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Electric Fireplaces BUI LT- I N | HD L I N E A R Just plug in one of our electric fireplaces for instant ambience in any room. All of our Built-in and HD Linear models are CSA tested for safety, fit any room style, and are easy to use. They are cool to the touch but will add warmth to any space. Columbia Corner Surround with Arched Rectangle built-in fireplace front shown in Cherry Stain Finish. A division of the Outdoor GreatRoom Company Electric LINEAR Cool to the touch and warm to the eye This hot fireplace feels cool to the touch, yet, puts out heat when you want it. It hangs like a piece of art – easy to install and sets up in minutes. Place it on any interior wall with an electric outlet. Just plug it in and have a beautiful fire instantly. Model GE-58 Select your ideal fire. Fireplace Features Choose from a large range of options – from fire intensity, to backlighting color, to heat range and more! • Ambient backlighting comes standard on all models. • High efficiency LED on fire and backlighting— Uses only 15 watts. • Operating costs as low as a penny per day with flame and backlighting, and 9-18 cents per hour with the heater on.
APPLICATIONS The LM1949 linear integrated circuit serves as an excellent control of fuel injector drive circuitry in modern automotive systems. The IC is designed to control an external power NPN Darlington transistor that drives the high current injector solenoid. The current required to open a solenoid is several times greater than the current necessary to merely hold it open; therefore, the LM1949, by directly sensing the actual solenoid current, initially saturates the driver until the “peak” injector current is four times that of the idle or “holding” current (Figure 19–Figure 22). This guarantees opening of the injector. The current is then automatically reduced to the sufficient holding level for the duration of the input pulse. In this way, the total power consumed by the system is dramatically reduced. Also, a higher degree of correlation of fuel to the input voltage pulse (or duty cycle) is achieved, since opening and closing delays of the solenoid will be reduced.
Product Folder Sample & Buy Technical Documents Support & Community Tools & Software LM35 www.ti.com SNIS159D – AUGUST 1999 – REVISED OCTOBER 2013 LM35 Precision Centigrade Temperature Sensors FEATURES DESCRIPTION The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, with an output voltage linearly proportional to the Centigrade temperature. Thus the LM35 has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from the output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±¼°C at room temperature and ±¾°C over a full −55°C to +150°C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration of the LM35 make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. The device is used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As the LM35 draws only 60 μA from the supply, it has very low self-heating of less than 0.1°C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a −55°C to +150°C temperature range, while the LM35C is rated for a −40°C to +110°C range (−10° with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface-mount smalloutline package and a plastic TO-220 package.
PEMBAHASAN DAN KUNCI JAWABAN GEOGRAFI KELAS XII PAKET B 1. Berdasarkan soal nomor 1 a. Konsep aglomerasi adalah merupakan gabungan, kumpulan, 2 atau lebih pusat kegiatan dalam 1 lokasi/kawasan terterntu seperti kawasan industri, pemukiman, perdagangan, dsb. b. Konsep morfologi menjelaskan kenampakan bentuk-bentuk muka bumi, seperti dataran rendah, lereng, bukit/dataran tinggi. c. Konsep pola menitik beratkan pada pola keruangan baik fisik maupun sosialnya seperti pola permukiman penduduk, pola aliran sungai, dsb. d. Konsep lokasi mengkaji letak suatu objek dipermukaan bumi. Pada konsep ini utamanya dalam menjawab pertanyaan dimana (where). e. Konsep ketergantungan adalah konsep yang menunjukkan keterkaitan keruangan antar wilayah akibat adanya perbedaan potensi antar wilayah. Seperti keterkaitan antara desa dengan kota. Kunci jawaban D 2. Prinsip-prinsip geografi ada 4 a. Prinsip deskripsi, merupakan penjelasan lebih jauh mengenai gejala-gejala yang diselidiki/dipelajari. Deskripsi disajikan dalam bentuk tulisan, diagram tabel/gambar/peta. b. Prinsip korologi, merupakan gejala, fakta/masalah geografi disuatu tempat yang ditinjau dari sebaran, interelasi, interaksi, dan integrasinya dalam ruang. c. Prinsip persebaran, merupakan suatu gejala dan fakta yang tersebar tidak merata dipermukaan bumi. d. Prinsip interelasi, merupakan suatu hubungan yang saling terkait dalam ruang antara gejala yang 1 dengan gejala lain. e. Prinsip distribusi, merupakan suatu gejala dan fakta yang tidak merata dipermukaan bumi.
