SEARCH

Found 99 related files. Current in page 1

langkah langkah membuat narrative

1967 kb/s - Langkah Langkah Membuat Narrative Full Download


2157 kb/s - [Verified] Langkah Langkah Membuat Narrative


2864 kb/s - Langkah Langkah Membuat Narrative Direct Download

CAESAR II TRAINING
by J007 0 Comments favorite 16 Viewed Download 0 Times

CAESAR II TRAINING 6. STATIC ANALYSIS Metode Static Analysis adalah memperhitungkan static load, yang akan menimpa pipa secara perlahan sehingga dengan demikian piping system memiliki cukup waktu untuk menerima, bereaksi dan mendistribusikan load tersebut keseluruh bagian pipa, hingga tercapainya keseimbangan. 6.1 Static dan Dynamic Load Loading yang mempengaruhi sebuah piping system dapat diklasifikasikan sebagai primary dan secondary. Primary loading terjadi dari sustain load seperti berat pipa, sedangkan secondary load dicontohkan sebagai thermal expansion load. Static Loading meliputi : 1. Weight effect (live loads and dead loads). 2. Thermal expansion and contraction effects. 3. Effect of support, anchor movement. 4. Internal or external pressure loading. Sedangkan yang termasuk Dynamic loading adalah : 1. Impact forces 2. Wind 3. Discharge Load 6.1.1 Load Case pada Caesar II Setelah kita selesai mendesain piping, maka langkah selanjutnya adalah melakukan analisa stress terhadap system piping tersebut. Hal tersebut harus dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah desain yang telah kita buat dapat memenuhi persyaratan stress atau tidak, Page 2 CAESAR II TRAINING sehingga hal ini akan sangat berpengaruh pada kekuatan pipa ketika mengalami pembebanan ketika kondisi operasi. Ada berbagai macam jenis load case yang dapat kita gunakan dalam CAESAR II. Load case ini akan mendefinisikan pembebanan yang terjadi pada pipa, baik beban akibat berat pipa itu sendiri ataupun beban akibat faktor yang lain. Berikut ini definisi load case pada CAESAR II ver 4.2 : Load Design...

ALUR PENGADAAN BARANG/JASA 50 s - Fakultas Ilmu Administrasi

Memproses Surat menyurat Membuat pengumuman pengadaan barang Membuat HPS Memilih dan menentukan pemenang setelah membandingkan harga dan kualitas dengan berdasarkan pada keefektifan biaya dan efisiensi serta kualitas. Melakukan penawaran dan negosiasi terhadap rekanan Melaporkan kepada Dekan/Pembantu Dekan hasil negosiasi dan penawaran Panita Pemeriksa Barang/Jasa:  Mengawasi dan memeriksa jalannya kontrak dan pelaksanaan Rekanan:  Melakukan negosiasi harga dengan panitia pengadaan barang/jasa  Melaksanakan isi kontrak  Membuat dokumen kontrak SOP PENGADAAN BARANG/JASA S.D. 50 JUTA RUPIAH (Penunjukan Langsung) User/ Pemakai/ Pengguna Mengajukan Permohonan Dekan/Pembantu Dekan II: Panitia Pengadaan Barang/ jasa:      Menugaskan kepada pengadaan barang/jasa Menyetujui/tidak hasil negosiasi/penawaran panitia  Memproses Surat menyurat Membuat HPS Melakukan penawaran dan negosiasi terhadap rekanan Melaporkan kepada Dekan/Pembantu Dekan hasil negosiasi dan penawaran Panita Pemeriksa Barang/Jasa:  Mengawasi dan memeriksa jalannya kontrak dan pelaksanaan Rekanan: SERAH TERIMA PELAKSANAAN  Melakukan negosiasi harga dengan panitia pengadaan barang/jasa  Melaksanakan isi kontrak  Membuat dokumen kontrak STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) PENGADAAN BARANG/JASA DI BAWAH 50 JUTA RUPIAH Tujuan Deskripsi Object Referensi Meningkatkan Efektifitas dan Efisiensi pengadaan barang/jasa dibawah 50 juta rupiah Seluruh staf akademis (administrasi/dosen) di Fakultas Ilmu Administrasi Universitas Brawijaya

