Found 2017 related files. Current in page 10
quilibrium of Rigid Bodies – 2D • For a rigid body in static equilibrium, the external forces and moments are balanced and will impart no translational or rotational motion to the body. • The necessary and sufficient condition for the static equilibrium of a body are that the resultant force and couple from all external forces form a system equivalent to zero, r r r r ∑ F = 0 ∑ M O = ∑ (r × F ) = 0 • Resolving each force and moment into its rectangular components leads to 6 scalar equations which also express the conditions for static equilibrium, ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ Fz = 0 ∑Mx = 0 ∑M y = 0 ∑Mz = 0 4-1 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Free-Body Diagram First step in the static equilibrium analysis of a rigid body is identification of all forces acting on the body with a free-body diagram. • Select the extent of the free-body and detach it from the ground and all other bodies. • Indicate point of application, magnitude, and direction of external forces, including the rigid body weight. • Indicate point of application and assumed direction of unknown applied forces. These usually consist of reactions through which the ground and other bodies oppose the possible motion of the rigid body. • Include the dimensions necessary to compute the moments of the forces. 4-2 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Two Dimensions • For all forces and moments acting on a twodimensional structure, Fz = 0 M x = M y = 0 M z = M O • Equations of equilibrium become ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ M A = 0 where A is any point in the plane of the structure. • The 3 equations can be solved for no more than 3 unknowns. • The 3 equations can not be augmented with additional equations, but they can be replaced ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ M A = 0 ∑ M B = 0 4-3 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Free Body Diagram - 2D • Create a free-body diagram 4-4 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Free Body Diagram – 2D • Create a free-body diagram for the frame and cable. 4-5
This exam tests the material usually taught in a one-semester course in managerial accounting. It focuses on the information that managers need to make decisions and the types of analyses appropriate to each decision. Topics range from cash flow and financial statement analysis to long-term capital budget decisions. (3 s.h.) This is a two-hour examination in which you must answer 100 multiple-choice questions worth 1 point each. You may bring and use a nonprogrammable calculator. A passing score is 60 out of 100 points. Here are the topics covered and their approximate importance on the test: STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS; FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS(15%) A. Purpose and usefulness of statement of cash flows B. Computation of cash flows from operating activities using direct and indirect methods C. Computation of cash flows from investing and financing activities D. Uses of dollar and percentage changes; trend percentages; component percentages; ratios E. Computation of ratios widely used in financial statement analysis and significance of each II. GLOBAL BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING; MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING; ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS FOR MEASURING COSTS (30%) A.Mechanisms companies use to globalize their business activities B.Effect of global forces (political, legal, economic, cultural, technological) on accounting practices C.Currency conversion D.Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: effect on accounting practice E.Basic types of manufacturing costs; manufacturing inventory transactions; schedules F.Basic cost accounting methods; computation of overhead application rates for job order costing G.Accounting for flow of costs under job order costing and process costing H.Overhead-related activity cost pools I.Calculation of equivalent units of production III. COSTING AND THE VALUE CHAIN; COST-VOLUME-PROFIT ANALYSIS; INCREMENT ANALYSIS (20%) A.Basic components of the value chain B.Non-value added and value-added activities C.Relationship of activity-based management to activity-based costing D.Nature and goals of a just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing system E.Effect of fixed, variable, semivariable costs response to changes on volume of business activity and sales volume F.Effect of economies of scale on unit costs G.Calculation of contribution margin and contribution margin ratio; effect on changes in sales volume and operating income H.The high-low method I.Opportunity costs; sunk costs; out-of-pocket costs and their effect on business decisions J.Incremental analysis
BPMN stands for Business Process Modeling Notation. It is the new standard for modeling business processes and web service processes, as put forth by the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI – www.BPMI.org). BPMN is a core enabler of a new initiative in the Enterprise Architecture world called Business Process Management (BPM). Business Process Management is concerned with managing change to improve business processes. BPMN consists of one diagram – called the Business Process Diagram (BPD). The BPMN Business Process Diagram has been designed to be easy to use and understand, but also provides the ability to model complex business processes. It has also been designed specifically with web services in mind. BPMN is only one of three specifications that the BPMI has developed – the other two are a Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) and a Business Process Query Language (BPQL). All have been developed using a solid mathematical foundation, which enables a BPMN Business Process Diagram to map directly to BPML, in the same way that a physical data model maps directly to Data Definition Language (DDL). There are competing standards to BPML, chief among them is the Business Process Execution Language For Web Services (BPEL4WS) created in a joint venture by BEA, IBM, Microsoft, and others. However, BPMI has created BPMN so that it maps readily to any business process execution language. Business Process Execution Languages themselves are run, controlled, and orchestrated on a Business Process Management System (BPMS). OASIS (www.oasis-open.org) is a not-for-profit, global consortium that drives the development, convergence and adoption of e-business standards. Both BPEL4WS and BPMI’s BPML have been submitted to OASIS to become a business process execution language standard. OASIS has created a subcommittee to decide upon a standard; the outcome of this committee is called Web Services – Business Execution Language (WS-BPEL). The OASIS WS-BPEL requires the development of new BPMS technologies as well. BPMN provides a number of advantages to modeling business processes over the Unified Modeling Language (UML). First, it offers a process flow modeling technique that is more conducive to the way business analysts model. Second, its solid mathematical foundation is expressly designed to map to business execution languages, whereas UML is not. BPMN can map to UML, and provide a solid business modeling front end to systems design with UML.
