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Diesel ECU and Fuel Injector Drivers - Vishay

Diesel ECU and Fuel Injector Drivers VISHAY components used for diesel ECU include: • Power MOSFETS • Diodes • Capacitors • Resistors • Inductors / EMI Filters • Transient / Overvoltage Protection Devices • ESD Protection Devices • Reverse Polarity Protection Devices Application Overview Electronic control of diesel engines for passenger cars and commercial vehicles is a critical function in today"s automotive industry. All functions in a modern diesel engine are controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU) that communicates with an elaborate array of sensors placed at strategic locations throughout the engine to monitor everything from engine speed to coolant and oil temperatures to piston position. Efficient electronic control means that fuel burns more thoroughly, delivers more power, provides greater fuel economy, and generates fewer emissions than yesterday"s diesel engines. Modern direct-injection diesel engines produce low amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, reactive nitrogen compounds (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). VISHAY's broad product line provides component solutions for power supplies (SMPS), input signal conditioning, fuel injector drivers, relay drivers, solenoid drivers, and vehicle communications. Diesel ECU and Fuel Injector Drivers : CAN-BUS, ESD Protection Ceramic Capacitors Product Name Diesel ECU and Fuel Injector Drivers : CAN-BUS, ISO9141 Bus Transceiver Integrated Circuit Product Name Status Description Features Package Si9241AEY Single-Ended Bus Transceiver 200kB typical, reverse BAT protection Si9243AEY Single ended bus transceiver 200kB typical, reverse BAT protection...

AD590 (Rev. G)
by jokomodo 0 Comments favorite 81 Viewed Download 0 Times

2-Terminal IC Temperature Transducer AD590 Data Sheet Linear current output: 1 μA/K Wide temperature range: −55°C to +150°C Probe-compatible ceramic sensor package 2-terminal device: voltage in/current out Laser trimmed to ±0.5°C calibration accuracy (AD590M) Excellent linearity: ±0.3°C over full range (AD590M) Wide power supply range: 4 V to 30 V Sensor isolation from case Available in 2-lead FLATPACK, 4-lead LFCSP, 3-pin TO-52, 8-lead SOIC, and die form In addition to temperature measurement, applications include temperature compensation or correction of discrete components, biasing proportional to absolute temperature, flow rate measurement, level detection of fluids and anemometry. The AD590 is available in die form, making it suitable for hybrid circuits and fast temperature measurements in protected environments. The AD590 is particularly useful in remote sensing applications. The device is insensitive to voltage drops over long lines due to its high impedance current output. Any well-insulated twisted pair is sufficient for operation at hundreds of feet from the receiving circuitry. The output characteristics also make the AD590 easy to multiplex: the current can be switched by a CMOS multiplexer, or the supply voltage can be switched by a logic gate output.The AD590 should be used in any temperature-sensing application below 150°C in which conventional electrical temperature sensors are currently employed. The inherent low cost of a monolithic integrated circuit combined with the elimination of support circuitry makes the AD590 an attractive alternative for many temperature measurement situations. Linearization circuitry, precision voltage amplifiers, resistance measuring circuitry, and cold junction compensation are not needed in applying the AD590. The AD590 is a 2-terminal integrated circuit temperature transducer that produces an output current proportional to absolute temperature. For supply voltages between 4 V and 30 V, the device acts as a high impedance, constant current regulator passing 1 μA/K. Laser trimming of the chip’s thin-film resistors is used to calibrate the device to 298.2 μA output at 298.2 K (25°C). The AD590 is a calibrated, 2-terminal temperature sensor requiring only a dc voltage supply (4 V to 30 V). Costly transmitters, filters, lead wire compensation, and linearization circuits are all unnecessary in applying the device...

