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Fuel Injection Technology Trends

Edwin A. Rivera Delphi Powertrain Systems John E. Kirwan Delphi Powertrain Systems February 25, 2014 Green Legislation Fuels Innovation & Growth Global regulations are becoming more stringent  Regulation Trends  More Stringent standards driving innovation di i i ti  EPA 2025 proj.: 54.5 mpg  NHTSA Fleet avg:  2021: 40.3 – 41.0 mpg pg  2025: 48.7 – 49.6 mpg 120 Worldw wide Light Duty Vehicles V (Millions)  GDi E i Engines  Projected to be the fastest growing market segment over the next 10 years  Will become the dominant internal combustion engine Fuel Cell & Electric Alternative Fuels 100 Diesel 80 GDi Gasoline 60 GDi Hybrid PFI Hybrid 40 20 0 PFI Gasoline Source: IHS Feb 2013 2010 2 Diesel Hybrid 2013 Fuel Injection Technology Trends – Feb. 25, 2014 2016 2019 2022 2025 New Challenge for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines Particulate Emissions Light Duty PM 25 Chart from: 20 PM (mg/mile) CA / US OBD Threshold 15 10 LEV III 1 mg/mi Phase in 0.75 mg/mile difference Threshold = 1.75X standard 7.5 mg/mile difference Threshold = 1.75X Standard CA LEV / US Emission Standard 2.25 mg/mile difference Threshold = 1.75X Standard 5 LEV III (& US Tier 3 Expected) 3 mg/mi Phase in 0 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 2025 Fuel injection technology performance relative to particulate emission standards LEVIII and EURO6c: d EURO6...

Installation Schematic - Hilborn Fuel Injection

INSTRUCTIONS: NOZZLES SET-UP RECOMMENDATION 1. The main line from the pump to the metering valve connects to the fitting at the top of the metering valve. 2. The Secondary By-Pass Valve connects to the brass fitting opposite the throttle arm on the side of the metering valve. There are no jets to change in this valve. 3. The Hi Speed By-Pass (Cut Off) Valve (not on all units) connects to a pump outlet and returns the fuel to the tank. Each change in the main jet size should be accompanied by a change in the spacers as follows: • For every .005 richer on the main by pass jet, add a 1/32" spacer. • For every .005 leaner on the main by pass jet, remove a 1/32" spacer. FUEL INJECTION ENGR. CO. INC., 22892 GLENWOOD DR., ALISO VIEJO, CA 92656 • PH (949)360-0909 • FAX (949)360-0991 • #101

AAT001-10E TMR Sensor Datasheet - NVE Corporation

Data Sheet AAT001-10E TMR Angle Sensor Key Features • Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR) Technology • Very High Output Signal Without Amplification • Wide Airgap Tolerance • Very High Resistance for Extremely Low Power • Sine and Cosine Outputs for Direction Detection • Ultraminiature TDFN6 Package Typical Applications • Rotary Encoders • Batttery-Powered Rotary Position Sensors • Motor Shaft Position Sensors Description The AAT001-10E angle sensor is a low power, high output magnetic sensor element able to provide rotational position measurements when a rotating magnetic field is applied to the sensor. Sine and cosine signals are available for a quadrature output. The sensor element has a resistance of approximately 1.25 MΩ and can be operated at typical battery voltages to conserve power. Outputs are proportional to the supply voltage and peak-to-peak output voltages are much larger than other sensor technologies. The part is packaged in NVE’s 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm x 0.8 mm TDFN6 surface-mount package. Operation Each of the four sensor elements contains two magnetic layers: a “pinned,” or fixed direction layer; and a movable-direction, or “free” layer. The diagram below illustrates the configuration, using arrows to represent the magnetic orientation of the layers:...

