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This paper examines the complex, often misunderstood, relationship between al-Qaeda, the Taliban and the various militant groups found in FATA (the Federally Administered Tribal Areas) in Pakistan, including the TTP (Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan). Much of what is commonly assumed about the Taliban, the TTP and al-Qaeda is based on misinformation, misunderstanding or a misrepresentation of historical events. The Taliban and alQaeda can in many ways be seen as sharing common values, although their ultimate goals remain very different. The Taliban were not part of the mujahedeen fighting against the Soviets in Afghanistan, and emerged only in 1994. Al-Qaeda, for all the conspiracy, did not receive money from the CIA during the 1980s, and was only officially formed as an organisation in 1988. The creation of the TTP in 2007 is another matter, and was created as an umbrella organisation for various Pakistani militant groups, and maintains close ties with al-Qaeda. However, the Pakistani Taliban is not the same Taliban as the one formed in 1994, and although it swears its loyalty to Mullah Omar, its goals differ from that of the Afghani Taliban. We can speak of al-Qaeda and the Taliban in two broad strokes – pre 9/11 and post 9/11. The attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon (as well as the failed attack on Washington DC with the hijacked flight 93), was the culmination of al-Qaeda as a tightly knit, hierarchical organisation. The subsequent “War on Terror” and the invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001 destroyed much of its organisational capacity; it also left the Taliban severely weakened. However, they both regrouped in the FATA region over a period of years, and al-Qaeda spread its ideology throughout northern Pakistan, coalescing with militant groups and local warlords. Before 9/11, al-Qaeda and the Taliban were very much two different organisations; today, it is not so simple, and in 2010, General David Petreus claimed that there is “a symbiotic relationship between all of these different organizations: al-Qaeda, the Pakistani Taliban, the Afghan Taliban ... They support each other, they coordinate with each other, sometimes they compete with each other, [and] sometimes they even fight each other.” (cfr, 2010, http://www.cfr.org).
Al Qaeda (AQ) has evolved into a significantly different terrorist organization than the one that perpetrated the September 11, 2001, attacks. At the time, Al Qaeda was composed mostly of a core cadre of veterans of the Afghan insurgency against the Soviet Union, with a centralized leadership structure made up mostly of Egyptians. Most of the organization’s plots either emanated from the top or were approved by the leadership. Some analysts describe pre-9/11 Al Qaeda as akin to a corporation, with Osama Bin Laden acting as an agile Chief Executive Officer issuing orders and soliciting ideas from subordinates. Some would argue that the Al Qaeda of that period no longer exists. Out of necessity, due to pressures from the security community, in the ensuing years it has transformed into a diffuse global network and philosophical movement composed of dispersed nodes with varying degrees of independence. The core leadership, headed by Bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, is thought to live in the mountainous tribal belt of northwest Pakistan bordering Afghanistan, where it continues to train operatives, recruit, and disseminate propaganda. But Al Qaeda franchises or affiliated groups active in countries such as Yemen and Somalia now represent critical power centers in the larger movement. Some affiliates receive money, training, and weapons; others look to the core leadership in Pakistan for strategic guidance, theological justification, and a larger narrative of global struggle.
A l-Qa’ida seems to be on its heels. The death of Osama bin Laden and the fall of Arab dictators have left its leadership in disarray, its narrative confused, and the organization on the defensive. One silver lining for al-Qaida, however, has been its affiliate organizations. In Iraq, the Maghreb, Somalia, Yemen, and elsewhere, alQa’ida has used local groups to expand its reach, increase its power, and grow its numbers. This string of mergers is not over. In places as diverse as the Sinai Peninsula and Nigeria, al-Qa’ida-linked organizations are emerging. However, the jihadist world is more fractured than it may appear at first glance. Many Salafi-jihadist groups have not joined with al-Qa’ida, and even if they have, tensions and divisions occur that present the United States and its allies with opportunities for weakening the bond. at the same time, several Salafi-jihadist groups chose not to affiliate with al-Qa’ida, including Egypt’s Gamaat al-Islamiyya and Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), and fighters in Chechnya, Gaza, and Pakistan maintained their distance as well. Motivations to the Affiliate for Joining There are a number of reasons why a group may choose to affiliate with al-Qa’ida, some practical, some ideological, and some personal: • • Al-Qa’ida has always been both a group with its own agenda and a facilitator of other terrorist groups. This meant that it not only carried out attacks on U.S. targets in Kenya, Tanzania, and Yemen throughout the 1990s, but it helped other jihadist groups with funding, training, and additional logistical essentials. Toward the end of the 1990s, alQa’ida incorporated Egyptian Islamic Jihad into its structure. After September 11, 2001, this process of deepening its relationship with outside groups took off, and today a number of regional groups bear the label “al-Qa’ida” in their name, along with a more local designation.
