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Some other studies come to other conclusions (see ch. 3 of UNCTAD (2007)), but the results covered here are representative of the bulk of the literature, which generally finds positive productivity impacts from adoption of ICT and e-business
M Die Idee zu einer Bewerbung hatte bereits im Oktober 2007 KultStadtrat Atai Keller. Die offiziellen Reaktionen vom Kulturbürgermeister, einzelnen Fraktionen und Kulturschaffenden waren positiv. Hinter vorgehaltender Hand aber heißt es aus Rathauskreisen auch: „Dass das kleine Freiburg Europas Kulturhauptstadt wird, ist so wahrscheinlich wie dass der Sportclub Deutscher Fußballmeister wird.“ In diese Minimalchance viel Geld zu investieren, könnte der Kultur sogar schaden: Denn wo soll das Geld für eine erfolgreiche Bewerbung denn herkommen, wenn es nicht an anderer Stelle gespart wird. Der Ministerrat der Europäischen Union hatte 1985 auf Initiative der griechischen Kulturministerin Melina Mercouri das Projekt „Europäische Kulturhauptstadt“ mit dem Ziel beschlossen, einen Beitrag zur Annäherung der europäischen Völker zu leisten. Der begehrte Titel der Europäischen Kulturhauptstadt geht vermutlich 2020 – in jenem Jahr feiert Freiburg seinen 900. Geburtstag – oder 2021 wieder nach Deutschland. Bisher durften sich hierzulande Berlin 1988, Weimar 1999 und im kommenden Jahr Essen samt Ruhrgebiet über die Auszeichnung freuen. Im Kern einer erfolgreichen Bewerbung steht nicht etwa die Frage, was der Titel, was Europa Freiburg bringen könnten, sondern genau die gegenteilige: Was kann Freiburg Europa bringen? So fragt denn auch eines der Kriterien für eine Ernennung explizit nach dem Beitrag der Stadt zur europäischen Kunst- und Die Stadtspitze hat mittlerweile eine 32-köpfige „Konzeptgruppe Kulturhauptstadt“ gebildet, die sich am 27. Juli im Ratssaal wieder treffen wird, und in der neben von Kirchbach und einer Handvoll städtischer Amtsleiter auch Musikhochschulen-Rektor Rüdiger Nolte, Theater-Intendantin Barbara Mundel, Solararchitekt Rolf Disch, Fabrik-Vordenker Martin Wiedemann, der Theater im MarienbadVorsitzende Hubertus Fehrenbacher, Wirtschaftsförderer Bernd Dallmann und Vertreter der Universität und des Architekturforums sitzen.
Interference Between Clutch Damper and Flywheel Bolts On 2003-2006 Caterpillar 3406E C-15 & C-16 Diesel Engines The AERA Technical Committee offers the following information regarding possible interference between the clutch damper and flywheel bolts on 2003-2006 Caterpillar 3406E, C-15 and C-16 diesel engines. Engines built or serviced with the VCT plus clutch damper, introduced in April 2003, have the possibility of the clutch damper interfering with the flywheel mounting bolts. This applies to the following clutch part numbers: 108009-32Y, 108925-20, 108925-25, 108926-20Y, 108926-25Y, 109701-20, 109701-25, 109705-20Y, 109705-25Y & 109706-32Y. Correction/Action: Any repair that has required the transmission to be removed from the truck, and the engine serial number is 5EK1 and up, 6TS1 and up, 1LW1 and up, 2WS1 and up, 6NZ1-92122, 7CZ1-04382, MBN1-21447, BXS1-00984, 5DS1 and up, or 1MM1 and up, requires checking the flywheel bolt washers. You must verify the 5mm washer has been replaced with the 3mm washer, Caterpillar Part Number 8D-5054. Failure to replace the washers could result in damper rivet interference. Torque the bolts to 270 Nm +/- 40 Nm (200 ft/lb +/- 30 ft/lb). It is also suggested that paint may be applied to bolt heads to show verification and completion identification.
