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Basic Hydroponic Systems and How They Work There are 6 basic types of hydroponic systems; Wick, Water Culture, Ebb and Flow (Flood & Drain), Drip (recovery or non-recovery), N.F.T. (Nutrient Film Technique) and Aeroponic. There are hundreds of variations on these basic types of systems, but all hydroponic methods are a variation (or combination) of these six. Scroll down this page (or click on the system names) to see drawings and a description of each type of hydroponic system. WICK SYSTEM The Wick system is by far the simplest type of hydroponic system. This is a passive system, which means there are no moving parts. The nutrient solution is drawn into the growing medium from the reservoir with a wick. Free plans for a simple wick system are available (click here for plans). This system can use a variety of growing medium. Perlite, Vermiculite, Pro-Mix and Coconut Fiber are among the most popular. The biggest drawback of this system is that plants that are large or use large amounts of water may use up the nutrient solution faster than the wick(s) can supply it.
The correct supply of water and nutrients is important in hydroponic growing systems in order to use water efﬁciently, avoid stress situations, and control production. The present study was conducted to evaluate two irrigation scheduling techniques for hydroponic tomato production in Navarra, northern Spain, related to the crop water requirements. The results show that although daily over-irrigation was applied (45.7% of drainage), 18% of the total yield (35 kg m−2 ) was affected by blossom-end rot problems, due to water stress suffered by the crop. Irrigation scheduling by time clock was not ﬂexible enough to satisfy the varying crop water requirements through the day and during the season. With constant irrigation intervals and volumes, water and fertilisers were wasted during the morning (excessive irrigation) whereas during the afternoon, the plants suffered water stress. Irrigation scheduling by radiation method at a level of 0.81 MJ m−2 , with some supplementary time clock irrigation applications during the hours of darkness (in order to keep the growing medium wet), appeared to be a good solution. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
www.FarmProgress.com – June 2011 39 Kansas Farmer Business Watch Diversiﬁcation is the future at Taylors’ 4-Star Hydroponics LIVING BASIL: Jarrod Taylor looks over the latest product at 4-Star Hydroponics: living basil. The company is growing the herb for Kroger, where it will be marketed with the rootball intact. T TRAINING TOMATOES: Lee Taylor walks on stilts down the rows of growing tomatoes to adjust the wires they’re trained to climb. The vines are leaned a few inches forward every few days to encourage new branches to climb. How hydroponic tomatoes are grown in Kansas H YDROPONIC vegetables have been grown in Holland for generations. The plant genetics used at 4-Star Hydroponics in St. John were developed in the Netherlands, and the seeds for the hydroponic family farming operation are imported from Holland. “These plants have been bred to grow well in greenhouse conditions, and to root well in the perlite and nutrient water we grow them in,” Taylor says. Each plant is rooted in a gallon container of perlite; drip irrigation tubes keep the growing medium wet with water that has been enriched with nutrients normally found in fertile soil. He says the plants have also been bred to produce the fruit size and pulp consistency that consumers associate with slicing tomatoes. Generally, he says, tomatoes are considered a fairly easy crop to grow. “They are, in the sense that they survive and are pretty forgiving,” he...
Hydroponics means “water working.” Therefore, a true hydroponic culture is one that uses water only, with plant nutrients added in the correct concentrations and ratios for the plants grown. In most cases, hydroponic culture involves a substrate for the plant roots to grow in, and is consequently termed “soilless culture.” Hydroponics goes back as far as the famous hanging gardens of Babylon and the floating gardens of the Aztecs. From the early 1600s until the 1800s, “nutriculture” techniques were developed for the growing of plants in laboratories to study plant nutrition. Dr. William F. Gericke of the University of California coined the term “hydroponics” in the early 1930s, as he developed techniques to commer- cially produce crops without soil. His first practical application of hydroponics was during World War II in an effort to grow fresh vegetables on non-arable islands where troops were stationed. Installations were established on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, Iwo Jima and Okinawa in the South Pacific, and later, on Wake Island and a 22-hectare (55-acre) project at Chofu, Japan after the war. The U.S. Army, with its own special hydroponics branch, grew over 8,000,000 pounds of fresh produce during 1952. Today, there are about 2500 acres of greenhouse hydroponic vegetables produced in Canada, and over 1500 acres in the U.S. Principal crops grown are tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplants and lettuce.
