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This paper examines the complex, often misunderstood, relationship between al-Qaeda, the Taliban and the various militant groups found in FATA (the Federally Administered Tribal Areas) in Pakistan, including the TTP (Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan). Much of what is commonly assumed about the Taliban, the TTP and al-Qaeda is based on misinformation, misunderstanding or a misrepresentation of historical events. The Taliban and alQaeda can in many ways be seen as sharing common values, although their ultimate goals remain very different. The Taliban were not part of the mujahedeen fighting against the Soviets in Afghanistan, and emerged only in 1994. Al-Qaeda, for all the conspiracy, did not receive money from the CIA during the 1980s, and was only officially formed as an organisation in 1988. The creation of the TTP in 2007 is another matter, and was created as an umbrella organisation for various Pakistani militant groups, and maintains close ties with al-Qaeda. However, the Pakistani Taliban is not the same Taliban as the one formed in 1994, and although it swears its loyalty to Mullah Omar, its goals differ from that of the Afghani Taliban. We can speak of al-Qaeda and the Taliban in two broad strokes – pre 9/11 and post 9/11. The attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon (as well as the failed attack on Washington DC with the hijacked flight 93), was the culmination of al-Qaeda as a tightly knit, hierarchical organisation. The subsequent “War on Terror” and the invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001 destroyed much of its organisational capacity; it also left the Taliban severely weakened. However, they both regrouped in the FATA region over a period of years, and al-Qaeda spread its ideology throughout northern Pakistan, coalescing with militant groups and local warlords. Before 9/11, al-Qaeda and the Taliban were very much two different organisations; today, it is not so simple, and in 2010, General David Petreus claimed that there is “a symbiotic relationship between all of these different organizations: al-Qaeda, the Pakistani Taliban, the Afghan Taliban ... They support each other, they coordinate with each other, sometimes they compete with each other, [and] sometimes they even fight each other.” (cfr, 2010, http://www.cfr.org).
Al Qaeda (AQ) has evolved into a significantly different terrorist organization than the one that perpetrated the September 11, 2001, attacks. At the time, Al Qaeda was composed mostly of a core cadre of veterans of the Afghan insurgency against the Soviet Union, with a centralized leadership structure made up mostly of Egyptians. Most of the organization’s plots either emanated from the top or were approved by the leadership. Some analysts describe pre-9/11 Al Qaeda as akin to a corporation, with Osama Bin Laden acting as an agile Chief Executive Officer issuing orders and soliciting ideas from subordinates. Some would argue that the Al Qaeda of that period no longer exists. Out of necessity, due to pressures from the security community, in the ensuing years it has transformed into a diffuse global network and philosophical movement composed of dispersed nodes with varying degrees of independence. The core leadership, headed by Bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, is thought to live in the mountainous tribal belt of northwest Pakistan bordering Afghanistan, where it continues to train operatives, recruit, and disseminate propaganda. But Al Qaeda franchises or affiliated groups active in countries such as Yemen and Somalia now represent critical power centers in the larger movement. Some affiliates receive money, training, and weapons; others look to the core leadership in Pakistan for strategic guidance, theological justification, and a larger narrative of global struggle.
A l-Qa’ida seems to be on its heels. The death of Osama bin Laden and the fall of Arab dictators have left its leadership in disarray, its narrative confused, and the organization on the defensive. One silver lining for al-Qaida, however, has been its affiliate organizations. In Iraq, the Maghreb, Somalia, Yemen, and elsewhere, alQa’ida has used local groups to expand its reach, increase its power, and grow its numbers. This string of mergers is not over. In places as diverse as the Sinai Peninsula and Nigeria, al-Qa’ida-linked organizations are emerging. However, the jihadist world is more fractured than it may appear at first glance. Many Salafi-jihadist groups have not joined with al-Qa’ida, and even if they have, tensions and divisions occur that present the United States and its allies with opportunities for weakening the bond. at the same time, several Salafi-jihadist groups chose not to affiliate with al-Qa’ida, including Egypt’s Gamaat al-Islamiyya and Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), and fighters in Chechnya, Gaza, and Pakistan maintained their distance as well. Motivations to the Affiliate for Joining There are a number of reasons why a group may choose to affiliate with al-Qa’ida, some practical, some ideological, and some personal: • • Al-Qa’ida has always been both a group with its own agenda and a facilitator of other terrorist groups. This meant that it not only carried out attacks on U.S. targets in Kenya, Tanzania, and Yemen throughout the 1990s, but it helped other jihadist groups with funding, training, and additional logistical essentials. Toward the end of the 1990s, alQa’ida incorporated Egyptian Islamic Jihad into its structure. After September 11, 2001, this process of deepening its relationship with outside groups took off, and today a number of regional groups bear the label “al-Qa’ida” in their name, along with a more local designation.
