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metode stage dalam pembelajaran matematika

scirj-The Demonstration of Larval Polytene Chromosomes of Anopheles Gambiae

Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were found in large numbers in the open ground pools at Rayfield, Jos and a few from along the stream edges formed by some pool. Within the pool mixed populations of both culicine and Anopheline larvae were found. A total of four hundred and ninety-seven Anopheline larvae were brought into the insectary from the wild. Four hundred and forty-four were reared to adult stage successfully. Fifty were fixed for dissection and three died. Laboratory colonization of the Anopheles gambie failed due to, among other factors, that they could not blood feed. Consequently only the salivary gland polytene chromosome squashes of wild caught larvae were examined. Dissections of the salivary gland of the Anopheles yielded chromosomes which spread successfully as expected. A Least Significance Difference test (LSD) showed a highly significant interaction between seasons and sites.

Lakukan Sendiri Aplikasi Peredam Suara pada CPU Komputer

CPU komputer terdengar bising bukan lagi hal yang perlu dikhawatirkan. Sekarang, komputer beserta komponennya terdengar bising sudah menjadi hal yang umum kita temukan. Namun, bukan berarti hal itu tidak dapat dihindari. Suara CPU komputer yang mengganggu umumnya disebabkan oleh komponen-komponen yang bergerak. Mulai dari kipas yang paling sering menjadi biang keladi bisingnya komputer sampai perangkat optikal, seperti CD ROM dan floppy disk. Semua aspek itu memang sangat berpotensial menimbulkan bunyi karena memang dalam pengoperasiannya ada komponen yang bergerak.

Android (Google phone) Installation Guide - Skyscape

These instructions assume that you’ve just gotten your new Android device. 1. Open the browser and enter the reader URL You will be using the browser on your phone to download the Skyscape reader as the first step. Launch the Browser, then use the Menu button to bring up the menu. Choose “Go”. Enter the url http://www.skyscape.com/reader in the address entry. You will see a login screen for My Skyscape. If you have an existing Skyscape account, put in the email address for that account and your password. If you need to create an account you can do it here to, as well as ask us to email your password in case you’ve forgotten it. 2. Download the reader package Now the reader package will be download from the Skyscape server to your device. If the connection is slow, you may see a re-direct screen. Normally, the package will just get downloaded and you’ll see it on your list. 3. Install the reader Select the downloaded package Skyscape.apk, and proceed to install the reader. 4. Open the installed reader and download your free resources Now you will agree to the license terms for Skyscape and proceed to install your free resources. You need to enter your account credentials to register and download these free resources. Once your account information is entered into the reader at this stage, you won’t need to do it again. You can choose what to download using the checkboxes, and proceed. Now your basic reader installation is complete. The Home tab shows your installed resources. Universe is a catalog of Skyscape resources. STAT is where you see MedAlert messages. Tools has facilities for installation, updates etc. Next, you’ll install resources with serial numbers. Usually these are items you have purchased, but they may also be things you’ve been given free – any Skyscape resource for which you have a serial number is installed using this method. Installing resources with Serial Numbers 5. Go to the Tools tab Select the Tools tab, then Install New Resource. Enter your serial number.

Tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging classification for ... - SAPYCC

The tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system for breast cancer is an internationally accepted system used to determine the disease stage. This disease stage is a measure of the extent of disease, which is used to guide management and determine prognosis. The 7th edition of the TNM staging system and the evidence supporting it are described here (table 1). The 6th edition of the TNM staging system is included for comparison (table 2). The initial evaluation, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of breast cancer are reviewed elsewhere. (See "An overview of breast cancer and treatment for early stage disease" and "Initial staging work-up for women with a diagnosis of breast cancer" and "Clinical decisions in systemic adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer".) TNM STAGING SYSTEM — The tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system for breast cancer is based upon a retrospective analysis of survival in diverse samples of patients representing all stages of disease. It reflects the clinical evaluation methods and treatments that are applied to the particular study population. Periodic revisions are necessary because advanced imaging techniques and treatments evolve and impact survival. The 7th edition of the TNM staging system is the most recent version (table 1) [1]. It replaces the 6th edition of the TNM staging system (table 2) [2]. REVISIONS IN BREAST CANCER STAGING — Observed survival rates for 211,645 breast cancer cases diagnosed in years 2001-2002 and entered into the National Cancer Data Base (Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society) were used to reevaluate the prognostic value of the TNM descriptors.

Purposes and Principles of Cancer Staging - Sutter Medical ...

The extent or stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis is a key factor that defines prognosis and is a critical element in deter­ mining appropriate treatment based on the experience and outcomes of groups of prior patients with similar stage. In addition, accurate staging is necessary to evaluate the results of treatments and clinical trials, to facilitate the exchange and comparison of information among treatment centers, and to serve as a basis for clinical and translational cancer research. At a national and international level, the agreement on classi­ fications of cancer cases provides a method of clearly convey­ ing clinical experience to others without ambiguity. Several cancer staging systems are used worldwide. Dif­ ferences among these systems stem from the needs and objectives of users in clinical medicine and in population surveillance. The most clinically useful staging system is the tumor node metastasis (TNM) system maintained collabor­ atively by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union for Cancer Control (UICC). The TNM system classifies cancers by the size and extent of the primary tumor (T), involvement of regional lymph node (N), and the presence or absence of distant metasta­ ses (M), supplemented in recent years by carefully selected nonanatomic prognostic factors. There is a TNM staging algorithm for cancers of virtually every anatomic site and histology, with the primary exception in this manual being staging of pediatric cancers.

