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PRIOR TO ANY INSTALLATION YOU MUST VERIFY THAT YOU HAVE THE CORRECT INSTALLATION KIT AS THEY ARE YEAR, MAKE AND MODEL SPECIFIC. These supplemental installation instructions are specific to Dodge Ram Trucks, Models 1500 and 2500, 2010-2012. Before proceeding remove existing factory installed aluminum clamps from RTM Base and replace with Dodge Ram specific clamps provided in this kit. Substitute the following instructions for line item 5 and item 11 in the attached Installation Guide: Vehicle Preparation: Remove the two mounting screws securing the CHMSL (Center High Mount Stop Light). Remove light housing from truck body, detach wiring connector, and set aside. Identify the ½” x ½” x 15” foam infill panel from Vehicle Specific install Kit, remove adhesive backer tape, and align the top edge of the piece even with the bottom edge of the vehicle light opening, and centered. Press onto the vehicle body. 11. For Dodge 1500 and 2500 Installations: Align the vehicle specific adapter bezel with the window area on the Lower Mount, thick portion on top. Remove the backer tape from the two adhesive strips, and install with the provided #8 1 ½” fasteners. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN! Remove original vehicle fasteners from brake light housing, tape together, and attach to the interior of the Lower Mount for future reference. Reconnect the CHMSL harness and install onto the Lower Mount bezel using the #8 1” fasteners provided.
The Method of Solution: 1. Understand the problem. 2. Draw a diagram. 3. Introduce notation (Q is to be maximized or minimized) 4. Find relation between quantities (Q and all others) 5. Make the relation look like Q = f (x) (one variable) 6. Solve f (x) = 0 for x. 7. Explain whether you have found a max or min, and if possible if it is an absolute extrema (Closed Interval Method, First Derivative Test, Second Derivative Test, argue based on the geometry of the problem) 8. Write a concluding statement. Example A farmer has 2400 ft of fencing. What are the dimensions of the rectangular pen that produce the largest area? • Understand the problem: We need a rectangle. The rectangle should have maximum area for a given perimeter. • Draw a diagram : A x y • Introduce notation and ﬁnd relations: The perimeter is P = 2x + 2y. The area is A = xy. This is what we want to maximize. We need to eliminate y from the equation for A. Use P = 2x + 2y = 2400, −→ y = 1200 − x. Therefore, A = xy = x(1200 − x) = 1200x − x2 . If x < 0, the area would be negative. This is unphysical. If x > 1200, the area would be negative. This is unphysical. The domain for the area is 0 ≤ x ≤ 1200. • Find the maximum of A(x) = 1200x − x2 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1200. A = 1200 − 2x. A = 0 = 1200 − 2x → x = 600 ft. This is a maximum since A (600) = −2 < 0 and A will be concave down by the second derivative test. Check endpoints: A(0) = 0 = A(1200) < A(600) = 360 000. The absolute maximum is 360,000 ft2 when the rectangle is a square of side 600 ft...
Lecture 1 Lecture 1: Introduction to Engineering Mechanics Engineering Mechanics Engineering mechanics is the physical science which studies __________________ _________________________________________________________. The subject is usually divided into two parts namely ________________ and __________________. Statics. This branch of mechanics studies the ________________________ of bodies under the action of ____________________________________________________. Examples of static systems include an aeroplane at cruising speed, a hovering helicopter, a floating ship, etc. Page 1 of 12 MEE211: Engineering Mechanics I [Statics] Lecture 1 Dynamics. This branch of mechanics studies the ______________________of bodies, ie. a system where a body is acted upon by an externally applied force which results in a motion. Examples of dynamic systems are a grandfather clock pendulum, a massspring system, an accelerating/decelerating vehicle, etc. (This part is not cover in this course.) Basic terminologies • A ___________________ quantity only consists of ____________________. Mass, time, volume, distance, speed and energy are examples of scalar quantities. • A ___________________ quantity consists of both __________________ and __________________. Weight, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force and moment are examples of vector quantities. Page 2 of 12 MEE211: Engineering Mechanics I [Statics] Lecture 1 • _____________________ is the action of one body on another. • The __________________________ of force acting on a body depend on the magnitude, direction and the point of application of the force. The resultant effects can be the ____________________________ (translation, rotation) or ________________ (bending, denting, breaking, and destruction) of the body. • The ______________________________________ of a body is defined as a single point where when a force acts through it, there is no resultant moment. Page 3 of 12 MEE211: Engineering Mechanics I [Statics] • Lecture 1 _______________________. When a force is not acting through the centre of gravity of a body, it generates a moment. The effect of the resultant moment is the tendency to ___________________ or _________________ the body. Free body diagrams A free body diagram shows an ___________________________________________ (or a single member of a structure) and _____________________________________ acting on it. This is a very powerful tool to help us determine the forces acting on the structures and its members.
