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SolidWorks Electrical Applications Real-time Integration of 2D Schematics and 3D Models Allows Mechanical and Electrical Teams to Better Collaborate and Deliver More Accurate Designs VELIZY-VILLACOUBLAY, France — August 1, 2012 — Dassault Systèmes (Euronext Paris: #13065, DSY.PA), the 3D EXPERIENCE Company, world leader in 3D design software, 3D Digital Mock Up and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) solutions, today introduced new SolidWorks Electrical applications . These new offerings include an innovative, system level 2D schematic design tool and a powerful 3D electrical modeling add-in to SolidWorks design application that are linked in real time. “Today, companies in industrial equipment, engineering services, high-tech, medical devices, and consumer goods are developing products that include more electrical content. More than half of our SolidWorks customers require a solution that streamlines collaboration between mechanical and electrical systems engineers,” said Bertrand Sicot, CEO, SolidWorks, Dassault Systèmes. “The addition of SolidWorks Electrical to our product portfolio moves us into this underserved market with a robust solution that upholds the SolidWorks focus on ease-of-use and makes close collaboration between mechanical and electrical design groups a reality.” When it comes to electrical system design, organizations frequently look for ways to improve the overall delivery performance of their departments. SolidWorks Electrical applications make it easy for engineers and designers to plan electrical systems and integrate those electrical aspects into the overall 3D mechanical models. These new applications pave the way for mechanical and electrical engineering teams to collaborate during product development, streamline the design phase, and reduce product delays, resulting in more consistent and standardized designs, lower costs, and faster time-to-market. “The full integration with SolidWorks will make SolidWorks Electrical easy to learn and will allow both our mechanical and electrical departments to collaborate on electrical system and wiring design,” said Kyle Strong, project manager at Getman Corporation. “Our mining vehicles include complex electrical wiring and need to have consistent design -- the decision to consider SolidWorks Electrical was easy. By integrating our electrical and mechanical design processes, we can better document electrical requirements and cable/wire paths, resulting in less rework, higher product quality, and faster time-to-market.”
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An input amplifier for a FM-radio receiver with RF selection (88-108 MHz) has been designed in the radio project. It has about 25 dB gain in the frequency rang 88-108 MHz. Mirror frequency rejection is between 5 dB to 9 dB. Noise figure is about 7 dB at resonant frequency. The amplifier works well, when it is connected to the rest of circuits to receive FM broadcast signals. The input amplifier with RF selection (88-108 MHz) should have low noise, high gain and frequency selection. The specification of the amplifier is as follows:low noise, maximum 2dB more than Fmin gain: Gt ≥ |S21|2 mirror frequency rejection: 20 dB generator impedance: 50Ω load impedance: 50Ω ... In order to fulfill the specification, an appropriate transistor was first chosen and its S-parameters were measured. The input stage has been designed by using a common-emitter amplifier. To compromise between gain and noise, an appropriate operating point is necessary. The amplifier has an inductor tap parallel resonant circuit at its collector to restore the amplifier gain. The frequency of the parallel resonant circuit can be shifted by changing the value of the parallel capacitor. The detail of the project design will be described in chapter 2. Different measurements and results can be found in chapter 3, followed by the conclusion in chapter 4. Chapter 5 is acknowledgement and reference is in chapter 6. In the project, BFR92A transistor is used. It has high power gain, low noise figure and low intermodulation distortion. To compromise between gain and noise, an appropriate operating point should be first considered. From figure 1 (gain as a function of collector current), figure 2 (gain as a function of frequency) and figure 3 (minimum noise figure as a function of frequency), an appropriate operating point was decided. IC = 10mA, VCE = 10V. The values of Fmin and opt for the operating point are not available in the datasheet, but from circles of constant noise figure for other operating points, one can see that Fmin in the project is between 1.7 dB and 2.4 dB.
