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Edwin A. Rivera Delphi Powertrain Systems John E. Kirwan Delphi Powertrain Systems February 25, 2014 Green Legislation Fuels Innovation & Growth Global regulations are becoming more stringent Regulation Trends More Stringent standards driving innovation di i i ti EPA 2025 proj.: 54.5 mpg NHTSA Fleet avg: 2021: 40.3 – 41.0 mpg pg 2025: 48.7 – 49.6 mpg 120 Worldw wide Light Duty Vehicles V (Millions) GDi E i Engines Projected to be the fastest growing market segment over the next 10 years Will become the dominant internal combustion engine Fuel Cell & Electric Alternative Fuels 100 Diesel 80 GDi Gasoline 60 GDi Hybrid PFI Hybrid 40 20 0 PFI Gasoline Source: IHS Feb 2013 2010 2 Diesel Hybrid 2013 Fuel Injection Technology Trends – Feb. 25, 2014 2016 2019 2022 2025 New Challenge for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines Particulate Emissions Light Duty PM 25 Chart from: https://www.dieselnet.com/standards/us/ld_ca.php 20 PM (mg/mile) CA / US OBD Threshold 15 10 LEV III 1 mg/mi Phase in 0.75 mg/mile difference Threshold = 1.75X standard 7.5 mg/mile difference Threshold = 1.75X Standard CA LEV / US Emission Standard 2.25 mg/mile difference Threshold = 1.75X Standard 5 LEV III (& US Tier 3 Expected) 3 mg/mi Phase in 0 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 2025 Fuel injection technology performance relative to particulate emission standards LEVIII and EURO6c: d EURO6...
Delphi Heated Tip Fuel Injector Control Module The Delphi Heated Tip Fuel Injector Control Module is uniquely designed to control the Delphi Multec® 3.5 Heated Tip Port Fuel Injector. It precisely controls the integrated heating element in the injector to a commanded temperature set point. Its stand-alone design eliminates the need for any hardware modification to the engine control module, in most applications. Benefits: Eliminates the need for specialized, high current engine controller hardware Requires only two signals from the engine control module (LIN and Output Enable) Minimal engine controller software changes necessary Provides individual measurement and control for up to four injectors Standard LIN, or optional CAN communications available Integrated reverse battery protection option eliminates the need for an external relay Small footprint enables packaging flexibility
FEATURES Wide detecting scope Fast response and High sensitivity Stable and long life Simple drive circuit APPLICATION They are used in gas leakage detecting equipments in family and industry, are suitable for detecting of LPG, i-butane, propane, methane ,alcohol, Hydrogen, smoke. SPECIFICATIONS A. Standard work condition Symbol Vc VH RL RH PH Parameter name Circuit voltage Heating voltage Load resistance Heater resistance Heating consumption Technical condition 5V±0.1 5V±0.1 can adjust 33Ω±5% less than 800mw Remarks AC OR DC ACOR DC Technical condition -20℃-50℃ -20℃-70℃ less than 95%Rh 21%(standard condition)Oxygen concentration can affect sensitivity Remarks Room Tem B. Environment condition Symbol Tao Tas RH O2 Parameter name Using Tem Storage Tem Related humidity Oxygen concentration minimum value is over 2% C. Sensitivity characteristic Symbol Rs Parameter name Sensing Resistance α (3000/1000) isobutane Standard Detecting Condition Preheat time Technical parameter 3KΩ-30KΩ (1000ppm iso-butane ) Concentration Slope rate ≤0.6 Temp: 20℃±2℃ Humidity: 65%±5% Vc:5V±0.1 Vh: 5V±0.1 Over 24 hour Remarks Detecting concentration scope： 200ppm-5000ppm LPG and propane 300ppm-5000ppm butane 5000ppm-20000ppm methane 300ppm-5000ppm H2 100ppm-2000ppm Alcohol D. Structure and configuration, basic measuring circuit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Parts Gas sensing layer Electrode Electrode line Heater coil Tubular ceramic Anti-explosion network Clamp ring Resin base Tube Pin Materials SnO2 Au Pt Ni-Cr alloy Al2O3 Stainless steel gauze (SUS316 100-mesh) Copper plating Ni Bakelite Copper plating Ni Fig.2 Fig. 1 Configuration A Configuration B A向 A向 Structure and configuration of MQ-2 gas sensor is shown as Fig. 1 (Configuration A or B), sensor composed by micro AL2O3 ceramic tube, Tin Dioxide (SnO2) sensitive layer, measuring electrode and heater are fixed into a TEL: 86-371- 67169070 67169080 FAX: 86-371-67169090 E-mail: email@example.com