common causes of electric in-tank fuel pump failures - Carter

COMMON CAUSES OF ELECTRIC IN-TANK FUEL PUMP FAILURES CONTAMINATED FUEL Fuel tank contamination is the number one cause of in-tank electric fuel pump failures. This contamination is often the result of moisture in the fuel tank leading to fuel tank oxidation, causing rust to form in the fuel tank. The rust is then ingested by the fuel pump, ultimately bringing about pump failure. A widespread misconception is that the fuel pump strainer or sock on the inlet side of the fuel pump will prevent these contaminates from entering the pump. WRONG! Fuel pump strainers will not stop moisture or particles of contamination smaller than 70 microns (on average). Why not simply use a finer filter strainer and eliminate these problems? If a strainer was made fine enough to keep out all of the contaminates and still allow proper fuel flow volume, it would be too large to fit in the fuel tank. The strainers used today are a middle-of-the-road balance between allowing adequate fuel flow and maximum fuel filtering. Original Equipment and Aftermarket replacement pumps are built to supply high pressure fuel to injection systems and are engineered with the assumption of a clean, cool, fuel supply to the pump at all times. Injection systems are even more sensitive to contaminants; that’s why the industry standard is in-line fuel filters that capture, on average, particles approximately 30 microns or larger. Further downstream in the fuel system, fuel injector filters capture particles as small as 10 microns. So it becomes obvious that any contamination in the fuel tank can cause premature fuel pump failure. (See TEC Bulletin #1620 for proper fuel tank removal and cleaning procedures.) If you find you are replacing a fuel pump that has a discolored strainer, properly dispose of the fuel you drained; it is contaminated too. If you put the same fuel back into the tank after the pump is replaced, you are reintroducing contaminants immediately! Always replace the fuel pump strainer and fuel filter with new units when replacing a fuel pump. ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS Electrical connections are the second most common causes of fuel pump replacement. In reality, the fuel pump is still quite capable of providing pressure and flow well within specifications, but because of poor electrical connections the output is diminished, giving the appearance of a failed pump. To identify fuel pump electrical problems, use a high quality digital volt/ohm/meter to test for voltage drops and continuity. This test must be done with the pump running. (See TEC Bulletin #1620 for how to test for voltage drop.) NOTE: In a 12-volt system, fuel pumps are designed to run at 13.5 volts. Maximum voltage drop of more than .2 volts will affect the fuel pump operation. #1608 Federal-Mogul Document #1608 CHRYSLER APPLICATIONS: The most common failure mode will be complete loss of continuity on most Chrysler applications. Some may have partial continuity loss, creating an excessive voltage drop. The pump will be energized, but not enough to fuel the system. Always inspect the electrical connections on the outside of the fuel pump hanger assembly and on the hanger to the fuel pump itself. If there is any evidence of a black sooty deposit, melted wires/connectors or eroded connector pins, the connector must be replaced...

