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The September 11 Travel Operation The success of the September 11 plot depended on the ability of the hijackers to obtain visas and pass an immigration and customs inspection in order to enter the United States. It also depended on their ability to remain here undetected while they worked out the operational details of the attack. If they had failed on either count—entering and becoming embedded—the plot could not have been executed. Here we present the facts and circumstances of the hijackers’ travel operation, including their 25 contacts with consular officers and their 43 contacts with immigration and customs authorities. We also discuss the 12 contacts with border authorities by other September 11 conspirators who applied for a visa. The narrative is chronological, retracing the hijackers’ steps from their initial applications for U.S. visas, through their entry into the United States, to their applications for immigration benefits, and up through their acquisition of state identifications that helped them board the planes. Along the way, we note relevant actions by U.S. government authorities to combat terrorism. There were a few lucky breaks for U.S. border authorities in this story. Mostly, though, it is a story of how 19 hijackers easily penetrated U.S. border security. Overview of the hijacker’s visas The 9/11 hijackers submitted 23 visa applications during the course of the plot, and 22 of these applications were approved. The hijackers applied for visas at five U.S. consulates or embassies overseas; two of them were interviewed. One consular officer issued visas to 11 of the 19 hijackers. Of the eight other conspirators in the plot who sought visas, three succeeded, but only one of the three later sought to use the visa to enter the United States. Hijackers Nawaf al Hazmi and Khalid al Mihdhar were the first to submit visa applications because they were originally slated to be pilots. The four hijackers who did become pilots applied for visas in 2000. The remaining “muscle” hijackers applied in the fall of 2000 through the spring and summer of 2001, three applying twice. Most of the hijackers applied with new passports, possibly to hide travel to Afghanistan recorded in their old ones. It is likely that many of the hijackers’ passports contained indicators of extremism or showed ties to al Qaeda. However, this intelligence was not developed prior to 9/11, and thus State Department personnel reviewing visa applications were not trained to spot these indicators of a terrorist connection. Visa decisions for the hijackers and conspirators were consistent with a system that focused on excluding intending immigrants and depended on checking a database of names to search for criminals and terrorists. Overview of the hijackers’ entries The hijackers successfully entered the United States 33 of 34 times, with the first arriving on January 15, 2000, at Los Angeles International Airport. All others entered through ...
THE 9/11 COMMISSION REPORT Final FM.1pp 7/17/04 5:25 PM Page v CONTENTS List of Illustrations and Tables ix Member List xi Staff List xiii–xiv Preface xv 1. “WE HAVE SOME PLANES” 1 nside the Four Flights 1 Improvising a Homeland Defense 14 National Crisis Management 35. 2. THE FOUNDATION OF THE NEW TERRORISM 47. A Declaration of War 47 Bin Ladin’s Appeal in the Islamic World 48 The Rise of Bin Ladin and al Qaeda (1988–1992) 55 Building an Organization, Declaring War on the United States (1992–1996) 59 Al Qaeda’s Renewal in Afghanistan (1996–1998) 63. 3. COUNTERTERRORISM EVOLVES 71. From the Old Terrorism to the New: The First World Trade Center Bombing 71 Adaptation—and Nonadaptation— . . . in the Law Enforcement Community 73 . . . and in the Federal Aviation Administration 82 . . . and in the Intelligence Community 86. Page vi . . . and in the State Department and the Defense Department 93 . . . and in the White House 98 . . . and in the Congress 102. 4. RESPONSES TO AL QAEDA’S INITIAL ASSAULTS 108 4.1. Before the Bombings in Kenya and Tanzania 108 Crisis: August 1998 115 Diplomacy 121 Covert Action 126 Searching for Fresh Options 134 5. AL QAEDA AIMS AT THE AMERICAN HOMELAND 145. Terrorist Entrepreneurs 145 The “Planes Operation” 153 The Hamburg Contingent 160 A Money Trail? 169 6. FROM THREAT TO THREAT 174. The Millennium Crisis 174 Post-Crisis Reflection: Agenda for 2000 182 The Attack on the USS Cole 190 Change and Continuity 198 The New Administration’s Approach 203 7. THE ATTACK LOOMS 215. First Arrivals in California 215 The 9/11 Pilots in the United States 223 Assembling the Teams 231 Final Strategies and Tactics 241 8. “THE SYSTEM WAS BLINKING RED” 254. The Summer of Threat 254 Late Leads—Mihdhar, Moussaoui, and KSM 266 9. HEROISM AND HORROR 278. Preparedness as of September 11 278 September 11, 2001 285 Emergency Response at the Pentagon 311 Analysis 315. 10. WARTIME 325 10.1 Immediate Responses at Home 326 10.2 Planning for War 330 10.3 “Phase Two” and the Question of Iraq 334 11. FORESIGHT—AND HINDSIGHT 339. Imagination 339 Policy 348 Capabilities 350 Management 353 12. WHAT TO DO? A GLOBAL STRATEGY 361. Reflecting on a Generational Challenge 361 Attack Terrorists and Their Organizations 365 Prevent the Continued Growth of Islamist Terrorism 374 Protect against and Prepare for Terrorist Attacks 383 13. HOW TO DO IT? A DIFFERENT WAY OF ORGANIZING THE GOVERNMENT 399. Unity of Effort across the Foreign-Domestic Divide 400 Unity of Effort in the Intelligence Community 407 Unity of Effort in Sharing Information 416 Unity of Effort in the Congress 419 Organizing America’s Defenses in the United States 423 Appendix A: Common Abbreviations 429 Appendix B:Table of Names 431 Appendix C: Commission Hearings 439 Notes 449