Somatic Symptom Disorder Fact Sheet - DSM-5

Somatic Symptom Disorder The upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) replaces somatoform disorders with somatic symptom and related disorders and makes significant changes to the criteria to eliminate overlap across the somatoform disorders and clarify their boundaries. The changes better reflect the complex interface between mental and physical health. Characteristics of Somatic Symptom Disorder Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is characterized by somatic symptoms that are either very distressing or result in significant disruption of functioning, as well as excessive and disproportionate thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding those symptoms. To be diagnosed with SSD, the individual must be persistently symptomatic (typically at least for 6 months). Several important changes have been made from previous editions of DSM. The DSM-IV disorders of somatization disorder, hypochondriasis, pain disorder, and undifferentiated somatoform disorder have been removed, and many, but not all, of the individuals diagnosed with one of these disorders could now be diagnosed with SSD. The DSM-IV diagnosis of somatization disorder required a specific number of complaints from among four symptom groups. The SSD criteria no longer have such a requirement; however, somatic symptoms must be significantly distressing or disruptive to daily life and must be accompanied by excessive thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. Another key change in the DSM-5 criteria is that while medically unexplained symptoms were a key feature for many of the disorders in DSM-IV, an SSD diagnosis does not require that the somatic symptoms are medically unexplained. In other words, symptoms may or may not be associated with another medical condition. DSM-5 narrative text description that accompanies the criteria for SSD cautions that...

9/11 hijackers
by ggallozz 0 Comments favorite 13 Viewed Download 0 Times

The September 11 Travel Operation The success of the September 11 plot depended on the ability of the hijackers to obtain visas and pass an immigration and customs inspection in order to enter the United States. It also depended on their ability to remain here undetected while they worked out the operational details of the attack. If they had failed on either count—entering and becoming embedded—the plot could not have been executed. Here we present the facts and circumstances of the hijackers’ travel operation, including their 25 contacts with consular officers and their 43 contacts with immigration and customs authorities. We also discuss the 12 contacts with border authorities by other September 11 conspirators who applied for a visa. The narrative is chronological, retracing the hijackers’ steps from their initial applications for U.S. visas, through their entry into the United States, to their applications for immigration benefits, and up through their acquisition of state identifications that helped them board the planes. Along the way, we note relevant actions by U.S. government authorities to combat terrorism. There were a few lucky breaks for U.S. border authorities in this story. Mostly, though, it is a story of how 19 hijackers easily penetrated U.S. border security. Overview of the hijacker’s visas The 9/11 hijackers submitted 23 visa applications during the course of the plot, and 22 of these applications were approved. The hijackers applied for visas at five U.S. consulates or embassies overseas; two of them were interviewed. One consular officer issued visas to 11 of the 19 hijackers. Of the eight other conspirators in the plot who sought visas, three succeeded, but only one of the three later sought to use the visa to enter the United States. Hijackers Nawaf al Hazmi and Khalid al Mihdhar were the first to submit visa applications because they were originally slated to be pilots. The four hijackers who did become pilots applied for visas in 2000. The remaining “muscle” hijackers applied in the fall of 2000 through the spring and summer of 2001, three applying twice. Most of the hijackers applied with new passports, possibly to hide travel to Afghanistan recorded in their old ones. It is likely that many of the hijackers’ passports contained indicators of extremism or showed ties to al Qaeda. However, this intelligence was not developed prior to 9/11, and thus State Department personnel reviewing visa applications were not trained to spot these indicators of a terrorist connection. Visa decisions for the hijackers and conspirators were consistent with a system that focused on excluding intending immigrants and depended on checking a database of names to search for criminals and terrorists. Overview of the hijackers’ entries The hijackers successfully entered the United States 33 of 34 times, with the first arriving on January 15, 2000, at Los Angeles International Airport. All others entered through ...