Installation Instructions for CRF 150R and KX450F Steahly Flywheel Weight Warning: Improper instalation of this flywheel weight could result in engine damage or a serious crash. If you do not have the tools or the mechanical abilities take it to a professional. 1. Drain the engine oil or turn off the gas and lay the bike on its side. 2. Remove the shift lever. 3. Remove the ignition cover. Take care not to tear the gasket or have a new gasket on hand. Be carefull that you don’t lose the two dowel pins that are between the cover and the engine case. 4. Remove the flywheel nut. Use an air impact wrench or figure out a way to keep the flywheel from rotating while you remove the nut. A strap wrench or an automotive oil filter wrench may work as a holding tool or try putting the bike in high gear and holding the rear brake on. 5. Pull off the stock flywheel with the proper flywheel puller that has a crank end protection cap. Steahly part number E-63. Do not attempt removal with out the correct puller. Do not use claw type pullers. 6. Fit the flywheel weight on to the stock flywheel. Line up the two threaded holes in the weight with two holes in the stock flywheel. 7. Clean the threads of the two special bolts with contact cleaner. Put a big drop of red Loctite or other high strength thread locker on the threads of the 2 bolts. Install the two special bolts as shown in the picture and torque to 12 foot pounds. 8. Unless you plan to take the weight on and off a lot we highly recommend using a center punch and a hammer to flare out the threads at the end of the bolt (see pictures below). This will reduce the possibility of the bolt coming loose. 9. Clean up the flywheel and weight and remove any metal stuck to the magnets. 10. Install the flywheel with weight back onto the tapered crank shaft end making sure the key ways are lined up. Torque the stock nut to 42 ft- lbs.
[b] If clutch contact face is scored or worn, the flywheel may be refaced. [c] If clutch contact face is cracked, the flywheel must be replaced. NOTE: Do not remove more than 0.508 mm (0.020 in.) material from the flywheel. Maintain all of the radii when resurfacing. 2. Inspect the ring gear. [a] Check ring gear for excessively worn or damaged gear teeth. [b] If damaged gear teeth are detected, replace the ring gear. Refer to Section 1.15.3. 3. Inspect crankshaft and flywheel contact surface. [a] Check the butt end of the crankshaft and flywheel contact surface for fretting, brinelling, or burrs. See Figure 1-212. [b] Lightly stone the contact surface to remove any fretting, brinelling, or burrs. Figure 1-212 1.14.3 Crankshaft and Flywheel Mating Surfaces Installation of Flywheel Install the flywheel as follows: 1. Install two flywheel guide studs, J 36235, into two of the tapped holes in the crankshaft at the 3 and 9 o’clock position. 2. Attach the flywheel lifting tool and, using a chain hoist, position the flywheel in the flywheel housing. Align the flywheel bolt holes with the crankshaft bolt holes. All information subject to change without notice. (Rev. 2004) 6SE50 0403 Copyright © 2004 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION From Bulletin 2-50-04 1-261 1.14 FLYWHEEL NOTICE: A new scuff plate must be used whenever the flywheel is removed. Failure to replace the scuff plate may cause the flywheel bolts to loosen, even when torqued correctly. 3. Using a new scuff plate, install two bolts with International Compound #2® (or equivalent) through the plate 180 from each other. 4. Install the flywheel lock, J 36375–A. See Figure 1-195. 5. Remove the flywheel lifting tool and guide studs. 6. Apply International Compound #2® (or equivalent) to the threads and to the bolt head contact area (underside) of the remaining bolts. The bolt threads must be completely filled with International Compound #2® (or equivalent). Any excess must be wiped off. See Figure 1-213.
New flanged multi-point socket head bolts have been released to prevent the MBE 900 pilot bearing from walking out of the flywheel housing. The new bolts will replace two flywheel bolts, located 180 degrees from one another. KIT CONTENTS The MBE 900 Pilot Bearing Bolt Service Kit P/N: A9269900105, consists of the following parts, listed in Table 1: Part No. A9269900005 18SP666 Table 1 Qty. 2 1 Description Flanged Multi-point Socket Head Bolts Installation Instructions MBE 900 Pilot Bearing Retaining Bolt Service Kit (P/N: A9269900105) INSTALLATION PROCEDURE Use the following procedure to install the new flanged multi-point socket bolts: 1. Shut off engine and apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, disconnect vehicle battery power, and perform any other applicable safety steps. 2. Remove the transmission. 3. Remove clutch from flywheel. 4. Pull the crankshaft position sensor out of the flywheel housing about 8 mm (0.32 in.). 5. Remove the end cover from the flywheel housing and install the engine barring tool (J-46392). Tighten the bolts on the barring device to 25 N·m (18 lb·ft). Insert the locking pin to block the device and prevent it from rotating. 6. Using J-46385, the flywheel and main pulley socket tool, remove two flywheel multi-point socket head bolts from the flywheel, 180 degrees apart. See Figure 1.