This lab explores superheterodyne single and dual conversion receiver subsystems for analog and digital modulation. Two VHF (30–300 MHz) FM receivers are considered. The ﬁrst receiver employes a wideband (about 200 kHz) IF subsystem centered at 10.7 MHz, while the second employes a narrowband (about 10 kHz) IF subsystem centered at 455 kHz. The narrowband FM receiver also utilizes dual conversion, with the ﬁrst IF at 10.7 MHz and the second IF at 455 kHz. Both receivers have been constructed using readily available radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) from NXP semiconductor1 . The receivers are presently in prototype form, constructed on an RF breadboard. In the future the receivers will be fabricated using a custom PCB. The high sensitivity of these receivers allows the wideband receiver to easily tune in FM broadcast stations and the narrowband receiver to receive the Colorado Springs national weather service (NOAA) station, and lab broadcast frequency shift keyed (FSK) digital modulation. Wideband FM Receiver The block diagram for the wideband receiver is given in Figure 1. The low-noise ampliﬁer (LNA) is not implemented at this time, nor is the front-end bandpass ﬁlter (BPF). A short wire (clip lead) will serve as the antenna in the experiment. The receiver requires and external local oscillator... LO frequency is 160 MHz. With low-side tuning for the LO, this means that carrier frequencies up 160 + 10.7 = 170.7 MHz can down-converted. The doubler is a passive circuit from Minicircuits2 , which in simple terms acts as a full-wave rectiﬁer, which has a strong second harmonic component. The mixer output is processed with a multistage IF ampliﬁer, with the 10.7 MHz IF passband shaping formed using ceramic ﬁlters. The nominal bandwidth of each ﬁlter is 280 kHz. Note from the schematic of Figure 2, the ceramic ﬁlters are external to the NXP SA636 RFIC. The ﬁnal stage 10.7 MHz IF BPF SFE10.7 An RF receiver needs to have high gain in order process weak signals arriving from a transmitter located many miles away. High gain over a wide bandwidth is hard to manage from a stability standpoint. Sensitive radio receivers also need to be very selective, that is supply high gain over just a relatively narrow band of frequencies. For the case of an FM receiver the needed bandwidth...
Rebuilding the Future The new World Trade Center embodies a bold vision: to remember, renew, and rebuild the future. With One World Trade Center, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, a state-of-the-art Transportation Hub, Vehicular Security Center, and more, the new site represents the triumph of the human spirit. The new World Trade Center is destined to become, once again, the world’s premier destination for commerce, culture and community. Fact Sheet 9/11 Memorial The National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center will memorialize the victims of the September 11, 2001 attacks, a national tragedy that changed the course of history. Visitors will be able to learn, remember and pay tribute to those who lost their lives in New York, N.Y.; Shanksville, P.A.; and Washington, D.C., as well as the World Trade Center bombing in 1993. “Reflecting Absence,” the Memorial, consists of two massive voids sized over the footprints of the original Twin Towers with waterfalls cascading down their sides. The names of those who perished as a result of the attacks are inscribed around the edges of the Memorial waterfalls. The Memorial Plaza serves as a contemplative space amid the cacophony of sights and sounds of Lower Manhattan. A state-of-the-art museum, featuring interactive exhibitions, artifacts, memorabilia, a resource center, and areas for reflection will complement the Memorial. Monthly Highlights The Plaza is now open to the public daily. Visitors use kiosks with interactive displays to direct them to the names on the bronze parapets. Concrete work continues in the remaining northeast quadrant of the plaza as work progresses in the Pavilion and the below-grade Museum. construction progress Project particulars • Steel erection commenced on September 2, 2008, with the erection of a 7,700 pound column located near the footprint of the original World Trade Center’s North Tower. • A 65-foot-high by 62-foot wide piece of the original foundation wall, or slurry wall, is being preserved to allow visitors of the Memorial Museum to view it. A reinforcing wall was built behind this section to ensure the slurry wall’s integrity. • A total of 65,000 cubic yards of concrete, coupled with 8,658 tons of steel, are being used to build the Memorial. • The design for the Memorial was conceived by architect Michael Arad and landscape architect Peter Walker. More than 5,200 entrants from 63 nations completed in the Memorial Design Competition. Pavilion The Pavilion electrical contractor is pulling lines to feed power to equipment on the 3rd floor while maintaining temporary light and power during work hours. The miscellaneous metals contractor is installing miscellaneous steel throughout the site. The concrete contractor will be stripping formwork on the roof and the 3rd floor. Memorial Museum The plumbing contractor is working on punch list items while maintaining temporary water. In addition, the carpenter is installing sheetrock around the pick hole with the use of a lift on elevation 242' as well as plastering sheetrock walls around the South Footprint. The electrical contractor is maintaining temporary light and power. Johnson Controls will be working on start-up equipment in the north and south mechanical rooms at elevation 284' and elevation 264', respectively. Five Star is working on IT at the Telecom Main Distribution Frame (MDF), and working on fire alarm systems throughout the site. The contractor is installing light fixtures on the catwalk above the west chamber ceiling. The concrete contractor is installing formwork and rebar at elevation 284' by the Grand Staircase.
