removing wastewater from them. A correctly sized pump will work efficiently for many years, saving a system money and energy. An incorrectly sized pump can fail if it’s too small or result in unnecessary expense if it’s too big. Pump curves provide a way to see the correct size a pump should be for specific conditions. Pump Terminology Before discussing specific details, it helps to understand typical terms associated with pump curves: Impeller—the moving element in a pump that drives the liquid. Volute—the spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharged by the impeller. Head—a measure of the pressure or force exerted by water expressed in feet. Centrifugal pump curves show pressure as head, which is the equivalent height of water with specific gravity = 1. Static Head—the vertical height difference from the surface of a water source to the centerline of the impeller. The vertical height difference from the centerline of the impeller to the discharge point is called discharge static head, while the vertical height difference from the surface of the water source to the discharge point is known as total static head. Total Head / Total Dynamic Head—the total height difference (total static head) plus friction losses and demand pressure from nozzles etc. (total discharge head) = total dynamic head. Capacity/Flow—the rate of liquid flow that can be carried, typically measured in gallons per minute (gpm). Net Positive Suction Head—how much suction lift a pump can achieve by creating a partial vacuum. Atmospheric pressure then pushes liquid into pump. A method of calculating if the pump will work or not. Cavitation—cavities or voids in liquid. Bubbles take up space leading to a drop in pump capacity. Collapsing bubbles can damage the impeller and volute, making cavitation a problem for both the pump and the mechanical seal. Specific Gravity—the weight of liquid in comparison to water at approximately 20° C (SG = 1). Specific Speed—a measure of the function of pump flow, head, and efficiency. Vapor Pressure—the force exerted by the gas released by a liquid in a closed space. If the vapor pressure of a liquid is greater than the surrounding air pressure, the liquid will boil. Viscosity—a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow (i.e., how thick it is). The viscosity determines the type of pump used, how fast it can run, and with gear pumps, the internal clearances required. Friction Loss—the amount of pressure / head required to force liquid through pipes and fittings.

### MSD Pro-Billet Ready-to-Run Chevrolet V8 Distributor, PN ... - Jegs

by hettohet 0 Comments 32 Viewed 0 Times

### MSD Chevrolet V8 Pro-Billet Distributor - MSD Ignition

by hettohet 0 Comments 6 Viewed 0 Times

### Pneumatic Vacuum Elevators, LLC

by PneumaticVacuumElevators 0 Comments 55 Viewed 0 Times

Through the application of fundamental physics and the utilization of attractive materials, PVE has virtually created a transportation vehicle within a bubble.

### Vacuum Cleaner Accessories

by sebobelt 0 Comments 10 Viewed 0 Times

Vacuum cleaner accessories can make cleaning your property, vehicle, caravan or garage substantially simpler.

### General Brake Booster Installation Instructions - Jegs

by moncoZ 0 Comments 20 Viewed 0 Times

REMOVING THE ORIGINAL POWER BOOSTER BEFORE YOU BEGIN, READ THIS: You are urged to refer to a suitable service manual when attempting to make repairs. If you do not have such a manual or lack the experience to make such repairs, you should use the services of a qualified technician. NOTE: Before beginning work, be sure vehicle is parked in a level area and that wheels are chocked to prevent unintentional movement. 1. Disconnect the ground cable from the battery. Vent any vacuum from the booster by applying the brakes several times. You will notice a change to a hard pedal when all vacuum has been vented 2. Carefully disconnect hydraulic lines from the master cylinder. 3. Remove the nuts attaching the master cylinder to the power booster. 4. Separate the master cylinder from the booster mounting studs. Keep the master cylinder level CAUTION: DO NOT let brake fluid contact painted surfaces as the fluid will damage paint. Should fluid get on paint, immediately flush with water. 5. Disconnect vacuum hose(s) from the power booster. 6. Working under the instrument panel, disconnect the, power booster rod linkage / from the brake pedal. NOTE: Two piece rods may have to be disassembled before the linkage can be removed from the vehicle. 7. Remove the nuts holding the power brake booster unit to the firewall. NOTE: The nuts may be located under the dash or on the engine side of the firewall. 8. Rotate the rod linkage if necessary and guide it through the firewall as you remove the power booster. 9. Remove linkage parts from the original power booster for installation on the replacement unit. IMPORTANT: Be sure to save any spacers or non-riveted mounting brackets since they must be reused when installing the replacement unit. These parts are critical to the operation of the replacement power booster. Page  General Brake Booster Installation Instructions INSTALLING THE POWER BOOSTER 1. Install linkage from the old unit onto the replacement unit (if applicable). Important: Install spacers, gaskets and or mounting brackets from the old unit onto the replacement unit. 2. Rotate the rod linkage as required to guide it through the firewall and position the replacement power booster. Do not force the rod in either direction as this will damage the hub and void the warranty. NOTE: Two piece rods may have to be reassembled after the replacement booster is in the vehicle. 3. Install and tighten the power booster mounting nuts. 4. Working under the instrument panel, connect the rod linkage to the brake pedal. NOTE: Pedal free play should be 1/16” to 1/4”. Adjust pedal stop or stop light switch behind brake pedal if necessary. 5. Carefully locate the master cylinder onto the power booster mounting studs. 6. Install and tighten the master cylinder-to-booster mounting nuts. 7. Connect the vacuum hose(s) to the power brake booster. 8. Connect hydraulic lines to the master cylinder with the fittings just snug. While an assistant applies moderate pressure to the brake pedal, loosen one brake line fitting to let any trapped air from the connection. Then tighten the fitting before releasing the pedal. Wait 15 seconds and then repeat the process (including the 15 second delay) for each fitting on the master cylinder. Make sure the brake fluid reservoir is kept properly filled during and after this process. MASTER-CYLINDER PUSH ROD ADJUSTMENT NOTE: Correct push rod length is essential to reliable braking. If the rod is too long, it causes the compensating ports in the master cylinder to be closed off, eventually resulting in brake drag. If the push rod is too short, there will be excessive brake pedal travel and possible there will be a groaning noise from the brake booster. Use the following procedure to check the push rod adjustment. CAUTION: Wear protective goggles when performing the following procedure! Brake fluid may erupt from the master cylinder with sufficient force to cause personal injury. 1. Remove the master cylinder reservoir cap or cover.  ...