Guide to Proper Fuel Pump Installation - Carter

#1620 Federal-Mogul Document #1620 Guide to Proper Fuel Pump Installation Diagnostics • Facts About Electric Fuel Pumps and Strainers • Facts About Rust and Dirt Contamination • Voltage Drop Test • Fuel Tank Cleaning Procedures • Fuel Line Flushing #1620 Federal-Mogul Document #1620 Correctly Diagnosing a Low Pressure, Low Volume or No-Fuel Problem A lack of fuel to the engine may signal a failed fuel pump. But don’t immediately assume that the pump is the problem. Other issues may be causing the no-fuel situation. The two leading causes of electric fuel pump failure are: 1. Fuel contamination and 2. Low/no voltage to the pump due to overheated connectors, loose connections, poor grounds and other electrical problems. Fuel system diagnosis and pump replacement and system repair will require special tools and can be a dangerous service to perform if not properly equipped. If you do not have the proper tools, fuel pump replacement is a service best performed by a professional. Review these easy-to-diagnose issues before you install a new pump. Is there fuel in the tank? Faulty fuel gauges or low levels of fuel may lead you to think that the pump is faulty when all you need is to add some gasoline to allow the pump to charge the fuel line. Put in two gallons of fuel and test it again. Clogged external fuel filters and bent fuel lines can restrict flow. Obviously, even the best fuel pump can’t overcome restrictions upstream. Make sure these areas have been inspected, and replace the fuel filter if you suspect it is restricting fuel flow. Restricted fuel filters will reduce fuel flow volume and cause the pump to work harder, drawing amperage beyond its design limits, causing wiring and connectors to melt, and the pump to fail prematurely. Fuel filters should be replaced as per the manufacturer’s mileage or time recommendations, but may require more frequent replacement in dusty conditions. Fuel filters are frequently ignored during vehicle service. If you’re not sure when the filter was replaced last, do it now; it may save you a lot of time and trouble. Then retest the system. Failure to replace in-line fuel filters at the time of pump replacement will void your warranty. Voltage supply issues may lead you to think the pump has failed. When electrical connections fail, voltage to the pump will be reduced. The pump will run inefficiently, producing below-required pressures and noise. The vehicle will perform poorly and the pump will fail prematurely. So check the vehicle’s harness plugs for black soot or burned wires. Check the pump module/hanger plug for melted plastic or loose terminals on the flange. Burned wires, melted plastic, loose terminals, or connectors showing signs of black soot must be replaced to supply a consistent voltage supply to the pump. To find the problem areas, perform a voltage drop test across all electrical connectors and all electrical components involved with the fuel pump. (Voltage drop test instructions are shown later in the “Procedures” sections of this information.) Also check the wires from the pump to the hanger flange when replacing a pump-only application. You may need to repair wiring harness damage that, if not serviced, will cause a premature failure to the pump you are replacing. Depending on your application, Carter ® replacement parts 888-103, 888-536 (in-tank harness), 888-543, 888-544 or 888-553 (top of pump harness, outside of tank) can solve this problem. Be sure to ask your parts store! Clean the tank. The importance of cleaning the fuel tank cannot be overemphasized. Carter Fuel Delivery Systems’ unique gradient-density electric fuel pump strainers filter to a particle size one-half the size allowed by OEM strainers. But even the smallest particles will still accumulate inside a pump and eventually cause a failure. Many fuel pumps fail because of sediment in the tank fouling the pump mechanism or plugging the strainer. Not even the best designed fuel pump and strainer will last very long in a dirty tank. So to avoid a problem down the road, always have the tank professionally cleaned before replacing the pump, or if desired, clean the tank yourself, carefully following the instructions in this guide. Always properly dispose of contaminated fuel. Never reuse contaminated fuel or your replacement pump will fail quickly. Fuel contamination will void your pump warranty. Install a new strainer. A new strainer must be installed any time a new pump is installed. NEVER reuse a strainer. Failure to install a new strainer will void your warranty. Most module units come with the strainer already installed on the unit. Replacement hanger assemblies or pump-only applications will require the strainer be installed during the replacement process. Replacement fuel pumps will fail from contamination if a new strainer is not installed with them. Strainers should be pushed straight onto the fuel inlet by hand. Do not use a screw-on motion, hammer on the strainer or press the strainer against hard surfaces to install. Hand pressure should be sufficient. #1620 Federal-Mogul Document #1620 Facts About Electric Fuel Pumps and Strainers Electric Fuel Pumps • Are used with all fuel injection (EFI) systems. Fuel injection systems require pressures well beyond the capabilities of mechanical fuel pumps on carbureted engines. • Are usually inside the gas tank and use fuel flow through the electric pump as a coolant. (If two pumps are used, the second is located in-line between the gas tank and engine.) • Are precision components built to supply fluid under high pressure to the fuel injectors. Higher pressures require close tolerance pumps, which are more sensitive to fuel contamination than their mechanical pump counterparts. • Use an in-tank filter and/or strainer (often referred to as a sock) to restrict large contaminants from getting into the pump’s working mechanism. Fine particles will pass through strainers and into the pump mechanism. • Have external in-line fuel filters that should be replaced every 12-20,000 miles to prevent fuel pump overload and failure. Restricted fuel filters will reduce fuel flow volume and cause the pump to work harder, drawing amperage beyond its design limits, causing wiring and connectors to melt, and the pump to fail prematurely. Strainers Improper strainer installation can also cause a pump to fail. NEVER reuse a strainer. Failure to properly install a new strainer will void your warranty. The new strainer should always be installed onto the pump by hand and never pounded onto the pump. Strainers should be pushed straight onto the fuel inlet by hand. Do not use a screw-on motion, hammer on the strainer or press the strainer against hard surfaces to install. Hand pressure should be sufficient. Using