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In Communication system, the system capacity and performance are adversely affected and degraded by interference. Hence, power control plays a prominent role in an interference-limited system, which increases the efficiency by mitigating the adjacent and co-Channel interference in the system. In this paper, primarily power control is said to be used in maintaining the acceptable Carrier to Interference Ratio (CIR) by meeting some Quality of service (QoS) requirements Objective function that is defined as maximum channel capacity in a power constraint scenario. The signals in a radio channel undergo different propagation effects like reflection, refraction, scattering and shadowing. Hence, the distribution of users across subcarrier groups as well as their transmission powers within a given cell has a significant effect on how users and power are accordingly distributed elsewhere in the network to maximize the capacity of the system thereby enhancing its performance
This research work was carried out to investigate the proximate and mineral composition of some traditional vegetables in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. These vegetables include: Talinum triangulare, Hensia crinita, Cucurbita maxima and Lasianthera africana. The vegetables were washed in potable water to remove unwanted matters and were analyzed for proximate and mineral content. All analyses were carried out in three replicates and the mean data were presented on tables using the spread sheet Microsoft Excel. Talinum triangulare had the highest protein content (56.72%) and moisture content (80.11%) but had the lowest content of ash (6.31%), crude fibre (2.96%) and carbohydrate (6.91%). Ash and crude fibre were present in low quantities in Talinum triangulare, Hensia crinita, and Lasianthera africana, except Cucurbita maxima which had the highest composition of ash (14.06%) and crude fibre (9.37%). Mineral composition (Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and
This paper presents an improved design of voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) utilizing the three differential cell CMOS inverters for forming the ring oscillator. The differential cell reduces the power supply fluctuations impact on the oscillator jitter while the negative feedback from frequency to voltage converter reduces the jitter at high frequencies. Finally the proposed model is designed using CMOS 0.18um foundry technology and simulated using P-Spice software. The result shows that the proposed design improves the jitter attenuation at different offset frequencies up to 40dB
A Smart City is the integration of technology into a strategic approach to sustainability. 21st Century has brought with it a new global trend of “sustainable urban development” and this concept adds new dimensions to urbanization which require a quick need to upgrade existing cities. The concept of a smart city is a relatively new one. Throughout the years, with the significant contribution from various technologies like computer science, information technology, remote sensing, advance multimedia world etc, GIS evolved from traditional geographer’s or cartographer’s tool for surveying and planning to a rapidly expanding primary technology for understanding our planet and related geospatial opportunities to foster a sustainable world. This paper describes smart city projects in India and thoroughly explores the existing and extended capability of GIS to include modeling and visualization in order that decision makers will be able to
Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks has to take into account the limited battery resources of the nodes. Sensor nodes can also be powered by other energy sources like solar energy. This paper provides a review of Environment monitoring using Wireless Sensor Networks. The issues related to environment sensor networks is highlighted. The real time applications in environment monitoring is presented with emphasis on energy conservation. Furthermore in this paper we address the problem of scavenging energy using solar powered devices.
wastewater is the harmful for the surroundings and it is released from commercial, domestic or public waste materials, the wastewater treatment companies needs to take care of wastewater.water treatment plant is also known as sewage treatment plant. there are many procedure of waste water treatment that are categorized in different groups. The main purpose of water treatment companies is to prepare chemical method which help to remove waste products form water for its purification.Aqua pristine are well known supplier and manufacturer of sewage treatment plant. we have professionally water treatment experts which specialist in water purification system.we set up wastewater and sewage treatment plant for different types industries.
This paper presents a systematic approach to designing negative-resistance and Colpitts oscillators using p-HEMT transistor. Various models such as, common source and common gate configuration in negative-resistance oscillators, common source series feedback in Colpitts oscillator is selected to analyze the output power and stability presented by the p-HEMT transistor. These oscillators are designed at 2.45 GHz frequency for which we find application in Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. In this paper, these designs are studied and tested, with their results analyzed below. Further, study proved that the Colpitts oscillator designed gave more output power and stability than the negativeresistance oscillators
Even a small transition delays and little faults create major concern in digital circuits. It Produce greater impact on not only for simple memory but also for most of the memory applications. This paper presents an error-detection method for difference-set cyclic codes with majority logic decoding. Majority logic decodable codes are suitable for memory applications due to their capability to correct a large number of errors. However, they require a large decoding time that impacts memory performance. The proposed fault-detection method significantly reduces memory access time when there is no error in the data read. The technique uses the majority logic decoder itself to detect failures, which makes the area overhead minimal and keeps the extra power consumption low. The proposed method detects the occurrences of single error, double error ,triple error in the received code words obtained from the memory system.
Cooling tower is an important part of power plant. The efficiency of power plant is directly depends on the effectiveness of cooling tower. In cooling tower scheduled maintenance and shutdown maintenance is a problem which affects its effectiveness and performance of cooling tower. In cooling tower shutdown maintenance required in every 2 to 3 year periods at this period the whole plant will be shutdown, and require 28 to 35 days maintenance so that cooling tower will be in its best working condition. In every cooling tower manufacturer provide the scheduled maintenance check list so that the worker will perform their maintenance as per given instruction. In present work optimization of shutdown maintenance strategy is done so that the time elapsed in maintenance will reduce and the requirement of man power will be reduced.
Gray level Slicing is to highlight a specific range of gray values. Power Adaptation methods are presented for gray level slicing approaches. Power Adaptation methods aims in optimization of the resulting bit error rate by gray level slicing without preserving background and gray level slicing with background. This paper gives us an achievable increase in the proposed method rather than the conventional method with a better quality and the bit error rate is also optimized in proposed method rather than the former method with acceptable quality.