quilibrium of Rigid Bodies – 2D • For a rigid body in static equilibrium, the external forces and moments are balanced and will impart no translational or rotational motion to the body. • The necessary and sufficient condition for the static equilibrium of a body are that the resultant force and couple from all external forces form a system equivalent to zero, r r r r ∑ F = 0 ∑ M O = ∑ (r × F ) = 0 • Resolving each force and moment into its rectangular components leads to 6 scalar equations which also express the conditions for static equilibrium, ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ Fz = 0 ∑Mx = 0 ∑M y = 0 ∑Mz = 0 4-1 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Free-Body Diagram First step in the static equilibrium analysis of a rigid body is identification of all forces acting on the body with a free-body diagram. • Select the extent of the free-body and detach it from the ground and all other bodies. • Indicate point of application, magnitude, and direction of external forces, including the rigid body weight. • Indicate point of application and assumed direction of unknown applied forces. These usually consist of reactions through which the ground and other bodies oppose the possible motion of the rigid body. • Include the dimensions necessary to compute the moments of the forces. 4-2 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Two Dimensions • For all forces and moments acting on a twodimensional structure, Fz = 0 M x = M y = 0 M z = M O • Equations of equilibrium become ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ M A = 0 where A is any point in the plane of the structure. • The 3 equations can be solved for no more than 3 unknowns. • The 3 equations can not be augmented with additional equations, but they can be replaced ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ M A = 0 ∑ M B = 0 4-3 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Free Body Diagram - 2D • Create a free-body diagram 4-4 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Free Body Diagram – 2D • Create a free-body diagram for the frame and cable. 4-5
BPMN stands for Business Process Modeling Notation. It is the new standard for modeling business processes and web service processes, as put forth by the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI – www.BPMI.org). BPMN is a core enabler of a new initiative in the Enterprise Architecture world called Business Process Management (BPM). Business Process Management is concerned with managing change to improve business processes. BPMN consists of one diagram – called the Business Process Diagram (BPD). The BPMN Business Process Diagram has been designed to be easy to use and understand, but also provides the ability to model complex business processes. It has also been designed specifically with web services in mind. BPMN is only one of three specifications that the BPMI has developed – the other two are a Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) and a Business Process Query Language (BPQL). All have been developed using a solid mathematical foundation, which enables a BPMN Business Process Diagram to map directly to BPML, in the same way that a physical data model maps directly to Data Definition Language (DDL). There are competing standards to BPML, chief among them is the Business Process Execution Language For Web Services (BPEL4WS) created in a joint venture by BEA, IBM, Microsoft, and others. However, BPMI has created BPMN so that it maps readily to any business process execution language. Business Process Execution Languages themselves are run, controlled, and orchestrated on a Business Process Management System (BPMS). OASIS (www.oasis-open.org) is a not-for-profit, global consortium that drives the development, convergence and adoption of e-business standards. Both BPEL4WS and BPMI’s BPML have been submitted to OASIS to become a business process execution language standard. OASIS has created a subcommittee to decide upon a standard; the outcome of this committee is called Web Services – Business Execution Language (WS-BPEL). The OASIS WS-BPEL requires the development of new BPMS technologies as well. BPMN provides a number of advantages to modeling business processes over the Unified Modeling Language (UML). First, it offers a process flow modeling technique that is more conducive to the way business analysts model. Second, its solid mathematical foundation is expressly designed to map to business execution languages, whereas UML is not. BPMN can map to UML, and provide a solid business modeling front end to systems design with UML.