a screw-on motion will cut the pump inlet and deposit pieces of the inlet housing into the strainer, which will cause pump failure. Pounding the strainer onto the pump can cut a hole in the strainer, allowing large pieces of debris to enter the pump. Driving a strainer on can also break internal nylon components contained inside the strainer. Hammering or pounding strainers may break vanes from pump impellers, which fall into the strainer. Once the pump starts running, this debris enters the pump, and will cause immediate failure. If any of the above situations occur, the pieces can fall from the damaged pump inside the strainer. If a strainer is reused, the new pump can draw the debris from the previous pump failure from the old strainer, causing immediate failure of the new pump. Fuel Pump Strainer #1620 Federal-Mogul Document #1620 Facts About Rust and Dirt Contamination Contaminants can destroy a pump by blocking fluid flow and damaging internal components! Rust • Can develop in a fuel tank from condensation produced through normal temperature changes. • Will develop at a faster rate if the tank is habitually kept at low levels. • Will develop in a tank that was not treated properly during the manufacturing process. • Will develop in a tank that has been physically damaged (bent, crushed or scraped). Dirt • Can get into the vehicle’s tank if the cap is missing, not properly tightened or the wrong cap is used. • Can get into the vehicle’s tank if the vent tube is damaged. • Cannot be prevented by “White box” fuel filters with rubber or plastic internal components. Fuels with methanol or ethanol additives can erode a filter if it is not made with the proper materials. • Can return to the tank through the return system. • Can get into the vehicle’s fuel tank through contaminated fuel pumped from service station tanks. These tanks’ pick-up tubes are located toward the bottom of the tank. Small or light particles tend to float on the surface and heavier particles tend to sink to the bottom of the tank. If the storage tank fuel level is allowed to drop too low it will increase the possibility of contaminated fuel, even if a filter is used at the pumping facility. Testing the Fuel Pump Circuit for Voltage Drop This test checks for voltage being lost along a wire, or through a connection or switch. Similar results cannot reliably be obtained through the use of continuity testing with an Ohm meter. Multi-strand wires may test properly for continuity, but due to opens or corrosion in the line, display a substantial voltage drop when tested under load. Voltage Drop testing is a method of electrical diagnosis that can quickly locate high-resistance problems in a circuit. Digital Volt/Ohm meters (DVOM's) can be used to measure the voltage drop across a load device or conductor. Voltage Drop is the loss of voltage caused by the flow of current through a resistance. Increases in resistance increase the voltage drop. Whenever checking voltage drop, the energized pump circuit must include a current load, such as the fuel pump, or a substitute load. If, because of the pump design, accessible test points at the pump are not available, or testing at the pump creates a dangerous situation, a substitute load must be used. Disconnect the circuit connector closest to the pump and perform circuit tests from that point. A substitute load such as a HP6545 (Plastic) sealed beam must be wired in series instead of the fuel pump. (Wire both the high and low beam in series to simulate a 5 amp load.) DO NOT “dry” test a pump or perform any electrical tests with an open fuel tank present. Note: The battery should be fully charged to operating voltage prior to performing tests to obtain accurate results. Voltage drop testing is commonly done to check wires, connectors, relays and connections for excessive resistance. Each fuel pump must receive its rated voltage to operate properly. If not enough voltage is available, the pump will not operate as it should. Normally, the voltage drop on the power feed side and ground side wires, connectors and connections should not exceed 0.5V or 500mV. If it indicates a higher reading, a loose connection, corrosion or faulty power source is indicated. Voltage drop testing is important because high resistance can prevent proper fuel pump circuit operation. Circuits with high current draw cannot tolerate high resistance. For instance, a loose or corroded connection can easily add several hundred ohms of resistance to a circuit under a load. This amount of resistance in the fuel pump circuit would severely reduce voltage potential at the pump, not allow sufficient pump RPM, and possibly result in a no-start condition. After the fuel pump is removed from the vehicle, carefully inspect all connections that could not be reached during the voltage drop test. Inspect for melted insulation on wiring close to connectors. Check for melted plastic or black soot where positive and negative terminals enter the connector. This evidence indicates a faulty connector. Check for loose connections where positive or negative wires attach to the pump hanger bracket assembly. #1620 Federal-Mogul Document #1620 To test for a Voltage Drop on the Power side of a circuit (Figure 1), follow the steps below. 1. Connect the positive test lead of a Digital Volt/Ohm Meter (DVOM) to the power source. Use of an analog meter is not recommended because damage to the meter could result from improper polarity. 2. Connect the negative test lead to the other end of the wire for the circuit being tested (point A). 3. Operate the circuit and observe the meter voltage. 4. The DVOM will display the difference in voltage between the two points. Figure 1 To pinpoint the component/connection responsible for the voltage drop, move the negative test lead to the next component/connection in the circuit and retest at additional points as necessary. Changes in the Voltage Drop Reading indicate where excessive Voltage Drop is located. To test for a Voltage Drop on the Ground side of a circuit (Figure 2), follow the steps below. 1. Connect the negative test lead of a Digital Volt/Ohm Meter (DVOM) to the negative battery terminal. Use of an analog meter is not recommended because damage to the meter could result from improper polarity. 2. Connect the positive test lead to the ground terminal/wire at the unit being tested (point A). 3. Operate the circuit and observe the meter voltage. 4. The DVOM will display the difference in voltage between the two points. Figure 2 To pinpoint the component/connection responsible for the voltage drop, move the negative test lead to the next component/connection in the circuit and retest at additional points as necessary. Changes in the Voltage Drop Reading indicate where excessive Voltage Drop is located...