### Section 5 BRAKE BOOSTER - Autoshop 101

by moncoZ 0 Comments 15 Viewed 0 Times

Lesson Objectives 1. Explain the function of engine vacuum in providing brake assist to the master cylinder. 2. Perform the following booster tests using the brake pedal: − operating test − air tightness check − air tightness under load 3. Using a brake booster push rod gauge SST, measure booster push rod clearance and determine needed adjustment. 4. List the symptoms of an improperly adjusted booster push rod. Section 5 Brake Booster The brake booster is designed to create a greater braking force from a minimum pedal effort, using a difference in atmospheric pressure and the engine’s manifold vacuum. It increases the pedal force 2 to 4 times depending on the size of the diaphragm. The brake booster is located between the brake pedal and the master cylinder. When pressure is applied to the brake pedal, pressure is exerted on the booster air valve. With pressure created by the booster the master cylinder is applied. Should the booster malfunction, the normal mechanical braking force of the master cylinder is maintained. Construction The brake booster consists of the body, booster piston, piston return spring, reaction mechanism, and control valve mechanism. The body is divided into a constant pressure chamber and a variable pressure chamber. The chambers are separated from each other by a diaphragm. The control valve mechanism regulates the pressure inside the variable pressure chamber. Single Diaphragm Booster The body is divided into a constant pressure chamber and a variable pressure chamber separated from each other by a diaphragm. 42 LEXUS Technical Training Brake Booster Basic Booster The basic principle of the brake booster is pressure differential. When Operation vacuum is applied to both sides of the piston, the piston is pushed to the right by the spring and remains there. Control Valve Closed When vacuum is applied to both sides of the piston, the piston is pushed to the right by the spring. When atmospheric air is allowed into chamber B the piston starts to compress the spring, due to the difference in pressure, and moves to the left. This causes the piston rod to move the piston of the master cylinder, generating hydraulic pressure. Control Valve Open When atmospheric air is allowed into chamber (A), the piston starts to compress the spring due to the difference in pressure. Booster Air Valve In the OFF position, the Air Valve (connected to the Valve Operating Operation Rod) is pulled to the right by the Air Valve Return Spring. The Control Valve is pushed to the left by the Control Valve Spring. This causes the Air Valve to contact the Control Valve. Therefore, the atmospheric air that passes through the air cleaner element is prevented from entering the Variable Pressure Chamber. Section 5 The piston’s Vacuum Valve is separated from the Control Valve in this position, providing an opening between passage A and passage B. Since there is always vacuum in the Constant Pressure Chamber, the opening allows vacuum into the Variable Pressure Chamber. As a result, the piston is pushed to the right by the piston return spring. Booster Air Valve Brakes Not Applied The Vacuum Valve is open allowing vacuum on both sides of the booster piston. In the ON position, when the brake pedal is depressed, the Valve Operating Rod pushes the Air Valve to the left. The Control Valve which is pushed against the Air Valve by the Control Valve Spring, moves to the left until it touches the Vacuum Valve. This blocks off the opening between passage A and passage B (Constant Pressure Chamber (A) and Variable Pressure Chamber (B)). Booster Air Valve Brakes Applied The vacuum valve is closed, cutting off the vacuum source to the variable pressure chamber....