The research work of Wil van der Aalst, Arthur ter Hofstede, Bartek Kiepuszewski, and Alistair Barros has resulted in the identification of 21 patterns that describe the behavior of business processes. This paper reviews how two graphical process modeling notations, tShe BPMN Business Process Diagram from the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI), and the UML 2.0 Activity Diagram from the Object Management Group (OMG), can represent the workflow patterns. The solutions of the two notations are compared for technical ability to represent the patterns as well as their readability. The research work of Wil van der Aalst, Arthur ter Hofstede, Bartek Kiepuszewski, and Alistair Barros has resulted in the identification of 21 patterns that describe the behavior of business processes. The rationale for the development of the patterns was to describe the potential capabilities that a workflow server may have during the performance of business processes. The patterns range from very simple to very complex and cover the behaviors that can be captured within most business process models. The researchers have developed a web site1 that contains descriptions and examples of these patterns, plus supporting papers and evaluations of how workflow products support the patterns. The purpose of this paper is to examine how two modeling notations, the BPMN Business Process Diagram from BPMI, and the UML 2.0 Activity Diagram from the OMG, can graphically represent the workflow patterns. For each of pattern, there will be a comparison of the two notations about how well they handled the pattern. The focus of the comparison will be both technical and how visually intuitive each notation represents the pattern.
This section introduces the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), developed under the coordination of the Object Management Group. Version 2 of this international standard introduces a series of modiﬁcations, including a new extension of the acronym. BPMN used to stand for Business Process Modeling Notation. In Version 2, the standard also deﬁnes a meta-model, so that Business Process Meta Model and Notation would have been a valid choice. Unfortunately, the term meta was dropped, resulting in the rather imprecise oﬃcial extension we now see in this section’s heading. In the remainder of this book, we will mostly use the acronym. The intent of the BPMN for business process modelling is very similar to the intent of the Uniﬁed Modeling Language for object-oriented design and analysis. To identify the best practices of existing approaches and to combine them into a new, widely accepted language. The set of ancestors of BPMN includes graph-based and Petri-net-based process modelling languages, such as UML activity diagrams and event-driven process chains. While these modelling languages focus on diﬀerent levels of abstraction, ranging from a business level to a more technical level, the BPMN aims at supporting the complete range of abstraction levels, from a business level to a technical implementation level. This goal is also laid out in the standards document, which states that “The primary goal of BPMN is to provide a notation that is readily understandable by all business users, from the business analysts that create the initial drafts of the processes, to the technical developers responsible for implementing the technology that will perform those processes, and ﬁnally, to the business people who will manage and monitor those processes. Thus, BPMN creates a standardized bridge for the gap between the business process design and process implementation.” The BPMN deﬁnes several diagram types for specifying both process orchestrations and process choreographies. Since this chapter focuses on orchestrations, only business process diagrams and collaboration diagrams are discussed in this section. Diagram types regarding process choreographies, that is, conversation diagrams and choreography diagrams, will be discussed in the next chapter. To classify the level of support that a particular BPMN software tool provides, the standard introduces so called conformance classes.
Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is a graphical notation that describes the logic of steps in a business process. This notation has been especially designed to coordinate the sequence of processes and messages that flow between participants in different activities. Why is it important to model with BPMN? • BPMN is an internationally accepted process modeling standard. • BPMN is independent of any process modeling methodology. • BPMN creates a standardized bridge which reduces the gap between business processes and their implementation. • BPMN enables you to model processes in a unified and standardized way so that everyone in an organization can understand each other. Introduction to BPMN The Business Process Modeling Notation - BPMN – provides a common language which allows all the parties involved to communicate processes clearly, completely and efficiently. In this way, BPMN defines the notation and semantics of a Business Process Diagram (BPD). BPD is a diagram based on the ‘Flowchart’ technique, designed to present a graphical sequence of all the activities that take place during a process. It also includes all relative information for making an analysis. BPD is a diagram designed for the use of process analysts who design, control and manage processes. In a BPD diagram there are a series of graphical elements that are grouped into categories. To introduce BPMN, the reader will find throughout this document a series of examples revolving around a Consumer Credit Application process. A Credit Application process begins with the recording of the application where the client expresses an interest in acquiring credit. This stage includes the presentation of the application, and the required documents to the organization for verification. This is followed by an analysis or study of the credit application and finally we find the activities needed to either disburse the credit or to notify the client in case of rejection.