Installation Instructions BEFORE YOU BEGIN Over the Range Microwave Oven Read these instructions completely and carefully. • IMPORTANT – Save these instructions for • Proper installation is the responsibility of the installer. local inspector's use. • • Product failure due to improper installation is not covered under the Warranty. • Please read all instructions thoroughly before installing the Over the Range Microwave Oven. Two people are recommended to install this product. • If a new electrical outlet is required, its installation should be completed by a qualified electrician before the Microwave Oven is installed. See 3 ELECTRICAL GROUNDING INSTRUCTIONS on page 2. IMPORTANT – Observe all governing codes and coordinates. • Note to Installer – Be sure to leave these • Note to Consumer – Keep these instruc- instructions with the Consumer. tions for future reference. • Skill Level – Installation of this appliance requires basic mechanical and electrical skills. UNPACKING AND EXAMINING YOUR OVEN Open the bottom of the carton, bend the carton flaps back and tilt the oven over to rest on plastic foam pad. Lift carton off oven and remove all packing materials, WALL and TOP CABINET TEMPLATE, Turntable, and Turntable Support. SAVE THE CARTON AS IT MAY MAKE INSTALLATION EASIER. 1. Remove the feature sticker from the outside of the door, if there is one. 2. DO NOT REMOVE THE WAVEGUIDE COVER, which is located on the right side wall of the oven cavity. Check to see that there is a Wall TEMPLATE and Top CABINET Template. Read enclosures and SAVE the Operation Manual. Oven Cavity Hinges Door seals and Safety door sealing surfaces latches Check the oven for any damage, such as misaligned or bent door, damaged door seals and sealing surfaces, broken or loose door hinges and latches and dents inside the cavity or on the door. If there is any damage, do not operate the oven and contact your dealer or ELECTROLUX AUTHORIZED SERVICER. See Installation Instructions for more details. NEED HELP? For customers in the United States, call: 1-800-944-9044 For customers in Canada, call: 1-800-213-9397 (English) 1-800-668-4606 ext.8199 (French) READ CAREFULLY. KEEP THESE INSTRUCTIONS.
Section 1 Basic Information Safe Servicing Practices Avoid personal injury and/or property damage by observing important Safe Servicing Practices. Following are some limited examples of safe practices: 1. DO NOT attempt a product repair if you have any doubts as to your ability to complete the repair in a safe and satisfactory manner. 2. Always Use The Correct Replacement Parts as indicated in the parts documentation. Substitutions may defeat compliance with Safety Standards Set For Home Appliances. 3. Before servicing or moving an appliance: • Remove power cord from the electrical outlet, trip circuit breaker to the OFF position, or remove fuse. 4. Never interfere with the proper operation of any safety device. 5. Use ONLY REPLACEMENT PARTS CATALOGED FOR THIS APPLIANCE. Substitutions may defeat compliance with Safety Standards Set For Home Appliances. 6. GROUNDING: The standard color coding for safety ground wires is GREEN, or GREEN with YELLOW STRIPES. Ground leads are not to be used as current carrying conductors. It is EXTREMELY important that the service technician reestablish all safety grounds prior to completion of service. Failure to do so will create a hazard. 7. Prior to returning the product to service, ensure that: • All electrical connections are correct and secure. • All electrical leads are properly dressed and secured away from sharp edges, high-temperature components, and moving parts. • All non-insulated electrical terminals, connectors, heaters, etc. are adequately spaced away from all metal parts and panels. • All safety grounds (both internal and external) are correctly and securely connected. • All panels are properly and securely reassembled. © 2011 Electrolux Home Products, Inc.
Getting started - Week 9 Good going – you’ve made it to Week 9! We hope keeping track of your calories is becoming easier. If you started the Couch to 5K running plan on Week 2, you should be just one week from graduation! If you’re still working towards 150 minutes of activity a week, keep going! We know you can do it! Just keep doing a little bit more each week. Let’s give it a big push this week. The key is to do something you enjoy that can fit into your routine. Your actions for Week 9 • Go to the weight loss forum to find out what other people are doing to raise their activity levels • If you’re lacking motivation, use the What’s Your Sport tool to find out what activity suits you best • Have a go at this week’s recipe, which should satisfy any sweet cravings. If it’s not your cup of tea – research some different lower-calorie recipes Laura’s diary Week 9 How’s the exercise regime going? Whether you’re struggling or you’ve taken to it like a duck to water, I can’t recommend the forums enough. They are truly inspiring and full of people who’ve found their own way of making it work for them. Exercise is a really important habit to learn not just for the purposes of this 12-week guide but for the rest of your life. Think about ways you can support yourself in...