Staff Investigation of the 9/11 Plot The staff’s investigation of the 9/11 plot built on the extensive investigations conducted by the U.S. government, particularly the FBI. The government thoroughly examined the plot’s financial transactions, and the Commission staff had neither the need nor the resources to duplicate that work. Rather, the staff independently assessed the earlier investigation. We had access to the actual evidence of the plotters’ financial transactions, including U.S. and foreign bank account statements, fund transfer records, and other financial records. We also had access to the FBI’s extensive work product, including analyses, financial spreadsheets and timelines, and relevant summaries of interviews with witnesses, such as bank tellers, money exchange operators and others with knowledge of the conspirators’ financial dealings. We were briefed by and formally interviewed the FBI agents who led the plot-financing investigation, sometimes more than once. In addition to the FBI, we met with key people from other agencies, including the CIA and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), who had relevant knowledge about the plot financing. Commission staff also interviewed law enforcement officials from other countries who had investigated the 9/11 plot, reviewed investigative materials from other countries, and interviewed relevant private-sector witnesses. Finally, the staff regularly received relevant reports on the interrogations of the plot participants now in custody. Financing of the Plot To plan and conduct their attack, the 9/11 plotters spent somewhere between $400,000 and $500,000, the vast majority of which was provided by al Qaeda. Although the origin of the funds remains unknown, extensive investigation has revealed quite a bit about the financial transactions that supported the 9/11 plot. The hijackers and their financial facilitators used the anonymity provided by the huge international and domestic financial system to move and store their money through a series of unremarkable transactions. The existing mechanisms to prevent abuse of the financial system did not fail. They were never designed to detect or disrupt transactions of the type that financed 9/11. Financing of the hijackers before they arrived in the United States 131 National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States Al Qaeda absorbed costs related to the plot before the hijackers arrived in the United States, although our knowledge of the funding during this period remains somewhat murky. According to plot leader Khalid Sheikh Muhammad (KSM), the Hamburg cell members (Muhamad Atta, Marwan al Shehhi, Ziad Jarrah, and Ramzi Binalshibh) each received $5,000 to pay for their return from Afghanistan to Germany in late 1999 or early 2000, after they had been selected to join the plot, and the three Hamburg pilots also received additional funds for travel from Germany to the United States. Once the nonpilot muscle hijackers received their training, each received $2,000 to travel to Saudi Arabia to obtain new passports and visas, and ultimately $10,000 to facilitate travel to the United States, according to KSM.143 We have found no evidence that the Hamburg cell members received funds from al Qaeda earlier than late 1999. Before then, they appear to have supported themselves. For example, Shehhi was being paid by the UAE military, which was sponsoring his studies in Germany. He continued to receive a salary through December 23, 2000. The funds were deposited into his bank account in the United Arab Emirates and then wired by his...
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How Electronic Fuel Injection Works Electronic Fuel injection works on the some very basic principles. The following discussion broadly outlines how a basic or Convention Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system operates. The Electronic Fuel Injection system can be divided into three: basic sub-systems. These are the fuel delivery system, air induction system, and the electronic control system. The Fuel Delivery System • The fuel delivery system consists of the fuel tank, fuel pump, fuel filter, fuel delivery pipe (fuel rail), fuel injector, fuel pressure regulator, and fuel return pipe. • Fuel is delivered from the tank to the injector by means of an electric fuel pump. The pump is typically located in or near the fuel tank. Contaminants are filtered out by a high capacity in line fuel filter. • Fuel is maintained at a constant pressure by means of a fuel pressure regulator. Any fuel which is not delivered to the intake manifold by the injector is returned to the tank through a fuel return pipe. The Air Induction System • The air induction system consists of the air cleaner, air flow meter, throttle valve, air intake chamber, intake manifold runner, and intake valve. • Air delivered to the engine is a function of driver demand. As the throttle valve is opened further, more air is allowed to enter the engine cylinders. • When the throttle valve is opened, air flows through the air cleaner, through the air flow meter (on L type systems), past the throttle valve, and through a well tuned intake manifold runner to the intake valve. • Toyota engines use two different methods to measure intake air volume. The L type EFI system measures air flow directly by using an air flow meter. The D type EFI system measures air flow indirectly by monitoring the pressure in the intake manifold.