Setting up Charging the rechargeable battery pack Setting up the rechargeable battery pack 1 Press the tab on the top of the controller’s battery compartment cover, then and pull down to detach the original battery from the controller. Charge your battery pack before its first use and whenever it is drained. 1 Insert the charging plug into the charge port on the front of your wireless controller. 2 Connect the USB plug to any USB port of your Xbox 360. 3 Turn on your console. The charge indicator on the front of the plug glows red as the battery pack charges. When the light glows green, the battery pack is fully charged. Rechargeable battery safety Incorrect battery use may result in battery leakage, overheating, or explosion. When using batteries, make sure that you follow these instructions: • Keep batteries out of reach of children. • Do not heat, open, puncture, mutilate, or dispose of batteries in fire. • If a battery leaks, remove the battery, taking care to keep the leaked fluid from touching your skin or clothes. If fluid from the battery comes into contact with skin or clothes, flush skin with water or remove the clothing immediately. Before inserting a new battery, thoroughly clean the controller with a damp paper towel. • Do not allow metal objects to touch the battery terminals, because they can become hot and cause burns. For example, do not carry the battery in a pocket with keys or coins. • Remove the battery when the product will not be used for an extended period of time.
All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored in any storage medium, for any purpose without the express prior written consent of Garmin. Garmin hereby grants permission to download a single copy of this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium to be viewed and to print one copy of this manual or of any revision hereto, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual must contain the complete text of this copyright notice and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Garmin reserves the right to change or improve its products and to make changes in the content without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes or improvements. Visit the Garmin Web site (www.garmin.com) for current updates and supplemental information concerning the use and operation of this and other Garmin products. Garmin® and MapSource® are registered trademarks, and nüvi™, myGarmin™, Garmin Lock™, and Garmin TourGuide™ are trademarks of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries and may not be used without the express permission of Garmin. The Bluetooth® word mark and logos are owned by the Bluetooth SIG, Inc., and any use of such name by Garmin is under license. Windows® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Mac® is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. SiRF®, SiRFstar®, and the SiRF logo are registered trademarks, and SiRFstarIII™ and SiRF™ Powered are trademarks of SiRF Technology, Inc. Audible.com® and AudibleReady® are registered trademarks of Audible, Inc. © Audible, Inc. 1997-2005. Multilingual Wordbank © Oxford University Press 2001.
For P/No: 04998 & 04999 only. 1. In the engine bay, disconnect the negative and positive battery terminals. 2. Remove the vehicle battery (1) by first removing any fasteners. 3. Locate the vehicle grommet behind the battery cavity area. 4. Pierce a hole in the vehicle grommet. Note: Do not connect the harness to the battery at this point. Issue Date 27-09-10 For P/No: 04997 only. 5. In the engine bay, locate the vehicle battery (1). 6. Route the body harness (2) down through to the chassis. Note: Do not connect the harness to the battery at this point. 7. Route the power input harness (1) from the engine bay down through to the chassis, following the path of the brake and fuel lines. For P/No: 04997 & 04999 only. 8. Following the diagram on the right, house the two power & ground input harness female terminals (4) into the mating connector (3). 9. Connect the power input harness connector (3) to the body harness mating connector. Issue Date 27-09-10 For P/No: 04998 only. 10. Following the diagram on the right, house the three power & ground input harness female terminals (4) into the mating connector (5). 11. Connect the power input harness connector (5) to the body harness mating connector. 12. Route the body harness (1) along the LHS chassis rail, following the path of the blue vehicle harness towards the rear of the vehicle. 13. Route the body harness (1) along the rear of the vehicle towbar towards the towbar mounting bracket. Issue Date 27-09-10
Tools needed: 10mm socket and 3/8” ratchet 10mm ratchet spanner 7mm hose clamp driver 1. Open the bonnet and grasp both sides of the engine cover, then sharply pull upwards to remove it from the rubber grommets underneath. 2. Remove the breather assembly as shown below, by pushing the black retaining clip in on the gray fitting at the front, the yellow retainer in on the black fitting at the back, and simply pulling the rubber hose off the cam cover. Rear fitting Rubber hose Front fitting 3. Loosen the jubilee clip on the bottom of the noise generator. Move the gearbox breather out of the way, and undo the now accessible 10mm bolt on the top of the noise generator. This 10mm nut needs to be undone 4. Remove the end of the noise pipe from the firewall by squeezing the tabs top and bottom and wiggling the pipe out. 5. You can now remove the lower 10mm bolt holding the noise generator to the side of the engine using a ratchet spanner from the front or ¼” drive ratchet from the back, and remove the noise generator from the car. Lower 10mm bolt 6. Using the supplied silicon hose, cut a short length (50-75mm) from the end, then fit this and the remainder of the hose to the tee piece as shown. To stock rubber hose To valve To stock tee piece 7. Locate the vacuum feed to the standard valve as shown below. Remove the rubber feed to the valve from the stock tee piece, then fit our tee piece in between.