MQ-2 Semiconductor Sensor for Combustible Gas Sensitive material of MQ-2 gas sensor is SnO2, which with lower conductivity in clean air. When the target combustible gas exist, The sensor’s conductivity is more higher along with the gas concentration rising. Please use simple electrocircuit, Convert change of conductivity to correspond output signal of gas concentration. MQ-2 gas sensor has high sensitity to LPG, Propane and Hydrogen, also could be used to Methane and other combustible steam, it is with low cost and suitable for different application. Character Configuration *Good sensitivity to Combustible gas in wide range * High sensitivity to LPG, Propane and Hydrogen * Long life and low cost * Simple drive circuit Application * Domestic gas leakage detector * Industrial Combustible gas detector * Portable gas detector Technical Data Basic test loop T Model No. MQ-2 Sensor Type Semiconductor Standard Encapsulation Bakelite (Black Bakelite) Detection Gas Combustible gas and smoke VRL 300-10000ppm Concentration Vc Heater Voltage VH 5.0V±0.2V ACorDC RL Adjustable Load Resistance Heater Resistance Heater consumption Character Sensing Resistance RH DC GND The above is basic test circuit of the sensor. 31Ω±3Ω（Room Tem.） heater voltage （VH） and test voltage （VC） . VH used to supply certified working PH ≤900mW temperature to the sensor, while VC used to detect voltage (VRL) on load resistance Rs 2KΩ-20KΩ(in 2000ppm C3H8 ) （RL）whom is in series with sensor. The sensor has light polarity, Vc need DC...
PING)))™ Ultrasonic Distance Sensor (#28015) The Parallax PING))) ultrasonic distance sensor provides precise, non-contact distance measurements from about 2 cm (0.8 inches) to 3 meters (3.3 yards). It is very easy to connect to BASIC Stamp® or Javelin Stamp microcontrollers, requiring only one I/O pin. The PING))) sensor works by transmitting an ultrasonic (well above human hearing range) burst and providing an output pulse that corresponds to the time required for the burst echo to return to the sensor. By measuring the echo pulse width the distance to target can easily be calculated. The PING))) sensor has a male 3-pin header used to supply power (5 VDC), ground, and signal. The header allows the sensor to be plugged into a solderless breadboard, or to be located remotely through the use of a standard servo extender cable (Parallax part #805-00002). Standard connections are show in the diagram to the right. Quick-Start Circuit This circuit allows you to quickly connect your PING))) sensor to a BASIC Stamp® 2 via the Board of Education® breadboard area. The PING))) module’s GND pin connects to Vss, the 5 V pin connects to Vdd, and the SIG pin connects to I/O pin P15. This circuit will work with the example program Ping_Demo.BS2 listed on page 7. Servo Cable and Port Cautions If you want to connect your PING))) sensor to a Board of Education using a servo extension cable, follow these steps: 1. When plugging the cable onto the PING))) sensor, connect Black to GND, Red to 5 V, and White to SIG. 2. Check to see if your Board of Education servo ports have a jumper, as shown at right. 3. If your Board of Education servo ports have a jumper, set it to Vdd as shown. 4. If your Board of Education servo ports do not have a jumper, do not use them with the PING))) sensor. These ports only provide Vin, not Vdd, and this may damage your PING))) sensor. Go to the next step. 5. Connect the servo cable directly to the breadboard with a 3-pin header. Then, use jumper wires to connect Black to Vss, Red to Vdd, and White to I/O pin P15. Board of Education Servo Port Jumper, Set to Vdd © Parallax, Inc. • PING)))TM Ultrasonic Distance Sensor (#28015) • v1.3 6/13/2006
Description • Accuracy: - ±0.25 (typical) from -40°C to +125°C - ±0.5°C (maximum) from -20°C to 100°C - ±1°C (maximum) from -40°C to +125°C • User-Selectable Measurement Resolution: - +0.5°C, +0.25°C, +0.125°C, +0.0625°C • User-Programmable Temperature Limits: - Temperature Window Limit - Critical Temperature Limit • User-Programmable Temperature Alert Output • Operating Voltage Range: 2.7V to 5.5V • Operating Current: 200 µA (typical) • Shutdown Current: 0.1 µA (typical) • 2-wire Interface: I2C™/SMBus Compatible • Available Packages: 2x3 DFN-8, MSOP-8 Microchip Technology Inc.’s MCP9808 digital temperature sensor converts temperatures between -20°C and +100°C to a digital word with ±0.25°C/±0.5°C (typical/maximum) accuracy. The MCP9808 comes with user-programmable registers that provide flexibility for temperature sensing applications. The registers allow user-selectable settings such as Shutdown or Low-Power modes and the specification of temperature Alert window limits and critical output limits. When the temperature changes beyond the specified boundary limits, the MCP9808 outputs an Alert signal. The user has the option of setting the Alert output signal polarity as an active-low or activehigh comparator output for thermostat operation, or as a temperature Alert interrupt output for microprocessorbased systems. The Alert output can also be configured as a critical temperature output only. This sensor has an industry standard 400 kHz, 2-wire, SMBus/I2C compatible serial interface, allowing up to eight or sixteen sensors to be controlled with a single serial bus (see Table 3-2 for available Address codes). These features make the MCP9808 ideal for sophisticated, multi-zone, temperature-monitoring applications.