Sample Resume for High School Students - Guidance & Counseling

Contact Information: should be at the top of your resume—include name, address, phone number, and e-mail (if you have it). Separate it out by centering it and making it bold. If you have a college address separate from a home address, use both. Jane Doe 12 Snelling Avenue St. Paul, Minnesota 55116 (651) 555-1111 jane.doe@spps.org Education Education: include graduation date and GPA if it is 3.0 or higher. Highland Park Senior High, class of 2008 (3.8 GPA) Experience St. Paul Public Library—University Branch (June 2005-present) ▪ Maintained library database on checked-out materials. ▪ Coordinated volunteer program for Story Time. ▪ Organized card catalog to incorporate new materials. National Honor Society (2003-present) Participated in several volunteer activities, including: building a house for Habitat for Humanity (50 hours), collecting food for the St. Paul Food Shelf (80 hours), and organizing the Honor Society Induction Ceremony. Activities ▪ National Honor Society (2003-present) ▪ French Club (2002-present) ▪ Cross Country (2002-present) ▪ Piano lessons (10 years) Awards ▪ A Honor Roll, 8 quarters ▪ Outstanding French Student, 2004 ▪ Volunteer of the Year, 2005 References Available upon request. Formatting Experiences: (2 options) 1. Heading line (include title and dates) followed by bulleted list—see Work Experience as example. 2. Heading line (include title and date) followed by narrative list—see Volunteer Experience as example. Writing About Experiences Regardless of style, begin each phrase/sentence/ bullet with an active verb. See the examples to the left: maintained, coordinated, organized, participated…see back of page for more examples. Headings The expected headings would be: education, experience (work or volunteer), but the others are up to you. Use the ones that work best. Other possibilities: skills, additional experience, related experience, leadership experience, research experience, writing experience, computer experience, objectives, leadership, related coursework, work experience, volunteer experience, anything that fits your particular qualities. General Formatting You should have 1 inch margins, major headings (like ‘Education’) on the left, then indent with additional information below—for example, notice how National Honor Society is lined up below St. Paul Public Library. Use a traditional font (New York, Arial, just not cursive…) at 12 point size. It should all fit on one page. Remember, it needs to be easy to read—keep it simple and organized! Other things to remember: • proofread, proofread, proofread! • Check for punctuation and spelling. • Check for format and style consistency. • Show your resume to a friend. • Use resume weight paper (available in copy centers). • Pick a light, neutral color, like white or ivory. • Laser print it or have it done at the copy center. • Get matching envelopes and paper for cover letters. Action Verbs: Read the list of action verbs below, checking those skills you have demonstrated through internships, part-time or summer jobs, coursework, leadership experience, or community service. Try to incorporate some of these action verbs in the descriptions of your experiences on your resume. This is by no means an exhaustive list. originated enabled Management Skills performed encouraged Research Skills administered planned evaluated clarified analyzed revitalized explained collected assigned shaped facilitated critiqued chaired guided diagnosed consolidated Helping Skills informed evaluated contracted assessed instructed examined coordinated assisted persuaded extracted developed clarified set goals identified directed coached stimulated inspected evaluated counseled trained interpreted executed demonstrated interviewed improved diagnosed Financial Skills investigated increased educated allocated organized organized expedited analyzed reviewed oversaw facilitated appraised summarized planned familiarized audited surveyed prioritized guided balanced produced motivated budgeted Technical Skills recommended referred calculated assembled reviewed rehabilitated computed built/calculated scheduled represented developed computed strengthened forecasted designed supervised. managed devised Clerical or Detail Skills marketed engineered Communication Skills approved planned fabricated arranged arranged projected maintained authored catalogued researched operated collaborated classified overhauled convinced collected Creative Skills programmed developed compiled acted remodeled directed dispatched created repaired drafted/edited executed customized solved formulated generated designed upgraded interpreted implemented developed mediated inspected directed Teaching Skills moderated monitored established adapted negotiated operated founded advised persuaded organized illustrated clarified promoted prepared initiated coached publicized processes instituted communicated reconciled purchased integrated coordinated recruited recorded introduced demystified translated invented developed wrote  ...

first year student sample resume - University Career Services - The ...