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Guidelines on the Diagnosis and ...

F lexible endoscopy with biopsy is the primary method for the diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma (Class I recommendation: level of evidence B) For related article, see page 7 Staging of Esophageal Cancer 1. For early stage esophageal cancer, computed tomography of the chest and abdomen is an optional test for staging. (Class I recommendation: level of evidence B) 2. For locoregionalized esophageal cancer, computed tomography of the chest and abdomen is a recommended test for staging. (Class I recommendation: level of evidence B) 3. For early stage esophageal cancer, positron emission tomography is an optional test for staging. (Class IIB recommendation: level of evidence B) 4. For locoregionalized esophageal cancer, positron emission tomography is a recommended test for staging. (Class I recommendation: level of evidence B) Report from STS Workforces on Evidence Based Surgery and General Thoracic Surgery.

Lung Cancer - Rush University Medical Center

The End of Nihilism Until now, >50% present with Stage IV Everything is getting smaller Screening IS beneficial: smaller tumors Minimally Invasive Surgery: smaller incisions Stereotactic Radiotherapy: smaller radiation field Molecular Diagnostics ©2006 RUSH University Medical Center 2009 Estimated US Cancer Deaths* Men 290,890 Lung and bronchus Prostate Colon and rectum Pancreas Leukemia Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 32% 10% 10% 5% 4% 4% Women 272,810 25% Lung and bronchus 15% 10% 6% 6% 4% Breast Colon and rectum Ovary Pancreas Leukemia • ~160,440 patients will die of NSCLC in 2010 American Cancer Society. At: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/STT/stt_0.asp. Accessed October 27, 2009. ©2006 RUSH University Medical Center Lung Cancer Linked to Smoking JAMA May 27, 1950 Tobacco Smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchiogenic carcinoma. A study of six hundred and eighty-four proved cases Ernest L. Wynder and Evarts A. Graham ©2006 RUSH University Medical Center Cum. Risk of Lung CA in UK Men Data from Sirs Doll & Peto unequivocally demonstrates that the risk of lung CA after smoking never returns to normal Vineis, P. et al. JNCI 2004;96:99-106 Copyright restrictions may apply. ©2006 RUSH University Medical Center

Cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction

Previous American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) stage groupings for esophageal cancer have not been data driven or harmonized with stomach cancer. At the request of the AJCC, worldwide data from 3 continents were assembled to develop data-driven, harmonized esophageal staging for the seventh edition of the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals. METHODS: All-cause mortality among 4627 patients with esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer who underwent surgery alone (no preoperative or postoperative adjuvant therapy) was analyzed by using novel random forest methodology to produce stage groups for which survival was monotonically decreasing, distinctive, and homogeneous. RESULTS: For lymph node-negative pN0M0 cancers, risk-adjusted 5-year survival was dominated by pathologic tumor classification (pT) but was modulated by histopathologic cell type, histologic grade, and location. For lymph node-positive, pNþM0 cancers, the number of cancer-positive lymph nodes (a new pN classification) dominated survival. Resulting stage groupings departed from a simple, logical arrangement of TNM. Stage groupings for stage I and II adenocarcinoma were based on pT, pN, and histologic grade; and groupings for squamous cell carcinoma were based on pT, pN, histologic grade, and location. Stage III was similar for histopathologic cell types and was based only on pT and pN. Stage 0 and stage IV, by definition, were categorized as tumor in situ (Tis) (high-grade dysplasia) and pM1, respectively.

Stage of Disease - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The progression steps of a cancer listed on this slide are mostly theoretical. No one has been able to microscopically examine the progression of breast cancer, but observations over time suggest this is the typical progression. Treatment decisions are based on it. However, ductal carcinoma has appeared in lymph nodes when the primary tumor is still microinvasive. Certainly tumors can metastasize before they become palpable—good reasons for getting regular mammograms. There is some doubt that every cancer starts as an in situ lesion. And there is a suspicion that some cancer cells move through sentinel lymph nodes without involving them, and go on to involve other regional nodes. But the sequence of progression on the slide may represent most cancers. Imagine a cancer developing and moving through these steps. At some point, the cancer gets diagnosed and staged. That’s why stage at diagnosis is so important. The stage indicates how far along the path of progression the cancer managed to get before it was identified. The earlier the diagnosis, the lower the stage. Entire public health initiatives have been launched because cancer registry data demonstrated that certain segments of the population were diagnosed at higher stages than average.

Colorectal cancer and the 7th revision of the TNM staging system

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a neoplastic disease with a continuously growing incidence in Romania and throughout the world. Although the surgery remains the first line treatment for most of the cases, newly discovered targeted molecular therapies – effective for some patients, but with various side effects and significant financial burden for the national health systems – requires not only stratification of patients in prognostic groups but also evaluation of some non-anatomic factors with major impact on the prognosis and therapeutic strategy. The AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, in his 7th revision, effective for cases diagnosed on or after January 1, 2010, responds to these needs. On the other hand, the role of the pathologist is increasing in terms of workload and amount of information to be included in the pathology report in order to deliver a personalized diagnosis. There are concerns worldwide regarding relevance, validity and completeness of pathologic reporting of CRC in the absence of a uniform reporting format. Therefore, suggestions for a standardized pathology report of CRC are made, based on TNM 7 and recent, up-to-date conclusive published data. Keywords: colorectal cancer, TNM 7, pathologic stage, prognostic, reporting.

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