### THE EFFECTS OF A VACUUM BOOSTER ON BRAKE PRESSURE

by moncoZ 0 Comments 13 Viewed 0 Times

The brake pressure that comes out of the master cylinder is a result of “manual brake pressure” and “boosted brake pressure”. “Manual pressure” is the pressure generated by pushing on the brake pedal with out any extra force from the booster. “Boosted brake pressure” is the pressure created by the extra force the booster sends to the master cylinder. In the case of a vacuum booster, this boost is “free pressure”. The engine vacuum pulls 1 or more diaphragms that act on the master cylinder. The larger the diaphragms area the more “free pressure” the booster can provide. For example: A driver applies 100 pounds of force on the brake pedal. The car has a pedal ratio of 7:1 and a 1” bore master cylinder. The car will make 891psi of brake pressure. If the same car were to add a 9” single diaphragm vacuum booster the brake pressure would increase by 899psi with a total brake pressure of 1790psi. The 899psi increase is “free pressure”. The following charts show the “free pressure” each size vacuum booster can provide. 100 pounds with a 7:1 pedal ratio on a 1 1/8” bore with 23” vacuum. Booster size... Note: your results may vary due to differences in the pedal ratio, return spring, pivot bushing resistance, etc. Unlike an engine driven hydraulic pump, there is no power loss using engine vacuum to operate the brake booster. Also, a vacuum booster only uses one hose and does not require any clamps. A hydraulic booster has a high pressure hose that must use a high pressure fitting, and a low pressure hose that has to use hose clamps to prevent fluid leaks.

### Tech Support: Vacuum Brake Booster Testing and Diagnosis

by moncoZ 0 Comments 7 Viewed 0 Times

This procedure will require the use of a hand operated vacuum pump with a vacuum gauge. If you do not own one it can often be rented or borrowed from most “big box” parts stores. (Note: 18”HG is the minimum engine vacuum at idle in gear to effectively operate a vacuum booster 1) Remove vacuum hose from check valve on booster. Place hose from vacuum pump onto check valve and draw booster to 20” of vacuum. 2) Let booster sit with vacuum applied for 5 minutes. If vacuum does not stay steady at 20” it is faulty and needs to be replaced. If vacuum does hold steady at 20” proceed to step 3. 3) With 20” of vacuum in booster depress brake pedal once and release it. The booster should transfer some but not the entire vacuum in reserve. Depending on how hard the pedal is depressed it is normal to see 5-10” of vacuum depleted from reserve. The most important thing is to ensure the booster does transfer vacuum but does NOT transfer the entire vacuum in its reserve. If vacuum remains at 20” OR goes to zero the booster is bad and will need to be replaced. If vacuum transfer is within the above parameter proceed to step 4. 4) Once again draw booster down to 20” of vacuum. Go inside car and depress brake pedal and hold down for 30 seconds. You should see the gauge drop slightly and then hold steady. Vacuum should stay steady as long as you are holding the pedal down. If vacuum drops while pedal is being held down the booster is faulty and will need to be replaced...

### Dual Rate (DR) Vacuum Brake Booster - TRW

by moncoZ 0 Comments 7 Viewed 0 Times

The Dual Rate vacuum system is similar to conventional systems in operation. The main difference from the standard booster is that the effective area of the Dual Rate device is divided into two parts. This effects the required area change during actuation. Dual Rate The system design leads to two slope changes in the control area of the characteristic curve (shown in the middle chart at right). This is an advantage, since this gives the driver a progressive pedal feel in an emergency. When loaded to a given point (stress increase in the reaction disc) the outer ring (DR-Sleeve) is displaced relative to the core area of the ratio disc. The start of the relative movement is determined by the pre-load force of the Dual Rate spring. This force can be set to match customer requirements. The first knee point should occur at about 35 to 40 bar of master cylinder pressure. The second knee point occurs when the external pressure area, which is determined by the Dual Rate sleeve, abuts the carrier step of the valve body. This point on the pressure or effective area, originally determined by the ratio disc alone, extends into the external annular area of the valve body (servo area) and becomes virtually an integral part of the vacuum piston. The actual boost ratio of the Dual Rate now takes effect. The characteristic curve remains at this boost ratio right up to the power run-out knee point. The distance between these two points is determined by the gap between the DR-Sleeve and valve body and the rate of the DR-spring. The smaller the gap the lower the spring rate the closer the two knee points. The above description applies to the standard boost curve test, with a pressure build rate of 20 ± 10 bar/s. The properties of the Dual Rate curve can only be fully displayed at this actuation speed. Fast actuation shifts the curve to the right, i.e. pressure lag occurs also in this case. The ratio change is then less noticeable. www.trwauto.com ...

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