Even if FM radio broadcasting is a fundamental means of communication, it can’t escape one of the big trends in electronics today: miniaturization. As mobile communication devices are gaining more and more functionalities, people still want to have the option of listening to FM radio on their smart phones or MP3 players. This can only be achieved through the miniaturization of the FM reception process by implementing all its functions into a microchip. This miniaturization process is widely used in the industry, but has not been explored in depth by undergraduate students. In order to appreciate the complexity of such a task, we decided to design an FM receiver in a microchip. To make the project more interesting, we chose to create a user interface facilitating its use.
Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2009 is collaborative, Professional 2009 is collaborative, versatile, versatile, and fast software compete and and fast software to help youto help you compete global economy. Through building win in the and win in the global economy. Through building information modeling information modeling (BIM), Autodesk (BIM), Autodesk Analysis Professional can Robot Structural Robot Structural Analysis complex models with exceptionally calculate Professional calculates even your most complex models with powerful finite element auto-meshing, exceptionally powerful finite element non-linear algorithms, and a comprehensive auto-meshing, non-linear delivering collection of design codes, algorithms, and a comprehensive hours. Autodesk results in minutes, notcollection of design codes, delivering results Professional Robot Structural Analysisin minutes, not hours. Seamless, collaborative workflow offers seamless, collaborative workflow interoperability with 3D bidirectional and interoperability with 3D bidirectional to Autodesk companion products, links to Autodesk companion products. The together with an open application open application programming interface (API) programming interface (API) provide a provides a scalable, country-specific analysis scalable, country-specific analysis solution solution for a range of structures. These include for are not limited to buildings, bridges, civil but many different types of structures, including buildings, bridges, civil and and specialty structures. specialty structures. ®
Let's consider the following example: One has measured the force necessary to extend a spring from its rest (equilibrium position) for various extensions. The goal is to find the spring constant. The theory (Hook's Law) predicts the linear dependence between the force and the change of the length of the spring: F = -kx To find the spring constant k, one needs to plot the negative force -F as a function of x and find the straight-line fit. The slope of that line is equal to the spring constant k. Finding the best straight-line fit could be quite time consuming if done with a calculator. Using Microsoft Excel program significantly simplifies the whole procedure. Follow the steps shown below to make a graph and then draw a straight line that fits your data. A. Start Microsoft Excel 2010 (or Excel 2007). B. Enter your data into Excel spreadsheet. C. Highlight all cells containing data. In our example, the first column (A) contains values of x, whereas the second column (B) contains values of force -F: D. From the "Insert" tab select "Charts - Scatter". Use the first type of scatter charts – “Scatter with only Markers”. You should see a simple plot prepared by Excel. E. Next step is to add axis labels and legend to the graph. Select “Layout” tab from “Chart Tools”. Then add a header using the “Chart Title” button and add axis labels using “Axis Titles” button (both for horizontal and for vertical axes). Optionally, you may edit or simply remove the legend. Grab and drag a corner of the graph (chart) to enlarge its size. F. The last step is to add the linear fit (a straight line fit) to your graph (chart). Click once anywhere inside the graph area. Select the “Layout” tab from “Chart Tools”. Click on the “Trendline” icon and select the “Linear Trendline” option. You should see a graph similar to this: ...
Powerchip Australia Pty. Ltd. Phone : (03) 9681 6888 Fax : (03) 9681 6999 email@example.com Digital Adrenaline For Your… Lexus LX 570 Sports Powerchip technology enhances your Lexus to its ultimate level, delivering faster, smoother acceleration in all driving conditions. Whether you enjoy a leisurely weekend cruise or a hard racetrack drive – there is no easier and more effective way to release the potential from your LX 570 Sports . The following information is an overview of the performance the Powerchip will deliver. If you have any questions, your Power Consultant will assist you as best as possible. We look forward to giving you the best performance possible from your Lexus. Make Lexus Model LX 570 Sports Engine Year From Jan 09 Powerchip Code LEX0020 Power In standard form the Lexus LX 570 Sports produces 270 kw at the flywheel, and Powerchip improves the engine power to 291 kw. Power (kw) Standard Bronze/ Silver Gold Gold 98 270 N/A 286 291 Power Increases (kw) Bronze Silver Gold Gold 98 N/A N/A 16 21 The extra performance achieved by the Powerchip allows your vehicle to respond much better than stock LX 570 Sports s. You will notice an effortless push back into the driver’s seat, to give you a much more enjoyable and at times safer driving experience. The Powerchip will tap into your Lexus’s ‘hidden reserves’, to give you an immediately noticeable improvement from your vehicle – we guarantee it! Torque Torque is a measurement of your engine’s pulling power, and it is torque that pulls you up hills, allowing your engine a more linear and aggressive acceleration curve. With the Powerchip, you notice the increase in torque right throughout