Heart Healthy Diet: Low Fat, Low Cholesterol, Low Sodium Diet Purpose of the diet Control and / or decrease levels of cholesterol in your blood. Control and / or decrease blood pressure and / or fluid retention. Cholesterol This fat-like substance is necessary for good health. However, high levels in the blood can cause heart and blood vessel diseases. Our bodies make cholesterol. We also get it from eating foods from animals (meats, milk, eggs, cheese, butter). Foods from plants (fruits, vegetables, grains) do not contain cholesterol. Saturated fats These fats are generally solid at room temperature. They tend to increase blood cholesterol levels. Trans fatty acids These are fats that can raise cholesterol levels like saturated fat does. Trans fats are usually listed as partially hydrogenated oils. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats These fats are generally liquid at room temperature. Some can lower blood cholesterol levels. More on next page Learn more about your health care. © Copyright 2000 - March 22, 2012. The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center - Upon request all patient education handouts are available in other formats for people with special hearing, vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Page 2 How can I lower my blood cholesterol level? Decrease total fat intake, especially saturated and trans fats. Saturated fats are mainly in animal foods. Trans fats come mostly from partially hydrogenated plant oils. Foods that may contain trans fats include store bought baked goods, non-dairy whipped toppings, cream substitutes, some crackers and cookies, and many deep fried foods. To check for trans fats in a food, look for any oil that is “partially hydrogenated” in the ingredients on food labels. If a food has less than half a gram of trans fat per serving, the food manufacturer can list “zero grams of trans fat” on the food label, so it is best to check the ingredients for partially hydrogenated oils. Limit high cholesterol foods. Egg yolks, fatty meats, organ meats, butter, whole milk and other high fat dairy products are high cholesterol foods. Substitute monounsaturated fat or polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat in your diet. Monounsaturated fats include olive oil, peanut oil and canola oil. Safflower, corn and sunflower oils, and most margarines and salad dressings are examples of polyunsaturated fats. Also, fish has a higher content of polyunsaturated fat than red meat. A special note on fish: Many fish are low fat. Some fish that have a higher fat content such as salmon are high in a kind of fat called omega 3 fatty acids. This type of fat has been shown to be very heart healthy. It is recommended to eat fish three times a week for this reason. One caution: consider how you prepare it so that you don’t add large amounts of undesired fats. Baking, broiling, grilling or poaching fish is best. What is sodium? Sodium is a mineral that is necessary for good health and is present in all foods. Most people eat more sodium than they need. If the body cannot get rid of the extra sodium, fluid builds up. Extra fluid increases the work of the heart and kidneys, and may increase blood pressure. Eating less sodium may help control these problems. You will sometimes see the term sodium abbreviated "Na", as in NaCl (Sodium Chloride), which is table salt. The recommended sodium intake per day for most people is no more than 2300 milligrams (mg). For anyone who has high blood pressure, is over 50, or is African American, the sodium intake is 1,500 mg. Page 3 Sodium Guidelines To choose foods that are healthier for you, look for these labels: Sodium-free – less than 5 milligrams of sodium per serving Very low-sodium – 35 milligrams or less per serving Low-sodium – 140 milligrams or less per serving Reduced sodium – usual sodium level is reduced by 25 percent Unsalted, no salt added or without added salt – made without the salt, but still has the sodium that's a natural part of the food Know Your Salt When you are on a No Salt Added diet, even a small amount of salt has a lot of sodium in it. Amount of Sodium in Salt ¼ teaspoon salt 600 milligrams of sodium ½ teaspoon salt 1,200 milligrams of sodium ¾ teaspoon salt 1,800 milligrams of sodium 1 teaspoon salt 2,300 milligrams of sodium 1 teaspoon baking soda 1,000 milligrams of sodium How can I limit sodium?
ovaj clanak je slika i prilika situacije u Srbiji,Srbiji koja je izmucena,dovedena do duznickog ropstva,nametnutim ratovima,ek.sankcijama,agresijom NATO i tihom DOS-okupacijom od 05/10/2000. Evo ko vodi Srbiju,Denio,Devennport,Kirbi i Adolfina licno. Denio nam kaze da ne pomisljamo ni na sta osim na EU,a Kirbi nas uci da se navikavamo da smo njihovi robovi,da ce nam se djeca,kao djeca robova u Rimskom carstvu,radjati kao robovi,to je ta promjena "svijesti". Jesmo li samo mi krivi za ovu situaciju,ja mislim da nismo skroz,ali da jesmo u dobroj mjeri,vjerovali smo dusmanima da ce nam donijeti bolji zivot,
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