The crankshaft is precision-forged with seven main bearings and eight custom-forged counter weights, and a vibration damper at the front end. For an exploded view of the crankshaft, main bearings, and main bearing caps, see Figure 1-42. 1. Crankshaft 5. Lower Bearing Shell (center) 2. Upper Bearing Shell(s) 6. Main Bearing Cap(s) 3. Upper Bearing Shell (center) 7. Main Bearing Cap (center) 4. Lower Bearing Shell(s) 8. Main Bearing Cap Bolt Figure 1-42 Crankshaft, Main Bearings, and Main Bearing Caps All information subject to change without notice. (Rev. 3/04) 6SE412 0403 Copyright © 2006 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION From Bulletin 1–MBE4000–06 1-57 1.9 CRANKSHAFT ASSEMBLY 1.9.1 Crankshaft Removal Remove the crankshaft as follows: FALLING ENGINE To avoid injury from a falling engine, an adequate lifting device with a spreader bar and sling should be used to lift the engine. The sling and spreader bar should be adjusted so the lifting hooks are vertical to prevent bending the lifter brackets. To ensure proper weight distribution, all provided lifter brackets must be used. NOTICE: A spreader bar must be used at all times in conjunction with the front and rear lifter brackets to lift the EGR engine to ensure that no engine damage will result. The brackets are designed to lift vertically. 1. Remove the engine from the vehicle.
This paper examines the complex, often misunderstood, relationship between al-Qaeda, the Taliban and the various militant groups found in FATA (the Federally Administered Tribal Areas) in Pakistan, including the TTP (Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan). Much of what is commonly assumed about the Taliban, the TTP and al-Qaeda is based on misinformation, misunderstanding or a misrepresentation of historical events. The Taliban and alQaeda can in many ways be seen as sharing common values, although their ultimate goals remain very different. The Taliban were not part of the mujahedeen fighting against the Soviets in Afghanistan, and emerged only in 1994. Al-Qaeda, for all the conspiracy, did not receive money from the CIA during the 1980s, and was only officially formed as an organisation in 1988. The creation of the TTP in 2007 is another matter, and was created as an umbrella organisation for various Pakistani militant groups, and maintains close ties with al-Qaeda. However, the Pakistani Taliban is not the same Taliban as the one formed in 1994, and although it swears its loyalty to Mullah Omar, its goals differ from that of the Afghani Taliban. We can speak of al-Qaeda and the Taliban in two broad strokes – pre 9/11 and post 9/11. The attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon (as well as the failed attack on Washington DC with the hijacked flight 93), was the culmination of al-Qaeda as a tightly knit, hierarchical organisation. The subsequent “War on Terror” and the invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001 destroyed much of its organisational capacity; it also left the Taliban severely weakened. However, they both regrouped in the FATA region over a period of years, and al-Qaeda spread its ideology throughout northern Pakistan, coalescing with militant groups and local warlords. Before 9/11, al-Qaeda and the Taliban were very much two different organisations; today, it is not so simple, and in 2010, General David Petreus claimed that there is “a symbiotic relationship between all of these different organizations: al-Qaeda, the Pakistani Taliban, the Afghan Taliban ... They support each other, they coordinate with each other, sometimes they compete with each other, [and] sometimes they even fight each other.” (cfr, 2010, http://www.cfr.org).
In 2007, the Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) emerged after the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) aligned itself with Al-Qaeda. This development captured the world’s attention and led several scholars and policymakers to ask the question: Why did this merger take place and what does it say about the motivations of GSPC? This research investigates three hypotheses: (1) This merger is merely an ideological one without operational implications; (2) this merger is ideological, operational, and logistical; or (3) this merger is merely a rebranding of a failing organization that needed to survive and, therefore, is not a genuine threat to the United States and its European allies. Exploring the evolution of Algerian Islamism, from the rise of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) and the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) to the GSPC and AQIM, this study concludes that hypothesis 3 is the best explanation of the merger between GSPC and Al-Qaeda. Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503.
Setting up Charging the rechargeable battery pack Setting up the rechargeable battery pack 1 Press the tab on the top of the controller’s battery compartment cover, then and pull down to detach the original battery from the controller. Charge your battery pack before its first use and whenever it is drained. 1 Insert the charging plug into the charge port on the front of your wireless controller. 2 Connect the USB plug to any USB port of your Xbox 360. 3 Turn on your console. The charge indicator on the front of the plug glows red as the battery pack charges. When the light glows green, the battery pack is fully charged. Rechargeable battery safety Incorrect battery use may result in battery leakage, overheating, or explosion. When using batteries, make sure that you follow these instructions: • Keep batteries out of reach of children. • Do not heat, open, puncture, mutilate, or dispose of batteries in fire. • If a battery leaks, remove the battery, taking care to keep the leaked fluid from touching your skin or clothes. If fluid from the battery comes into contact with skin or clothes, flush skin with water or remove the clothing immediately. Before inserting a new battery, thoroughly clean the controller with a damp paper towel. • Do not allow metal objects to touch the battery terminals, because they can become hot and cause burns. For example, do not carry the battery in a pocket with keys or coins. • Remove the battery when the product will not be used for an extended period of time.