The research work of Wil van der Aalst, Arthur ter Hofstede, Bartek Kiepuszewski, and Alistair Barros has resulted in the identification of 21 patterns that describe the behavior of business processes. This paper reviews how two graphical process modeling notations, tShe BPMN Business Process Diagram from the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI), and the UML 2.0 Activity Diagram from the Object Management Group (OMG), can represent the workflow patterns. The solutions of the two notations are compared for technical ability to represent the patterns as well as their readability. The research work of Wil van der Aalst, Arthur ter Hofstede, Bartek Kiepuszewski, and Alistair Barros has resulted in the identification of 21 patterns that describe the behavior of business processes. The rationale for the development of the patterns was to describe the potential capabilities that a workflow server may have during the performance of business processes. The patterns range from very simple to very complex and cover the behaviors that can be captured within most business process models. The researchers have developed a web site1 that contains descriptions and examples of these patterns, plus supporting papers and evaluations of how workflow products support the patterns. The purpose of this paper is to examine how two modeling notations, the BPMN Business Process Diagram from BPMI, and the UML 2.0 Activity Diagram from the OMG, can graphically represent the workflow patterns. For each of pattern, there will be a comparison of the two notations about how well they handled the pattern. The focus of the comparison will be both technical and how visually intuitive each notation represents the pattern.
Lane is the default branch to be chosen if all other conditions evaluate to false. has a condition assigned that defines whether or not the flow is used. Exclusive Event-based Gateway (instantiate) Each occurrence of a subsequent event starts a new process instance. Complex Gateway Complex merging and branching behavior that is not captured by other gateways. Parallel Event-based Gateway (instantiate) The occurrence of all subsequent events starts a new process instance… Parallel Multiple: Catching all out of a set of parallel events. Terminate: Triggering the immediate termination of a process… Pools (Participants) and Lanes represent responsibilities for activities in a process. A pool or a lane can be an organization, a role, or a system. Lanes subdivide pools or other lanes hierarchically. Message Flow symbolizes information flow across organizational boundaries. Message flow can be attached to pools, activities, or message events. The Message Flow can be decorated with an envelope depicting the content of the message. A Collection Data Object represents a collection of information, e.g., a list of order items. Input A Data Input is an external input for the entire process.A kind of input parameter. Output A Data Output is data result of the entire process. A kind of output parameter. A Data Association is used to associate data elements to Activities, Processes and Global Tasks. The order of message exchanges can be specified by combining message flow and sequence flow. Data Store © 2011 A Data Store is a place where the process can read or write data, e.g., a database or a filing cabinet. It persists beyond the lifetime of the process instance.