Clementine cake with passionfruit and limoncello ice cream over 2 hours preparation time over 2 hours Ingredients cooking time Serves 8-10 For the clementine cake 375g/13oz clementines (about 4-5) butter, for greasing 6 free-range eggs 225g/8oz caster sugar 250g/9oz ground almonds 1 heaped tsp baking powder For the clementine syrup 2 clementines, juice only 50g/2oz caster sugar 1 tbsp orange marmalade For the orange sticks reserved orange peel, from the orange sorbet (see below) 150g/5oz granulated sugar 100ml/3½fl oz water For the passionfruit and limoncello ice cream 2 passion fruit 300ml/10½fl oz double cream 300ml/10½fl oz full-fat milk 50ml/2fl oz limoncello 100g/3½oz caster sugar For the orange sorbet 300ml/10½fl oz freshly-squeezed orange juice, from about 4-5 oranges, peel reserved for orange sticks 100g/3½oz caster sugar 2 star anise For the lime Chantilly cream 200ml/7fl oz double cream 50g/2oz icing sugar 1 vanilla pod, split, seeds scraped out 1 tsp lime juice Preparation method 1. For the clementine cake, place the clementines into a large, deep pan and cover with cold water. Bring to the boil and cook for two By Kirsty Wark From Celebrity MasterChef This impressive citrus-based dessert plate also includes ...
Mediterranean Cauliflower Cake Serves 8 - Alternate and Maintenance Phases Ingredients: 1 head of cauliflower, trimmed and broken into small florets 1 T. olive oil 1 medium onion, thinly sliced ½ tsp. ground coriander ½ tsp. crushed red pepper flakes ¾ tsp. sea salt ¾ cup almond flour ½ tsp. baking powder 6 large eggs 1 jarred roasted red pepper, chopped ¾ cup feta cheese, crumbled 3 T. fresh dill, chopped Directions: Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Line the bottom of a 9-inch springform pan with parchment paper. Bring 1 inch of water to a boil in a large pot with a steamer basket. Add cauliflower and steam for 8 to 10 minutes. Heat the olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add the onion and cook, stirring until tender, about 8 minutes. Add the coriander, crushed red pepper and ½ tsp. sea salt, and stir until fragrant, about 1 minute. Next, gently stir in the cooked cauliflower to coat, and cook for 2 to 3 minutes. In a bowl whisk the almond flour, baking powder, and ¼ tsp. sea salt. Whisk eggs in a large bowl. Next, sprinkle the dry ingredients over the eggs and whisk to combine. Stir in roasted red pepper, feta, and dill. Add the cauliflower mixture and stir to combine. Spread the mixture evenly into the springform pan. Bake until golden, 35-45 minutes. Let the cake cool before removing from pan. Serve warm or at room temperature. Calories – 99, Fat – 5.8 g, Carbohydrates -7 g www.youridealweightloss.com
PLEASE READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE INSTALLING. 1. You should always disconnect the battery, negative lead first, before working on the ignition system. When you are done reconnect the battery installing the positive lead first. 2. The drive gear installed on this distributor is melonized and therefore compatible with flat tappet or hydraulic roller camshafts. If it is to be installed with a mechanical roller camshaft, a bronze or other such compatible gear for the 0.500” shaft will need to be purchased and installed. HOW TO INSTALL THE DISTRIBUTOR 1. If the distributor to be replaced has not already been removed from the engine, remove its cap. Do not remove the spark plug wires at this time. 2. Crank the engine slowly until the rotor blade aims at a fixed point on the engine or firewall. Note this point for future reference. 3. Unplug all external connectors coming from the distributor. 4. Now put the existing cap back on and note and mark which spark plug wire the rotor (blade) is pointing at. Then number the wires according to cylinder and remove the wires. If in doubt you can leave the wires connected to the old cap and transfer them to the new cap and distributor later in the process (see point # 9).