MQ-2 Datasheet - Seeed Studio
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FEATURES Wide detecting scope Fast response and High sensitivity Stable and long life Simple drive circuit APPLICATION They are used in gas leakage detecting equipments in family and industry, are suitable for detecting of LPG, i-butane, propane, methane ,alcohol, Hydrogen, smoke. SPECIFICATIONS A. Standard work condition Symbol Vc VH RL RH PH Parameter name Circuit voltage Heating voltage Load resistance Heater resistance Heating consumption Technical condition 5V±0.1 5V±0.1 can adjust 33Ω±5% less than 800mw Remarks AC OR DC ACOR DC Technical condition -20℃-50℃ -20℃-70℃ less than 95%Rh 21%(standard condition)Oxygen concentration can affect sensitivity Remarks Room Tem B. Environment condition Symbol Tao Tas RH O2 Parameter name Using Tem Storage Tem Related humidity Oxygen concentration minimum value is over 2% C. Sensitivity characteristic Symbol Rs Parameter name Sensing Resistance α (3000/1000) isobutane Standard Detecting Condition Preheat time Technical parameter 3KΩ-30KΩ (1000ppm iso-butane ) Concentration Slope rate ≤0.6 Temp: 20℃±2℃ Humidity: 65%±5% Vc:5V±0.1 Vh: 5V±0.1 Over 24 hour Remarks Detecting concentration scope: 200ppm-5000ppm LPG and propane 300ppm-5000ppm butane 5000ppm-20000ppm methane 300ppm-5000ppm H2 100ppm-2000ppm Alcohol D. Structure and configuration, basic measuring circuit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Parts Gas sensing layer Electrode Electrode line Heater coil Tubular ceramic Anti-explosion network Clamp ring Resin base Tube Pin Materials SnO2 Au Pt Ni-Cr alloy Al2O3 Stainless steel gauze (SUS316 100-mesh) Copper plating Ni Bakelite Copper plating Ni Fig.2 Fig. 1 Configuration A Configuration B A向 A向 Structure and configuration of MQ-2 gas sensor is shown as Fig. 1 (Configuration A or B), sensor composed by micro AL2O3 ceramic tube, Tin Dioxide (SnO2) sensitive layer, measuring electrode and heater are fixed into a TEL: 86-371- 67169070 67169080 FAX: 86-371-67169090 E-mail:

MQ-2 Datasheet - Pololu
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MQ-2 Semiconductor Sensor for Combustible Gas Sensitive material of MQ-2 gas sensor is SnO2, which with lower conductivity in clean air. When the target combustible gas exist, The sensor’s conductivity is more higher along with the gas concentration rising. Please use simple electrocircuit, Convert change of conductivity to correspond output signal of gas concentration. MQ-2 gas sensor has high sensitity to LPG, Propane and Hydrogen, also could be used to Methane and other combustible steam, it is with low cost and suitable for different application. Character Configuration *Good sensitivity to Combustible gas in wide range * High sensitivity to LPG, Propane and Hydrogen * Long life and low cost * Simple drive circuit Application * Domestic gas leakage detector * Industrial Combustible gas detector * Portable gas detector Technical Data Basic test loop T Model No. MQ-2 Sensor Type Semiconductor Standard Encapsulation Bakelite (Black Bakelite) Detection Gas Combustible gas and smoke VRL 300-10000ppm Concentration Vc Heater Voltage VH 5.0V±0.2V ACorDC RL Adjustable Load Resistance Heater Resistance Heater consumption Character Sensing Resistance RH DC GND The above is basic test circuit of the sensor. 31Ω±3Ω(Room Tem.) heater voltage (VH) and test voltage (VC) . VH used to supply certified working PH ≤900mW temperature to the sensor, while VC used to detect voltage (VRL) on load resistance Rs 2KΩ-20KΩ(in 2000ppm C3H8 ) (RL)whom is in series with sensor. The sensor has light polarity, Vc need DC...