This section introduces the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), developed under the coordination of the Object Management Group. Version 2 of this international standard introduces a series of modiﬁcations, including a new extension of the acronym. BPMN used to stand for Business Process Modeling Notation. In Version 2, the standard also deﬁnes a meta-model, so that Business Process Meta Model and Notation would have been a valid choice. Unfortunately, the term meta was dropped, resulting in the rather imprecise oﬃcial extension we now see in this section’s heading. In the remainder of this book, we will mostly use the acronym. The intent of the BPMN for business process modelling is very similar to the intent of the Uniﬁed Modeling Language for object-oriented design and analysis. To identify the best practices of existing approaches and to combine them into a new, widely accepted language. The set of ancestors of BPMN includes graph-based and Petri-net-based process modelling languages, such as UML activity diagrams and event-driven process chains. While these modelling languages focus on diﬀerent levels of abstraction, ranging from a business level to a more technical level, the BPMN aims at supporting the complete range of abstraction levels, from a business level to a technical implementation level. This goal is also laid out in the standards document, which states that “The primary goal of BPMN is to provide a notation that is readily understandable by all business users, from the business analysts that create the initial drafts of the processes, to the technical developers responsible for implementing the technology that will perform those processes, and ﬁnally, to the business people who will manage and monitor those processes. Thus, BPMN creates a standardized bridge for the gap between the business process design and process implementation.” The BPMN deﬁnes several diagram types for specifying both process orchestrations and process choreographies. Since this chapter focuses on orchestrations, only business process diagrams and collaboration diagrams are discussed in this section. Diagram types regarding process choreographies, that is, conversation diagrams and choreography diagrams, will be discussed in the next chapter. To classify the level of support that a particular BPMN software tool provides, the standard introduces so called conformance classes.
Today, analysis and design of business processes are the major tasks of business engineering [Scheer (1994), Österle (1997), Hammer et al. (1993), Davenport (1993)]. In research as well as in practice, the Architecture of integrated Information Systems (ARIS) [Scheer (1992)] is accepted as a standard framework for business process (re-)engineering. It supports the whole process management life cycle consisting of process design, process management, process workflow and process application implementation [Scheer (1996)]. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) [Rational Software (editor) (1997)] is a common standard for object-oriented modeling. The UML is derived of a shared set of commonly accepted concepts which have successfully been proven in the modeling of large and complex systems, especially software systems. With the UML extension for business modeling, a first object-oriented UML terminology has been defined for the domain of business modeling. ARIS as well as UML are based on integrated meta models supported by several modeling tools. The core business modeling concepts of both methodologies will first be introduced and compared afterwards. The method of Event-driven Process Chains (EPC) [Keller et al. (1992), Nüttgens (1997)] has been developed within the framework of ARIS in order to model business processes. In the EPC model, a process consists of sequences of events triggering business functions, which are themselves the results of other functions apart from initial events triggering the whole process. By introducing boolean operators (''and'', ''or'', ''exclusive or''), the event-driven control structure can be expanded to a complex control flow illustrating business relevant decisions. This basic model of the EPC can be extended by further semantic components of description. The illustration of data flows, responsibility of organization units and the use of IT systems are examples for such an extension (see figure 1). Furthermore, on the basis of formal descriptions of the EPC method, tool-supported concepts for analysis and simulation are being developed. The approach of Langner/Schneider/Wehler [Langner et al. (1997)] aims at the translation of EPC models into petri networks and at the algorithmic verification of the resulting networks. In contrast to this, the approaches of Rump [Rump (1997)] and of Keller/Teufel [Keller and Teufel (1997)] are based on a formal description of the EPC.
Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is a graphical notation that describes the logic of steps in a business process. This notation has been especially designed to coordinate the sequence of processes and messages that flow between participants in different activities. Why is it important to model with BPMN? • BPMN is an internationally accepted process modeling standard. • BPMN is independent of any process modeling methodology. • BPMN creates a standardized bridge which reduces the gap between business processes and their implementation. • BPMN enables you to model processes in a unified and standardized way so that everyone in an organization can understand each other. Introduction to BPMN The Business Process Modeling Notation - BPMN – provides a common language which allows all the parties involved to communicate processes clearly, completely and efficiently. In this way, BPMN defines the notation and semantics of a Business Process Diagram (BPD). BPD is a diagram based on the ‘Flowchart’ technique, designed to present a graphical sequence of all the activities that take place during a process. It also includes all relative information for making an analysis. BPD is a diagram designed for the use of process analysts who design, control and manage processes. In a BPD diagram there are a series of graphical elements that are grouped into categories. To introduce BPMN, the reader will find throughout this document a series of examples revolving around a Consumer Credit Application process. A Credit Application process begins with the recording of the application where the client expresses an interest in acquiring credit. This stage includes the presentation of the application, and the required documents to the organization for verification. This is followed by an analysis or study of the credit application and finally we find the activities needed to either disburse the credit or to notify the client in case of rejection.