Engine Tools - Cat Parts
by kororawa 0 Comments favorite 78 Viewed Download 0 Times

Engine Tools Air Used to seal air induction system to test for air leaks temporarily — replaces primary and secondary air filters Used with shop air supply and dealer supplied 0 to 70 kPa (0 to 10 psi) pressure gauge Requires one pressurizer tool for each air cleaner (797F Off-Highway Truck requires five tools) Each tool features a quick-disconnect air fitting and a preset pressure relief valve 9H-5548 O-ring Seal is serviced separately Pressurizer Assembly Air Induction 152-2067 Differential Pressure Gauge Model: Multiple Engine Models Warranty: Six Months Used to monitor aftercooler pressure drop in applications with crankcase fumes recirculation • Minimize risk of engine reliability problems • Helps eliminate premature plugging of aftercooler cores • Increase service life of air cleaner • Eliminates need for using two gauges • Installs easily across air side of aftercooler core • Measures differential pressure continuously, regardless of fluctuation in system pressure • For maximum accuracy, calibrate gauge in position used • Magnahelic gauge with high pressure option Accuracy ±2% of full scale Weight .51 kg (18 oz) Range 0 - 101 cm (0 - 40 in) of water 1.0 Minor divisions Temperature range (-6° to 60° C) 20° to 140° F Maximum pressure 551 kPa (80 psi) Engine Tools Part Number Description Differential Pressure Gauge Turbocharging Reconditioning Tools Model: Multiple Engine Models Warranty: Six Months The tools needed to service a particular turbocharger can be determined from the following charts...