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On September 11, 2001, the seismic stations grouped around New York City recorded seismic events from the WTC site, two of which occurred immediately prior to the aircraft impacts upon the Twin Towers. Because these seismic events preceded the collisions, it is clear they were not associated with the impacts and must therefore be associated with some other occurrence. None of the authorities charged with the responsibility for the investigation of the events of 9/11 have proposed a source for these seismic events, nor have they given a valid reason for the difference in times between the seismic events and the aircraft impacts. Only by consideration of the evidence of basement explosions before the aircraft impacts, as experienced by William Rodriquez and 36 others, can an explanation be found for the fact that the seismic stations recorded seismic events originating from the WTC sites prior to the aircraft impacts. It seems unlikely that Middle Eastern terrorists could have overcome the WTC security and managed this kind of high-level, technological coordination. Do the facts presented here, simple and few, raise the possibility of inside involvement in 9/11/01, both before and after the attack? OVERVIEW This paper is primarily concerned with the factual data surrounding the exact impact times of the two aircraft that hit WTC1 and WTC2. This is neither theory nor hypothesis, but a statement of publicized facts regarding the timing of the aircraft impacts. There exist two separate precision data time sets that address when the aircraft crashed into the Towers. Both data time sets are based on UTC (Coordinated Universal Time, the world’s atomic clock system) and the sources that determined these times were prestigious, reliable and credible. There is no question regarding the precision and accuracy of the instruments used to record both data time sets, since their entire function depends and relies upon temporal accuracy, and therefore there can be no doubt that both data time sets are correct. The time data sets represent objective scientific data recorded by two separate, independent entities. The problem is the data sets have different impact times. These times were given out years ago but at different times. Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University (LDEO) gave its findings around the time of the event with what it thought were impact times based upon the seismic data recorded, while the 9/11 Commission published its impact times, based upon FAA radar data and air traffic control software logic, years later in its Final Report. The Commission no longer exists.
The tragedy of September 11, 2001 was so sudden and devastating that it may be difficult at this point in time to write dispassionately and objectively about its effects on the U.S. economy. This retrospective review will attempt such an undertaking. The loss of lives and property on 9/11 was not large enough to have had a measurable effect on the productive capacity of the United States even though it had a very significant localized effect on New York City and, to a lesser degree, on the greater Washington, D.C. area. Thus, for 9/11 to affect the economy it would have had to have affected the price of an important input, such as energy, or had an adverse effect on aggregate demand via such mechanisms as consumer and business confidence, a financial panic or liquidity crisis, or an international run on the dollar. It was initially thought that aggregate demand was seriously affected, for while the existing data showed that GDP growth was low in the first half of 2001, data published in October showed that GDP had contracted during the 3rd quarter. This led to the claim that “The terrorist attacks pushed a weak economy over the edge into an outright recession.” We now know, based on revised data, this is not so. At the time of 9/11 the economy was in its third consecutive quarter of contraction; positive growth resumed in the 4th quarter. This would suggest that any effects from 9/11 on demand were short lived. While this may be true, several events took place before, on, and shortly after 9/11, that made recovery either more rapid than it might have been or made it possible to take place. First, the Federal Reserve had eased credit during the first half of 2001 to stimulate aggregate demand. The economy responds to policy changes with a lag in time. Thus, the public response may have been felt in the 4th quarter giving the appearance that 9/11 had only a limited effect. Second, the Federal Reserve on and immediately after 9/11 took appropriate action to avert a financial panic and liquidity shortage. This was supplemented by support from foreign central banks to shore up the dollar in world markets and limited the contagion of 9/11 from spreading to other national economies. Nevertheless, U.S. trade with other countries, especially Canada, was disrupted. While oil prices spiked briefly, they quickly returned to their pre-9/11 levels. Thus, it can be argued, timely action contained the short run economic effects of 9/11 on the overall economy. Over the longer run 9/11 will adversely affect U.S. productivity growth because resources are being and will be used to ensure the security of production, distribution, finance, and communication. This report is retrospective in nature and will not be updated.
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