FIRST YEAR STUDENT SAMPLE RESUME Evan Reese ereese@email.unc.edu (919) 464-5555 School Address 147 B Craige North Chapel Hill, NC 27514 OBJECTIVE A summer internship with a non-profit organization. EDUCATION University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill First Year Student, expected graduation May 2014 David W. Butler High School, Class of 2009 GPA 4.5, Ranked in top 5% of class HONORS RELATED EXPERIENCE Best Buy Scholarship, awarded for demonstrating academic excellence and community service Volunteer Tutor, Feb 2008-Mar 2009 Project Elevation, Charlotte, NC Summers · Assisted non-native English speaking residents develop conversational language skills. · Helped create lesson plans to facilitate learning. · Exposed immigrants to local customs and cultures. Mission Volunteer, Jun 2007-Aug 2007 Baja Missions, Various Cities, Mexico · Travelled to Ensenada, Vicente Guerro, and Chapultepec Mexico during 6-week trip. · Assisted team leaders distribute resources and materials to local villages. · Utilized Spanish-speaking skills to effectively communicate. ADDITIONAL EXPERIENCE LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCE Scooper, Apr 2006-Oct 2006 Rita’s Water Ice, Charlotte, NC · Provided friendly customer service in family environment. · Handled cash transactions and balanced the register nightly. · Monitored inventory and assisted with reordering inventory. UNC Students Today, Alumni Tomorrow, Fall 2009-present High School Senior Board, 08-09 Student Body President, 07-08 ACTIVITIES Habitat For Humanity National Honors Society Varsity Soccer Team, 3 years REFERENCES Available upon request Home Address 6216 Roam Lane Charlotte, NC 28227 INTERNSHIP SAMPLE RESUME Kyle Chase • 3 Dumford Court • Durham, CH • 27703 • (919) 555-5555 • kchase@unc.edu OBJECTIVE To obtain an internship within the media industry. EDUCATION University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill B.A. in Communication Studies, May 2013 Media Studies & Production concentration GPA: 3.24 RELATED COURSE/PROJECT WORK Audio, Video, Film Production and Writing •Studied various film and screen-writing templates and approaches. Narrative Production •Created storyboards, scripts and filmed and edited three short films. Interactive Media •Learned design basics; used Adobe Photoshop, Flash, ActionScript, and Dream weaver to create interactive websites. RELATED EXPERIENCE Social Media Intern Myth Marketing, San Antonio TX, May 2009-August 2009 • Assisted start up company with establishing online presence utilizing web 2.0 technology. • Created and maintained daily blog and Twitter account to promote marketing services and increase visibility to potential clients. ADDITIONAL EXPERIENCE Administrative Assistant Douglas and Matcovsy, LLC. Chapel Hill NC, Sept 2008 – May 2009 • Demonstrated attention to detail skills while completing clerical tasks such as filing, typing, mass mailings and data entry. Cashier North Carolina Museum of Life and Science, Durham, NC, April 2007– Sept 2007 • Assisted with customer relations and sales in gift shop. • Balanced register nightly and ensured accuracy of deposits. Volunteer North Carolina Museum of Life and Science, Durham, NC, June 2004 – April 2007 • Performed field research for the National Resources Action Team grant. • Presented science activities and animals to children both at the museum and at school and community functions. ACTIVITIES UNC-CH Ballroom Dance Team, Fall 2008-Present MASALA Multicultural Organization, Fall 2008-Present TECHNICAL SKILLS SQL, Dreamweaver, Web 2.0 applications (Twitter, Linkedin, blogging), MS Office Conversational Spanish skills REFERENCES Available upon request DOUBLE MAJOR SAMPLE RESUME Dana Patrice Brooks dbrooks@email.unc.edu Cell Phone: (919) 555-5555 120 Franklin Oaks Road Chapel Hill, NC 27695 Objective: To attain a summer internship where I can apply and further develop my analytical and problem-solving skills. Education: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, B.A. Economics, Second Major in History, May 2010 Cumulative GPA 3.22, Economics GPA 3.6, History GPA.3.2 Honors: Dean’s List 3 semesters National Society of Collegiate Scholars Cum Laude Society (inducted 2008) Related Experience: Intern, Correspondence Department Summer 2008 Barack Obama For President Chapel Hill, NC • Used communication skills to inform the public about candidate’s political positions and latest news through both email and mail. • Kept track of letters and emails received and ensured they were responded to quickly and accurately. • Collected and reported amount of incoming emails relating to particular topics or policies as well as addressed specific concerns (usually over 1300 emails/day). • Sorted and delivered internal mail, bills, checks, and packages. Vice Chair, UNC-CH Honor Court March 2006-May 2008...

Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence ...