manual - D-Link
by monarcy 0 Comments favorite 70 Viewed Download 0 Times

Section 1 - Product Overview Package Contents DIR-320 Wireless Broadband Router Power Adapter CD-ROM with User Manual One straight-through Ethernet cable One Quick Installation Guide IMPORTANT: Using a power supply with a different voltage rating than the one included with the DIR-320 will cause damage and void the warranty for this product. Broadband Internet connection via Cable or ADSL modem Computer with: 200MHz Processor 64MB Memory CD-ROM Drive Ethernet Adapter with TCP/IP Protocol Installed Internet Explorer v6 or later, FireFox v1.5 Computer with Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Vista D-Link DIR-320 User Manual Section 1 - Product Overview Features Faster Wireless Networking - The DIR-320 provides up to 54Mbps* wireless connection with other 802.11g wireless clients. This capability allows users to participate in real-time activities online, such as video streaming, online gaming, and real-time audio. The performance of this 802.11g wireless router gives you the freedom of wireless networking at speeds x faster than 802.11b. Compatible with 802.11b and 802.11g Devices - The DIR-320 is still fully compatible with the IEEE 80 2.11b standard, so it can connect with existing 802.11b PCI, USB and Cardbus adapters. Advanced Firewall Features - The Web-based user interface displays a number of advanced network management features including: Content Filtering - Easily applied content filtering based on MAC Address, URL, and/or Domain Name. Filter Scheduling - These filters can be scheduled to be active on certain days or for a duration of hours or minutes. Secure Multiple/Concurrent Sessions - The DIR-320 can pass through VPN sessions. It supports multiple and concurrent IPSec and PPTP sessions, so users behind the DIR-320 can securely access corporate networks. User-friendly Setup Wizard - Through its easy-to-use Web-based user interface, the DIR-320 lets you control what information is accessible to those on the wireless network, whether from the Internet or from your company’s server. Configure your router to your specific settings within minutes. Print Server – Built-in printer server ideal for network printer sharing. Connect printer directly to the router via USB port. The Print Server Setup Wizard with automatic detection of most USB capable printer makes short work of printer setup for the network...

Signature Electric Fireplaces - Fireplace City Inc.

Signature Electric Fireplaces Signature 30" Electric Fireplace Packages Notting Hill Cherry Finish (EMP-380-C) Also available in Distressed Medium Oak Monterey Simulated Stone Finish (EMP-STN-5001) Dorset Pecan Finish (EMP-PE-2509) Oakridge Burnished Walnut Finish (EMP-400-BW) Also available in Distressed Medium Oak Traditional Alabaster Alabaster Finish (EMP-AB-475) Sussex Distressed Medium Oak Finish (EMP-272-DO) Also available in Cherry, Walnut and White Signature 23" Electric Fireplace Packages Stratford Corner Distressed Medium Oak Finish (EMP-261C-D0) Also available in Antique White Brockton Burnished Walnut Finish (BROCKTON-BW) All 30" Electraflame® fireplaces come with an easy-to-operate fully-featured remote control. The digital display monitors room temperature and thermostat settings, flame speed and brightness controls, Purifire® air treatment system and sleep timer. • featured on 30" and 32" fireplace packages– Purifire®, the first integral air filtering system for removing mold, pollen, dander, dust and other allergens. • Uses a standard size 10" x 20" high-efficiency, washable filter. • Air filter operates with the heater or may be run with the air-circulating fan only to provide continuous, quiet cleaning. • Exceeds MERV 10 (Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value) rating – filters allergens as small as 1 micron. • Circulates and cleans the air of an average room four times per hour (based on a 12' x 14' room)...

Automotive Parts Distributors Wholesale to the Automotive Trade ...

Automotive Parts Distributors Wholesale to the Automotive Trade Since 1962 Master Cylinders • Wiper Motors ECMs • Smog Pumps • Gear Boxes Rack and Pinion • Brake Boosters Axles • Power Steering Pumps GM and Ford ECM Flashing Hoses • Caps • Timing Belts Molded Heater Hose •Thermostats Power Steering Hoses • Water Pumps Complete Timing Belt Kits • Fan Belts Import Spark Plugs • O2 Sensors Air Conditioning • Radiators Relays • MAF Sensors • Fuel Pumps Cabin Air Filters • Coils Air Fuel Sensors • Wire Sets Wiper Blades • Fuel Injection Reman Alternators & Starters • Everything in Brakes & Chassis • Loaded Struts • Alignment Products • Hub Bearings Radiators • Cooling Fan Assemblies Blower Motors • Side View Mirrors Head and Tail Lamp Assemblies Cabin Filters • Window Regulators New Alternators & Starters • Radiators • Fuel Pumps • Heater Cores • Complete Gas Tanks with Fuel Pump Assemblies • New and Remanufactured Alternators & Starters • Shocks & Struts • Import Car Radiators • Radiators • Heater Cores • New Compressors A-1 Cardone Select Distributors • New Wiper Motors Mass Air Flow Sensors Window Motors Master Cylinders • Window Lift Motors • Window Regulators • A/C Repair Products & Tools • Federated Branded Motor Oil and ATF • High Temp Grease • Hydraulic Fluid • Synthetic Oils...