GP2D12 Data - Sharp Microelectronics of the Americas

GP2D12 Optoelectronic Device FEATURES • Analog output • Effective Range: 10 to 80 cm • LED pulse cycle duration: 32 ms 1 2 3 • Typical response time: 39 ms • Typical start up delay: 44 ms • Average current consumption: 33 mA PIN SIGNAL NAME • Detection area diameter @ 80 cm: 6 cm 1 VO DESCRIPTION 2 GND The GP2D12 is a distance measuring sensor with integrated signal processing and analog voltage output. 3 VCC GP2D12-8 Figure 1. Pinout VCC GND PSD SIGNAL PROCESSING CIRCUIT VOLTAGE REGULATOR OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT LED DRIVE CIRCUIT OUTPUT CIRCUIT LED VO DISTANCE MEASURING IC GP2D12-4 Figure 2. Block Diagram 1 Data Sheet GP2D12 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Absolute Maximum Ratings Ta = 25°C, VCC = 5 VDC PARAMETER SYMBOL RATING UNIT Supply Voltage VCC -0.3 to +7.0 V Output Terminal Voltage VO -0.3 to (VCC + 0.3) V Operating Temperature Topr -10 to +60 °C Storage Temperature Tstg -40 to +70 °C Operating Supply Voltage PARAMETER SYMBOL RATING UNIT Operating Supply Voltage VCC 4.5 to 5.5 V Electro-optical Characteristics Ta = 25°C, VCC = 5 VDC PARAMETER SYMBOL Measuring Distance Range ΔL Output Voltage VO CONDITIONS MIN. TYP. MAX. UNIT NOTES 10 80 cm 1, 2 0.25 L = 80 cm 0.4 0.55 V 1, 2 Output Voltage Difference ΔVO Output change at L change 1.75 (80 cm - 10 cm) 2.0 2.25 V 1, 2 Average Supply Current ICC L = 80 cm 33 50 mA 1, 2 - NOTES: 1. Measurements made with Kodak R-27 Gray Card, using the white side, (90% reflectivity). 2. L = Distance to reflective object. VCC (POWER SUPPLY) 38.3 ms ±9.6 ms DISTANCE MEASURMENT OPERATING 1st MEASUREMENT 2nd MEASUREMENT nth MEASUREMENT VO (OUTPUT) UNSTABLE OUTPUT 1st OUTPUT 2nd OUTPUT nth OUTPUT 5.0 ms MAX. GP2D12-5 Figure 3. Timing Diagram 2 Data Sheet GP2D12 RELIABILITY The reliability of requirements of this device are listed in Table 1. Table 1. Reliability TEST ITEMS TEST CONDITIONS FAILURE JUDGEMENT CRITERIA SAMPLES (n), DEFECTIVE (C) Temperature Cycling One cycle -40°C (30 min.) to +70°C in 30 minutes, repeated 25 times n = 11, C = 0 High Temperature and High Humidity Storage +40°C, 90% RH, 500h n = 11, C = 0 High Temperature Storage +70°C, 500h n = 11, C = 0 Low Temperature Storage -40°C, 500h Operational Life (High Temperature) +60°C, VCC = 5 V, 500h Mechanical Shock 100 m / s2, 6.0 ms 3 times / ±X, ±Y, ±Z direction n = 6, C = 0 Variable Frequency Vibration 10-to-55-to-10 Hz i n 1 minute Amplitude: 1.5 mm 2 h i n e a c h X, Y, Z direction n = 6, C = 0 Initial × 0.8 > VO VO > Initial × 1.2 n = 11, C = 0 n = 11, C = 0 NOTES: 1. Test conditions are according to Electro-optical Characteristics, shown on page 2. 2. At completion of the test, allow device to remain at nominal room temperature and humidity (non-condensing) for two hours. 3. Confidence level: 90%, Lot Tolerance Percent Defect (LTPD): 20% / 40%. MANUFACTURER’S INSPECTION Inspection Lot Inspection shall be carried out per each delivery lot. Inspection Method A single sampling plan, normal inspection level II based on ISO 2859 shall be adopted. Table 2. Quality Level DEFECT INSPECTION ITEM and TEST METHOD AQL (%) Major Defect Electro-optical characteristics defect 0.4 Minor Defect Defect to appearance or dimensions (crack, split, chip, scratch, stain)* 1.0 NOTE: *Any one of these that affects the Electro-optical Characteristics shall be considered a defect.