Al Qaeda (AQ) has evolved into a significantly different terrorist organization than the one that perpetrated the September 11, 2001, attacks. At the time, Al Qaeda was composed mostly of a core cadre of veterans of the Afghan insurgency against the Soviet Union, with a centralized leadership structure made up mostly of Egyptians. Most of the organization’s plots either emanated from the top or were approved by the leadership. Some analysts describe pre-9/11 Al Qaeda as akin to a corporation, with Osama Bin Laden acting as an agile Chief Executive Officer issuing orders and soliciting ideas from subordinates. Some would argue that the Al Qaeda of that period no longer exists. Out of necessity, due to pressures from the security community, in the ensuing years it has transformed into a diffuse global network and philosophical movement composed of dispersed nodes with varying degrees of independence. The core leadership, headed by Bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, is thought to live in the mountainous tribal belt of northwest Pakistan bordering Afghanistan, where it continues to train operatives, recruit, and disseminate propaganda. But Al Qaeda franchises or affiliated groups active in countries such as Yemen and Somalia now represent critical power centers in the larger movement. Some affiliates receive money, training, and weapons; others look to the core leadership in Pakistan for strategic guidance, theological justification, and a larger narrative of global struggle. Over the past year senior government officials have assessed the trajectory of Al Qaeda to be “less centralized command and control, (with) no clear center of gravity, and likely rising and falling centers of gravity, depending on where the U.S. and the international focus is for that period.” While a degraded corporate Al Qaeda may be welcome news to many, a trend has emerged over the past few years that some view as more difficult to detect, if not potentially more lethal. The Al Qaeda network today also comprises semi-autonomous or self radicalized actors, who often have only peripheral or ephemeral ties to either the core cadre in Pakistan or affiliated groups elsewhere. According to U.S. officials Al Qaeda cells and associates are located in over 70 countries. Sometimes these individuals never leave their home country but are radicalized with the assistance of others who have traveled abroad for training and indoctrination through the use of modern technologies. In many ways, the dispersion of Al Qaeda affiliates fits into the larger strategy of Bin Laden and his associates. They have sought to serve as the vanguard of a religious movement that inspires Muslims and other individuals aspiring to join a jihadi movement to help defend and purify Islam through violent means. The name “Qaeda” means “base” or “foundation,” upon which its members hope to build a robust, geographically diverse network. Understanding the origins of Al Qaeda, its goals, current activities, and prospective future pursuits is key to developing sound U.S. strategies, policies, and programs. Appreciating the adaptive nature of Al Qaeda as a movement and the ongoing threat it projects onto U.S. global security interests assists in many facets of the national security enterprise, including securing the homeland; congressional legislative process and oversight; alignment of executive branch resources and coordination efforts; and prioritization of foreign assistance. The focus of this report is on the history of Al Qaeda, known (or attributed) actions and suspected capabilities of the organization and non-aligned entities, and an analysis of select regional Al Qaeda affiliates. This report may be updated as events warrant. Congressional Research Service Al Qaeda and Affiliates

Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence ...