Front Liner •• Accurately & completely lines the interior carpet •• High-Density Tri-Extruded material allows for a rigid core for strength while offering surface friction to the carpet, as well as tactile feel to the surface •• Advanced surfacing creates channels that carry fluid & debris to a lower reservoir with further channeling to help minimize fluid movement while driving FRONT OVER-THE-HUMP LINERS CHEVY/GMC 07-13 Silverado 07-13 Silverado/Sierra Reg Cab DODGE 09-12 Ram Quad Cab FORD 10.5-13 F-150 11-13 F-250/F-350 Super Duty 08-10 F-250/F-350 Super Duty 442941 443711 Digital laser measurements of interior surfaces offer a consistently perfect fit! Cargo Liner 443281 442951 443291 442931 2 nd Row Liner **All Part Numbers are for BLACK ONLY. Tan = 45XXXX • Grey = 46XXXX BUICK 08-13 Enclave (2nd Row Bucket Only) Cargo behind 2nd Row Seats CHEVY/GMC 07-13 Silverado/Sierra Crew Cab 07-13 Silverado/Sierra Ext. Cab 07-13 Silverado/Sierra Regular Cab 04-06 Silverado/Sierra 1500 Crew Cab (Does Not Fit Reg. Cab, Chassis Cab, 4x4 Manual Xfer Case) 04-06 Silverado/Sierra 2500/3500 HD Crew Cab (Does Not Fit Reg. Cab, Chassis Cab, 4x4 Manual Xfer Case) 99-06 Silverado/Sierra Ext. Cab (Does Not Fit Reg. Cab, Chassis Cab, 4x4 Manual Xfer Case) 99-06 Silverado/Sierra Reg. Cab (Not 4x4 Manual Xfer Case) 04-13 Colorado/Canyon Crew Cab (Not Manual Transmission) 07-13 Suburban/Yukon XL (Cargo Liner Fits Behind 3rd Seat) 07-13 Tahoe/Yukon (Cargo w/o 3rd Row Seats) 08-13 Traverse/Outlook/Acadia (2nd Row Buckets) (Cargo Behind 2nd Row Seats) 2007 Acadia/Outlook (2nd Row Bucket Only) (Cargo Behind 2nd Row Seats) 10-13 Equinox 02-09 Trailblazer/Envoy 11-13 Cruze DODGE/RAM 12-13 Ram 1500 Crew Cab (Fits models equipped with Driver and Passenger-Side Floor Hooks) 09-12 Ram 1500 Crew Cab 09-12 Ram 1500 Quad Cab 09-12 Ram 1500 Regular Cab 10-12 Ram 2500 Crew Cab/Mega Cab 10-12 Ram 2500 Regular Cab 03-09 Ram Quad Cab (2WD) (09 2500 Only) 03-09 Ram Quad Cab (4WD) (09 2500 Only) 06-09 Ram Mega Cab (4WD) (09 2500 Only) 05-11 Dakota Club Cab 05-11 Dakota Quad Cab 2013 Durango (Cargo Behind 2nd Row Seat) 11-12 Durango (Cargo Behind 3rd Row Seat) FORD 10-13 F-150 Ext./Crew Cab w/ Dual Floor Post 09-13 F-150 Crew Cab (One Retention Device) 09-13 F-150 Ext. Cab w/o Flow Through Console (One Retention Device) 04-08 F-150 Reg. Cab (Not Heritage) 04-08 F-150 Ext. Cab (Not Heritage) 04-08 F-150 Crew (Not Heritage)
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) Table A–1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties Table A–2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases Table A–3 Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods Table A–4 Saturated water—Temperature table Table A–5 Saturated water—Pressure table Table A–6 Superheated water Table A–7 Compressed liquid water Table A–8 Saturated ice–water vapor Figure A–9 T-s diagram for water Figure A–10 Mollier diagram for water Table A–11 Saturated refrigerant-134a— Temperature table Table A–12 Saturated refrigerant-134a— Pressure table Table A–13 Superheated refrigerant-134a Figure A–14 P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a Figure A–15 Nelson–Obert generalized compressibility chart Table A–16 Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude Table A–17 Ideal-gas properties of air Table A–18 Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 Table A–19 Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 Table A–20 Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 Table A–21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO Table A–22 Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2 Table A–23 Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O Table A–24 Ideal-gas properties of monatomic oxygen, O Table A–25 Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH Table A–26 Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at 25°C, 1 atm Table A–27 Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons Table A–28 Natural logarithms of the equilibrium constant Kp Figure A–29 Generalized enthalpy departure chart Figure A–30 Generalized entropy departure chart Figure A–31 Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure Table A–32 One-dimensional isentropic compressible-flow functions for an ideal gas with k ϭ 1.4 Table A–33 One-dimensional normal-shock functions for an ideal gas with k ϭ 1.4 Table A–34 Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal gas with k ϭ 1.4