Wedding rings for men & women
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Find the perfect set of men and women wedding & Engagement Rings for your beloved at Goldia. Our wide selections of bands are available in variety of metals like platinum, white, gold and other traditional metals.

IBM Java 7 and WAS v8.5: Features and benefits - WebSphere User ...

IBM's statements regarding its plans, directions, and intent are subject to change or withdrawal at IBM's sole discretion. Information regarding potential future products is intended to outline our general product direction and it should not be relied on in making a purchasing decision. The information mentioned regarding potential future products is not a commitment, promise, or legal obligation to deliver any material, code or functionality. Information about potential future products may not be incorporated into any contract. The development, release, and timing of any future features or functionality described for our products remains at our sole discretion. Performance is based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput or performance that any user will experience will vary depending upon many factors, including considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user's job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed. Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve results similar to those stated here. © 2013 International Business Machines Corporation

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Inside Java 7.pdf - IBM
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© 2011 IBM Corporation Agenda – Inside IBM Java 7 High level goals for Java 7 Base feature details – JSR 334 – Small language enhancements (Project Coin) – JSR 203 – More new I/O APIs for the Java platform (NIO.2) – JSR 292 – invokedynamic – JSR 166y – concurrency and collections updates Smaller features (TLS 1.2, UNICODE 6.0...) IBM feature details – Performance & platform exploitation – z196, POWER 7, ... – Garbage Collector updates & new policy - “balanced” – Technology Evaluation: WebSphere Real Time – Serviceability improvements & Tools overview Questions? © 2011 IBM Corporation What is Java 7? The themes Major Java platform release, touching on all aspects of the language and JVM From the draft JSR document (*), the goals: – Compatibility - “Any program running on a previous release of the platform must also run unchanged on an implementation of Java SE 7” – Productivity - “...promote best coding practices and reduce boilerplate... minimal learning curve...” – Performance - “ concurrency APIs... enable I/O-intensive applications by introducing a true asynchronous I/O API..” – Universality - “...accelerate the performance of dynamic languages on the Java Virtual Machine.” – Integration - “Java SE 7 will include a new, flexible filesystem API as part of JSR 203...” (*) Available from © 2011 IBM Corporation New Language Constructs – project “coin” It's a “bunch of small change(s)” Strings in switch switch(myString) { case “one”: ; break; case “red”: ; break; default: ; } Improved Type Inference for Generic Instance Creation (diamond) Map foo = new Map(); Becomes Map foo = new Map<>(); © 2011 IBM Corporation...

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Grinders - Tanner Bolt and Nut
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tool down when the brushes need replacing, to avoid tool damage. It even has matching wheel flanges to attach and exchange many common accessories. 4-1/2” Small Angle Grinder The DEWALT 4-1/2” Small Angle Grinder is designed with a Quick-Change wheel release for wrench-free wheel removal. Its lowerprofile gear case gives you precise gearing alignment for a smooth, quiet transmission while still allowing access to tight spaces. Other features include a dust ejection system, a one-piece brush arm, keyless adjustable guard, and a vibration-reducing side handle. The auto-off brushes shut the D28115 4-1/2"/5" High Performance Grinder w/Trigger Grip The DEWALT D28115 Grinder comes equipped with the Dust Ejection System that provides increased durability by ejecting damaging dust and debris particles that enter the tool through the air intake vents, keeping the dust and debris away from the motor. The grinder has a Quick-Change wheel release that provides quick and easy tool free wheel removal. DEWALT has increased the comfort of the tool with a vibration reducing two-position side handle that provides user comfort and reduces user-felt vibration. A jam-pot, ...