Al Qaeda (AQ) has evolved into a significantly different terrorist organization than the one that perpetrated the September 11, 2001, attacks. At the time, Al Qaeda was composed mostly of a core cadre of veterans of the Afghan insurgency against the Soviets, with a centralized leadership structure, made up mostly of Egyptians. Most of the organization’s plots either emanated from the top or were approved by the leadership. Some analysts describe pre-9/11 Al Qaeda as akin to a corporation, with Osama Bin Laden acting as an agile Chief Executive Officer issuing orders and soliciting ideas from subordinates. Some would argue that the Al Qaeda of that period no longer exists. Out of necessity, due to pressures from the security community, in the ensuing years it has transformed into a diffuse global network and philosophical movement composed of dispersed nodes with varying degrees of independence. The core leadership, headed by Bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, is thought to live in the mountainous tribal belt of northwest Pakistan, where it continues to train operatives, recruit, and disseminate propaganda. But Al Qaeda franchises or affiliated groups active in countries such as Yemen and Somalia now represent critical power centers in the larger movement. Some affiliates receive money, training, and weapons; others look to the core leadership in Pakistan for strategic guidance, theological justification, and a larger narrative of global struggle. Over the past year senior government officials have assessed the trajectory of Al Qaeda to be “less centralized command and control, (with) no clear center of gravity, and likely rising and falling centers of gravity, depending on where the U.S. and the international focus is for that period.” While a degraded corporate Al Qaeda may be welcome news to many, a trend has emerged over the past few years that some view as more difficult to detect, if not potentially more lethal. The Al Qaeda network today also comprises semi-autonomous or self radicalized actors, who often have only peripheral or ephemeral ties to either the core cadre in Pakistan or affiliated groups elsewhere. According to U.S. officials Al Qaeda cells and associates are located in over 70 countries. Sometimes these individuals never leave their home country but are radicalized with the assistance of others who have traveled abroad for training and indoctrination through the use of modern technologies. In many ways, the dispersion of Al Qaeda affiliates fits into the larger strategy of Bin Laden and his associates. They have sought to serve as the vanguard of a religious movement that inspires Muslims and other individuals aspiring to join a jihadi movement to help establish a global caliphate through violent means. The name “Qaeda” means “base” or “foundation,” upon which its members hope to build a robust, geographically-diverse network. Understanding the origins of Al Qaeda, its goals, current activities, and prospective future pursuits is key to developing sound U.S. strategies, policies, and programs. Appreciating the adaptive nature of Al Qaeda as a movement and the ongoing threat it projects onto U.S. global security interests assists in many facets of the national security enterprise; including, securing the homeland, congressional legislative process and oversight, alignment of executive branch resources and coordination efforts, and prioritization of foreign assistance. The focus of this report is on the history of Al Qaeda, actions and capabilities of the organization and non-aligned entities, and an analysis of select regional Al Qaeda affiliates. This report may be updated as events warrant. Congressional Research Service Al Qaeda and Affiliates

Outline laporan antara - Direktorat Jenderal Penataan Ruang

Tujuan utama dari pekerjaan ini adalah melakukan penyusunan alternatif kebijakan dan penerapan langkah-langkah kegiatan yang tepat secara operasional pada wilayah yang berada pada daerah yang rawan dan sering terlanda bencana alam. Sasaran dari Penyusunan Operasionalisasi Program Penanganan Bencana Alam Bidang Penataan Ruang ini ialah memberikan arah yang jelas bentuk-bentuk penanganan yang baku untuk semua wilayah yang berada pada daerah yang rawan dan sering terlanda bencana alam, mulai dari identifikasi RTRW, indikasi evakuasi yang sesuai dengan Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (RTRW), serta pemulihan dan pembinaan lingkungan dalam rencana tata ruang yang akan datang. Kegiatan ini juga diharapkan sebagai bahan dan petunjuk dengan kondisi geografis, tingkat kerawanan dan tingkat bahaya yang ditimbulkan bila terjadi bencana alam, ditunjang dari aspek keruangan. Salah satu langkah awal yang perlu dikaji dalam melaksanakan pekerjaan “Penyusunan Program Penangan Bencana Alam Bidang Penataan Ruang” adalah : 1. Penetapan Kriteria atau batasan Peristiwa Bencana Alam 2. Gambaran Umum Mekanisma Peristiwa Bencana Alam yang terjadi Di Indonesia Kedua hal tersebut selanjutnya menjadi masukan dalam penyusunan Identifikas Zonasi Daerah Bencana Di Indonesia. Identifikasi Zonasi Daerah Bencana Di Indonesia tersebut selanjutnya menjadi salah satu masukan penting dalam menyusun Standar Operasional Prosedur dan Program Penanganan Bencana alam Bidang Penataan Ruang, yang dapat mewakili berbagai peristiwa bencana alam yang terjadi di Indonesia. Operasionalisasi Program Penanganan Bencana Alam Bidang Penataan Ruang Berdasarkan penyebabnya bencana dapat dibedakan menjadi tiga jenis, yaitu bencana alam, bencana akibat ulah manusia, dan bencana kombinasi (Lihat Gambar 2.1). a) Bencana Alam (natural disaster) Bencana Alam merupakan fenomena atau gejala alam yang disebabkan oleh keadaan geologi, biologis, seismis, hidrologis atau disebabkan oleh suatu proses dalam lingkungan alam mengancam kehidupan, struktur dan perekonomian masyarakat serta menimbulkan malapetaka. Bencana yang termasuk bencana alam antara lain: wabah penyakit, hama dan penyakit tanaman, gempa bumi, letusan gunung berapi, tanah longsor, gelombang laut pasang, banjir, erosi, angin taufan, badai tropis, kekeringan dan kebakaran hutan.