Creating a modular application with Zend Framework - Amazium

Modular applications with Zend Framework http://blog.keppens.biz/2009/06/create¬modular¬application¬with¬zend.html I admit. I am a sucker for modules. I like my code nicely seperated in manageable blocks, that I can reuse whenever I want. Needless to say, I'm a big fan of the modules in Zend Framework. It isn't always very easy to set it up though. I had to look long and hard for answers on several questions and I noticed a lot of people had the same ones. So, I decided to make an article on creating a modular application in Zend Framework. Pre‐requisites I'm assuming you have already downloaded Zend Framework and have configured your system, so we can use Zend_Tool and the zf scripts to set up our application. If you haven't, you can find a link to my blog at the bottom of this article. Zend_Tool isn't really necessary when setting up an application, but it makes it very easy and assures that your application follows the default directory structure. This creates the project and the initial structure (see figure 1). Let's see what files are important to us. First of all you have the public directory. This will not only hold the index.php file that will start your application, but also public files such as images, css files, javascript files, etc... Then you have the library directory. If you have your own library, this is where you can put it. I will briefly touch how you can add it to your application. The test directory will hold the unit tests. This can be used to test your models which should contain the business logic, but also the actual pages themselves. Last but not least there is the application directory. This can be considered as the most important one. I must confess that in the past, I tried to put as many things like helpers, filters, models in my own library. But I've seen the light! It's actually far simpler to use the directory structure as defined by Zend Framework. Digging into the application directory configs Inside the configs directory, you will find a file called application.ini. This file will be used to define your basic application configuration. We will see later how you can add your own resources to use this and to be auto loaded by your application. We will get back to this file on a number of occasions. Familiarize yourself with it, it will become one of your allies. controllers Inside the controller directory, you will find files for every controller. This is Zend Framework 101, so I'm not going into detail. When you get to modules, don't forget to prepend your module name to the class name (i.e. Admin_IndexController). models Inside the models directory, you can put your models. There is a lot of discussion to what a model is and here's my take: a model contains your business logic, but is not tied to a storage engine...

changing oil in the kawasaki vulcan vn2000 - Kawasaki Vulcan 2000

CHANGING OIL IN THE KAWASAKI VULCAN VN2000 (based on a 2005 model) by tensman1 Preparing the motorcycle: 1. To start, level the motorcycle – my preference is to put a spacer blocks under the kickstand on the left side of the motorcycle and under the frame on the right side of the bike just under the frame member. These blocks are made from scrap lumber. I find it is easier to set the right side block first as shown and tilt the motorcycle until the frame contacts the block, then, holding the handlebars, kick the left side block under the kickstand. This dimension may not be correct for 2004 models as the 2005 models have a different kickstand – the 2004 model will likely be thicker. To be sure your blocks are the correct thickness the first time, lay a level across the luggage rack as shown. You may need to shim them slightly to hold the bike dead level. Or, in the absence of a luggage rack, the seat will do: Small funnel Oil filter wrench – I like the band type shown, but a metal strap type will work. 14 mm box wrench And, of course, some sort of container that will catch about 6 quarts of oil – I’d use a container to hold about 10 quarts. I use the same drain pan for my truck. And, of course, at least 6 quarts of oil and a filter. I prefer to use KawChem 10w-40 and Kaw filters. I usually buy my oil in gallon containers, makes filling quicker. 3. Locate the drain points: There are three (3) plugs to be removed to drain the V2K engine oil. Two (2) plugs are 17mm and one (1) is 14mm (see pics that follow). All plugs are removed by turning them CCW – remember, the plugs are “upside-down” so be sure you turn them the right direction! Oil should be drained while it is warm; this speeds the process and puts most heavy particles in suspension in the oil so they are removed during draining. These plugs are different in their sealing method, but this makes no difference for the oil draining process. Make sure they are put back in the same position shown! Wipe the sealing surfaces of the plugs with a rag and the oil pan surface that makes contact with the plug. These plugs are accessed easiest from the right side of the motorcycle...

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