IBM's statements regarding its plans, directions, and intent are subject to change or withdrawal at IBM's sole discretion. Information regarding potential future products is intended to outline our general product direction and it should not be relied on in making a purchasing decision. The information mentioned regarding potential future products is not a commitment, promise, or legal obligation to deliver any material, code or functionality. Information about potential future products may not be incorporated into any contract. The development, release, and timing of any future features or functionality described for our products remains at our sole discretion. Performance is based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput or performance that any user will experience will vary depending upon many factors, including considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user's job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed. Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve results similar to those stated here. © 2013 International Business Machines Corporation
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Populasi yang diambil untuk penelitian ini adalah soal-soal ujian matakuliahmatakuliah pada program studi Statistika Terapan dan Matematika FMIPA yang mempunyai tipe D - melengkapi berganda. Dugaan semula bahwa ada kecenderungan penulis soal meletakkan kunci jawaban soal di tengah-tcngah (menurut Dorothy C. Adkins), setelah melalui penelitian ini kecenderungan tersebut ternyata bahxva penulis lebih tertarik menempatkan kunci jawaban pada option 1, 2 dan 3 benar atau kunci jawaban D. Soal tes/ujian sebagai salah satu alat pengukuran pendidikan disusun untuk tujuan mengukur sampai seberapa jauh kedua fungsi pendidikan terscbut berhasil dicapai. Bcntuk soal ujian yang dipakai oleh Universitas Terbuka pada umumnya pilihan berganda, hanya sebagian saja dalam bentuk essay (uraian). Dalam hal ini FMIPA Universitas Terbuka sampai dengan masa ujian 90.1 telah mengembangkan sebanyak 61 matakuliah, sebagian besar soal ujian dalam bentuk pilihan berganda kecuali 12 matakuliah yang bentuk soal ujiannya adalah essay (uraian). Universitas Terbuka, dalam penyelenggaraan ujiannya, mcnctapkan 5 (lima) macarn tipe soal ujian yaitu:...
The purpose of these diagrams is to graphically explain the overall operation of AM, PM, and FM communications systems using very little mathematics. This explanation is accomplished by tracing a simple sinusoidal signal through all stages of each system. Although students who are "mathematically challenged" will find these diagrams very helpful, most students who are beginning the study of electrical communications systems can benefit from these same diagrams. More advanced courses can also use these diagrams as a basis on which to organize and present abstract mathematics. ● S tudents: M. B. Suranga Perera, Nikolay Ostrovskiy and Johnny Lam. They produced the professional graphics in these vector art diagrams and created the pages. To pay these students, the following persons or organizations at NYCCT generously offered financial advice or funds: The unique features of these diagrams are the following: presenting the signal in both the time domain and frequency domain together at each stage of the communication process ● using a color code to show the distribution of information in the signals in both the time domain and frequency domain simultaneously. ● Former Dean Phyllis Sperling of the School of Technology & Design ● ● Former Dean Annette Schaefer of the School of Arts and Sciences ● Professor Joseph Rosen, head of the Freshman Year Program at NYCCT and current acting Dean of the School of Liberal Arts and Sciences The history of preparing this booklet is a long one. Before beginning the arduous work of producing these diagrams, we inspected about 70 standard textbooks on electrical communications to determine whether we could save ourselves a lot of effort by simply using their diagrams; but none of those books contained the above simultaneous diagrams. Some of the basic ideas underlying these diagrams were presented by us in 2001 at a conference of FIE (Frontiers In Education) in Reno, Nevada. Completion of this booklet took about three more years of devoted labor, research, and collaboration. Ms. Jewel Escobar, Executive Director of NYCCT Foundation