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A Virtual Sensor estimates product objective or process conditions using mathematical models rather than and sometimes in conjunction with physical sensors. These mathematical models use other physical sensor readings to calculate the estimated property or condition. Virtual sensor may provide flexibility, cost effective solutions, promote diversity, ensure security and increase manageability.
Wireless ad-hoc sensor networks and routing data in them is a significant research area. The objective of this paper is to examine resource depletion attacks at the routing protocol layer, which attempts to permanently disable network nodes by quickly draining their battery power. This type of attack is called as vampire attack. Vampire attacks are very difficult to detect because they attack the node only by sending protocol-compliant messages.
Wireless sensor networks consist of sensor nodes with radio, processor, memory, battery and sensor hardware. With widespread deployment of these devices one can precisely monitor the environment. Sensor nodes are resource constrained in terms of radio range, processor speed, memory and power. WSNs are mostly unguarded and the wireless medium is broadcast. This makes them more vulnerable to attacks. Without proper security measures, an enemy can launch various kinds of attacks in hostile environments. These attacks can disrupt the normal working of WSNs and can defeat the purpose of their deployment. Therefore security is an important aspect of these networks. WSNs are often deployed to monitor important emergency events, such as forest fire and battlefield monitoring. System Monitoring Modules (SMM) should be integrated with Intrusion Detection Modules (IDM).
Sign language: a natural, linguistically complete and a primary medium for the humans to interact. Nowadays, this language is prevalent amongst the deaf, dumb or blind individuals. However, with the conventional sign language not known to the signers, it adversely affects their interpersonal relationships in the society. There is a need of much more sophisticated method than communication through interpreters or writing. Our aim is to design a system in which sensor glove is used to capture the signs of the American Sign Language (ASL) and translate them to English displayed on a LCD.
Due to the wide range of application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) the past few years have witnessed the potential use of it and also become a hot research area now a days. One the main degradation of WSN is that sensor nodes are battery powered and deployed in harsh environment so it is not possible to recharge or replace the batteries all the time the node fails or dead. WSN are used in various applications like environment monitoring, health care, military, industrial control units and in various other environments. Routing protocols developed for various other adhoc networks such as MANET, VANET etc can’t apply directly in WSN due to energy constrains of nodes. It is proved that sensor nodes require much energy to transmit data rather than sensing thus routing protocol developed for WSN should be efficient so that the network lifetime can be prolonged. In this paper, a survey on various Clustering routing protocols has been done indicating their merits
This research paper focuses on the analysis of the network that links governmental institutions, non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies involved in the process of adapting to climate change in Sudan; to find out how they are communicating and cooperating. This paper has adopted qualitative method approach and Desk-based review of various documents and similar research papers as methodology to attain the results. Interviews and focus group discussions have been carried out with key ministries and institutions at national and sub-national levels, executive personnel in local nongovernmental organizations and with some United Nations agencies working in Sudan. The diagram drawn from the data collected during interviews has yielded a visualization of the main actors of the process of adapting to climate change in Sudan. The study has concluded that; using the concepts of network analysis methodologies has helped in acquiring a clear image of
Well-organized big data get together in the densely distributed sensor networks is, therefore, a challenging research area. One of the most effective solutions to address this challenge is to utilize the sink node’s mobility to facilitate the data gathering. While this technique can reduce energy consumption of the sensor nodes, the use of mobile sink presents additional Challenges such as determining the sink node’s trajectory and cluster formation prior to data collection. In this paper, we propose a new mobile sink routing and data gathering method through network clustering based on modified ExpectationMaximization (EM) technique. In addition, we derive an optimal number of clusters to minimize the energy consumption. The effectiveness of our proposal is verified through numerical results.
Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks has to take into account the limited battery resources of the nodes. Sensor nodes can also be powered by other energy sources like solar energy. This paper provides a review of Environment monitoring using Wireless Sensor Networks. The issues related to environment sensor networks is highlighted. The real time applications in environment monitoring is presented with emphasis on energy conservation. Furthermore in this paper we address the problem of scavenging energy using solar powered devices.
Clustering technique is the basic technique used in the wireless sensor network to enhance the lifetime of a sensor network by mitigating energy consumption and provide efficiency, scalability, and security. Formerly sensor nodes are considered to be homogeneous in which each node has the same processing capacity, energy and functionality, but to prolong network lifetime researches has been evolved to infuse heterogeneity in wireless sensor network such as to provide different energy level to some nodes. In this paper, we present a survey on basic clustering techniques for Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks.
As the world runs fast, its our duty to run with the world compensating its speed. There is an urge to prove everyone unique. Hence time management play a worthless role in the daily work of a person. At morning it is a herculean task to wake up from the bed. “Let me sleep for some more time” is the first slogan of everyone every morning. But feeling guilty for not waking up in the morning is also encountered in several cases. In this paper we propose a novel “Murderer Algorithm” based automatic waking up system that helps to wake up every morning. The uniqueness of the system is to make the person in the bed to wakeup and get away from the bed. The device employs simple capacitive touch sensor to sense the presence of a person and also a brig