the rev range, which gives you far greater flexibility at low engine revolutions. Towing will become less demanding, and you will no longer feel the need to take the engine to the redline in each gear to get the performance you demand... It’s always there for you, when you really need it most! Torque (Nm) Standard Bronze/ Silver Gold Gold 98 530 N/A 561 572 Torque Increases (Nm) Bronze Silver Gold Gold 98 N/A N/A 31 42 Acceleration Increased Power and Torque results in faster acceleration. And it is not just standing start acceleration that is improved, your ingear acceleration is as well. If overtaking is important to you, you will feel safe knowing that you spend less time on the “wrong side of the road”, improving the safety of your car, for you and your family or passengers. Perhaps you feel that you need that extra bit of power when you are lined up at the "traffic light grand prix" against another car with similar (or more) power? If you want to have the unfair advantage that will give you more ‘GO’ away from the lights, you need a Powerchip performance software upgrade for your LX 570 Sports . Fitting Details Your car uses an ECU which has an embedded processor. This means that your car does not use a chip that can be modified. The Powerchip we provide for your car is an additional computer which alters the injector duty cycle of the vehicle for more power. Installation of the additional computer is an easy process as no wires need to be cut. Furtmore it only takes about 1 hour to install and can be performed by a Powerchip Authorised Fitter. There are authorised fitters in most areas. Please enquire at the time of order for your nearest fitting station. On Road Development Where Powerchip really shines out over its competitors is the emphasis and time spent refining the program for drivability and enjoyment. Much more a ‘real world’ gain than full throttle horse power runs on a dyno, part throttle refinement is a gain everyone uses every time they drive the vehicle. Flat spots and poor off the line performance are smoothed out in this process, and transient throttle conditions are made razor sharp for the ultimate in response. Real time changes to tables like throttle response and power enrichment are done on road to fine tune the driving...
Modeling Diesel Engine Cylinder Head Gaskets using the Gasket Material Option of the SOLID185 Element Jonathan Raub Cummins, Inc. Abstract The modeling of diesel engine cylinder head gasket joints is complicated by the nonlinear response of the head gasket’s materials. Linearization of these material responses can lead to significant errors in the solution’s results. The 1-dimensional nonlinear approximation made by the Gasket material option of the SOLID185 element sufficiently captures the response of the nonlinear gasket materials while maintaining practical solution times for the large model sizes associated with multi-cylinder head gasket joint models. This paper will give an overview of the model building and assembly process used to create a head gasket joint model, describe the nonlinear nature of the materials used in the model, and present comparisons of the model’s results with experimental measurements. Introduction Previous analyses of cylinder head gasket joints using Ansys employed a process in which the nonlinear responses of the head gasket materials were linearized to allow the use of an elastic modulus (Reference 1). While moderately effective, this process required the material response to be fairly linear over the range of load experienced by the gasket. Also, this technique captured the global response of the joint, but the linear material assumption limited the model’s ability to accurately predict load variation around the gasket, especially in lightly loaded regions....
The equations in Nonconvergence in Caesar II The equations in Caesar II (and all pipe flexibility analysis programs) are linear in nature and therefore are readily solved using matrix operations on computers. Difficulties with numerical methods occur when nonlinear boundary conditions exist. The computations solve a system of linear algebraic equations simultaneously until the solution does not change appreciably between successive iterations. But nonlinear boundary conditions may cause a change in the actual equations themselves between successive iterations and is the basis for all convergence problems in this type of numerical routine. Once the iteration process begins the loads defined in the load case editor are applied to the piping and the pipe moves according to these loads, the stiffness of the pipe, and how it is restrained. When gaps are closed then the stiffness changes from zero to whatever stiffness is specified for the restraint in input. This changes the equations that Caesar II has to solve. On each successive iteration Caesar II must check the status of the piping at each nonlinear restraint location to determine whether the restraint is engaged or not engaged and then change the equations accordingly. Convergence is not achieved until every restraint in the system retains the same engaged/not-engaged state between several successive iterations (and of course the numerical solution also changes inappreciably at each node in the system as well). The various types of nonlinear boundary conditions, the convergence difficulties they may cause, and methods for obtaining convergence in Caesar II when encountering these difficulties are explained next. Nonlinear Restraints Nonlinear restraints are defined as restraints whose stiffness is not uniform along the line of action of the restraint. Uni-directional restraints (for example, pipe resting on a rack), restraints with a gap, and bi-linear restraints are all nonlinear. Whereas fully bidirectional restraints are linear. The following illustration shows force vs.