1. Disconnect Renault Clip device from PC. 2. Uninstall any previous versions of Renault Clip software (go to Start -> Settings -> Control Panel, select Add or Remove Programs. In the list find CLIP and press Change/Remove button to run uninstall wizard). 3. From Renault Clip CD, go to !!crack!! folder, then double click crack.reg, select Yes in the appeared window. Note: this step must be done BEFORE Renault Clip software setup. 4. Now run Renault Clip setup wizard (launch setup.exe from the root of the CD), then follow wizard instructions. In the type of CLIP station selection window, select CLIP TECHNIC / CONFORT to have all features installed: 1 www.efichip.com 5. After setup is completed, PC will reboot automatically without any user confirmation. After reboot, CLIP icons should appear on the desktop: H IP .C O M 6. Now connect Renault Clip device first to the car (use OBD cable) then to PC (use USB cable). Please note that Renault Clip device must be connected to the car otherwise driver installation will be incomplete. Found New Hardware Wizard window will appear: W W W .E FI C Press Next. After few moments new window will appear: Select Continue Anyway. After drivers are installed, new window will appear: Press Finish. 7. Another Found New Hardware Wizard window will appear: 2 H IP .C Press Next, then select Continue Anyway in new window appeared: O M www.efichip.com W W W .E FI C After that window asking path for drivers will appear. Type c:\windows\system32\drivers and press OK: Press Finish to close the wizard: 8. 3 more Found New Hardware Wizard windows will appear (for devices JCAE ISO AVANT RENUMERATION, JCAE CAN APRES RENUMERATION, JCAE ISO APRES RENUMERATION). Repeat steps described in previous item for each of them. 3 www.efichip.com W W W .E FI C H IP .C O M 9. Now launch Renault Clip software by double clicking on CLIP icon from desktop. Main window should appear: Your Renault Clip is ready to work now!
Certain Renault 1.5 DCi models, produced between June 2001 and June 2002, without air-conditioning, could have issues with the accessory drive belt, as a result of tensioner problems. The tensioner base plate could deform, resulting in misalignment, belt noise and early failure. In order to cure this, Renault launched a technical note, saying the old tensioner (OE ref. 8200262773, 8200292784), the 2 tensioner bolts (torxhead) and the accessory drive belt (OE ref. 8200020924) have to be replaced. Vehicles involved: *Clio II, Symbol, Van 1.5DCi. Chassis codes: BB07, BB08, CB07, CB08, LB07, SB07, SB08; with engine K9K700 or K9K702. *Kangoo, Rapid, Express 1.5DCI. Chassis codes: FC07, FC08, KC07, KC09 ; with engine K9K700, K9K702 or K9K710. How to proceed: Loosen tensioner bolts Remove old accessory drive belt Remove old tensioner bolts and tensioner Install new tensioner (OE ref. 8200328372) Use 2 new bolts (OE ref. 7703002059 - hex head) Install the 2 bolts hand tight Install a new Micro-V® XF belt 5PK1133 (OE ref. 8200020924). ATTENTION!!! The pulleys of this drive have 6 grooves, while the needed belt only has 5 ribs. The groove closest to the engine bloc has to remain free. Tensioning the new belt: The belt has to be tensioned (with tool Mot. 1638, OE ref. 0000163800) to a higher tension than with the original drive set-up Technical Bulletin 013 Copyright © 2006 Gates Corporation
SchooIName: ________~>~+_~-'~·.~'_,,_·w_"'_________________________________ Print your name and the name of your school on the lines above. A separate answer sheet for Part I has been provided to you. Follow the instructions from the proctor for completing the student information on your answer sheet. This examination has four parts, with a total of 39 questions. You must answer all questions in this examination. Write your answers to the Part I multiple-choice questions on the separate answer sheet. Write your answers to the questions in Parts II, III, and IV directly in this booklet. All work should be written in pen, except graphs and drawings, which should be done in pencil. Clearly indicate the necessary steps, including appropriate formula substitutions, diagrams, graphs, charts, etc. The formulas that you may need to answer some questions in this examination are found at the end of the examination. This sheet is perforated so you may remove it from this booklet. Scrap paper is not permitted for any part of this examination, but you may use the blank spaces in this booklet as scrap paper. A perforated sheet of scrap graph paper is provided at the end of this booklet for any question for which graphing may be helpful but is not required. You may remove this sheet from this booklet. Any work done on this sheet of scrap graph paper will not be scored. When you have completed the examination, you must sign the statement printed at the end of the answer sheet, indicating that you had no unlawful knowledge of the questions or answers prior to the examination and that you have neither given nor received assistance in answering any of the questions during the examination. Your answer sheet cannot be accepted if you fail to sign this declaration. Notice ...