LAPORAN KAJIAN DAN SURVEY AWAL PASCA GEMPABUMI ... - ITB

Pada tanggal 2 September 2009, pukul 07:55:01 (UTC) atau pukul 14:55:01 (WIB) waktu setempat, telah terjadi gempabumi besar dengan moment magnitude Mw = 7.0 dengan kedalaman 49.9 km pada posisi 7.777°S, 107.326°E (Sumber : USGS). Gempabumi ini mengakibatkan kerusakan berbagai prasarana dan sarana fisik serta sekitar 74 orang korban jiwa manusia di Propinsi Jawa Barat.. Kerusakan bangunan secara umum yang teramati di daerah survey (Kabupaten Tasikmalaya dan Pangalengan) bervariasi dari kerusakan ringan, keruskan parah, sampai runtuh. Bangunanbangunan sekolah, kantor pemerintah, rumah sakit/puskesmas, dan perumahan juga banyak yang mengalami kerusakan parah. Prasarana jalan, jembatan, tanggul, instalasi listrik dan telepon diidentifikasi masih dalam kondisi baik dan beberapa hanya mengalami kerusakan ringan. Institut Teknologi Bandung memiliki ahli-ahli di bidang bencana alam seperti kegempaan dan tsunami perlu memberikan suatu kontribusi untuk rehabilitasi serta rekonstruksi pasca bencana Jawa Barat. Sebagai bagian dari program kerja ITB untuk memberikan suatu masukan-masukan atau rekomendasi teknis untuk tahapan rehabilitas dan rekonstruksi, kajain awal mengenai kejadian gempa Tasik dan survey awal identifikasi cepat kerusakan bangunan telah dilakukan. Pada tanggal 3 September 2009, kami melakukan survey awal ke daerah Pangelengan dan pada tanggal 5-7 September 2009 telah dilakukan survey ke Kabupaten Tasikmalaya. Team dari ITB telah melakukan suatu kajian-kajian awal, pengumpulan data-data serta survey ke daerah bencana untuk melakukan pengamatan langsung secara visual dampak-dampak dari gempa yang terjadi. Kajain-kajian awal dan survey ini dilakukan untuk dapat memberikan suatu rekomendasi-rekomendasi teknis serta langkah-langkah yang tepat untuk dilakukan selanjutnya Satuan Tugas Kajian dan Survey Lapangan Bencana Gempa Jawa Barat - ITB Laporan Kajian dan Survey Awal Bencana Gempa Jawa Barat dalam rangka pemulihan (recovery), fase pembangunan kembali (rekonstruksi), serta pada jangka panjangnya fase pencegahan (prevention), mitigasi (mitigation) dan kesiapan (preparedness). 1.2. Tujuan Kajian dan Survey Awal Hasil yang diharapkan dari kajian dan survey awal gempabumi dan keluaran-keluarannya adalah sebagai berikut: a. Melakukan kajian singkat dan survey awal (investigasi lapangan pasca bencana) untuk mengkaji pengaruh dari besaran gempa yang terjadi serta mengidentifikasi kerusakan bangunan-bangunan dan sarana prasarana akibat gempa. Bangunan-bangunan kritis menjadi prioritas dalam survey awal ini yakni seperti bangunan-bangunan fasilias kesehatan (Puskesmas), sekolah, tempat ibadah (masjid), dan bangunan/sarana umum lainnya. Selain itu, juga untuk melakukan survey kerusakan bangunan rumah penduduk. Pada umumnya setelah pasca bencana gempa, ruangan-ruangan tempat ibadah dan juga sekolah tidak digunakan, umumnya sekolah akan diliburkan beberapa hari. Pada saat aktivitas sekolah (kegiatan belajar mengajar) dimulai kembali, aktivitas tersebut diadakan di tempat-tempat yang dianggap aman. b. Melakukan kaji cepat kelayakan bangunan pasca bencana gempa (rapid assessment) untuk meyakinkan para pihak terkait. Tujuan dari kegiatan ini adalah untuk...

« previous  123456789