All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored in any storage medium, for any purpose without the express prior written consent of Garmin. Garmin hereby grants permission to download a single copy of this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium to be viewed and to print one copy of this manual or of any revision hereto, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual must contain the complete text of this copyright notice and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Garmin reserves the right to change or improve its products and to make changes in the content without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes or improvements. Visit the Garmin Web site (www.garmin.com) for current updates and supplemental information concerning the use and operation of this and other Garmin products. Garmin® and MapSource® are registered trademarks, and nüvi™, myGarmin™, Garmin Lock™, and Garmin TourGuide™ are trademarks of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries and may not be used without the express permission of Garmin. The Bluetooth® word mark and logos are owned by the Bluetooth SIG, Inc., and any use of such name by Garmin is under license. Windows® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Mac® is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. SiRF®, SiRFstar®, and the SiRF logo are registered trademarks, and SiRFstarIII™ and SiRF™ Powered are trademarks of SiRF Technology, Inc. Audible.com® and AudibleReady® are registered trademarks of Audible, Inc. © Audible, Inc. 1997-2005. Multilingual Wordbank © Oxford University Press 2001.
For P/No: 04998 & 04999 only. 1. In the engine bay, disconnect the negative and positive battery terminals. 2. Remove the vehicle battery (1) by first removing any fasteners. 3. Locate the vehicle grommet behind the battery cavity area. 4. Pierce a hole in the vehicle grommet. Note: Do not connect the harness to the battery at this point. Issue Date 27-09-10 For P/No: 04997 only. 5. In the engine bay, locate the vehicle battery (1). 6. Route the body harness (2) down through to the chassis. Note: Do not connect the harness to the battery at this point. 7. Route the power input harness (1) from the engine bay down through to the chassis, following the path of the brake and fuel lines. For P/No: 04997 & 04999 only. 8. Following the diagram on the right, house the two power & ground input harness female terminals (4) into the mating connector (3). 9. Connect the power input harness connector (3) to the body harness mating connector. Issue Date 27-09-10 For P/No: 04998 only. 10. Following the diagram on the right, house the three power & ground input harness female terminals (4) into the mating connector (5). 11. Connect the power input harness connector (5) to the body harness mating connector. 12. Route the body harness (1) along the LHS chassis rail, following the path of the blue vehicle harness towards the rear of the vehicle. 13. Route the body harness (1) along the rear of the vehicle towbar towards the towbar mounting bracket. Issue Date 27-09-10
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission 23 Marcus Clarke Street, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 2601 © Commonwealth of Australia 2013 This work is copyright. In addition to any use permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all material contained within this work is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence, with the exception of: • the Commonwealth Coat of Arms • the ACCC and AER logos • any illustration, diagram, photograph or graphic over which the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission does not hold copyright, but which may be part of or contained within this publication. The details of the relevant license conditions are available on the Creative Commons website, as is the full legal code for the CC BY 3.0 AU licence. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Director, Internal Communication and Publishing Services, ACCC, GPO Box 3131, Canberra ACT 2601, or firstname.lastname@example.org. Important notice The information in this publication is for general guidance only. It does not constitute legal or other professional advice, and should not be relied on as a statement of the law in any jurisdiction. Because it is intended only as a general guide, it may contain generalisations.
- RENAULT Please read the complete document before starting the installation Brand assignment SEAS add-on module is delivered NOT PROGRAMMED, therefore a brand (Renault in this case) must be set with computer and specific program SETUP TRUCK This procedure can be achieved both before and after the installation on the vehicle (if after the installation, the vehicle power batteries must be disconnected during the operations). • Connect the programming cable to the USB port of your PC • Connect the programming cable to the SEAS module by using the white 4 pins connector; during this operation the LED (Light Emission Diode) of the SEAS module will be off. • Run the program SimulaCan (select it from the list of programs installed on your pc). • Proceed as follow: Select “Start” Wait for next screen displayed (the time required can vary according to the quantity of virtual COM installed) Renault_eng.doc Pagina 1 di 5 Ver. 0.1 If the connection is successfully achieved (serial communication recognized and accepted) the program will display this page: you can now select RENAULT brand Select “Send PROG” When the programming operation is completed, the yellow LED on your SEAS module will turn on. Select “Quit” to close the program SimulaCan • Disconnect the programming cable of your SEAS module and place the specific cover on top of the white 4 pins connector. IMPORTANT: the following instructions indicate how to connect and install your SEAS module on the original AdBlue system of the truck. The number displayed and the colour of the conductors of the AdBlue system are referred to Renault Premium 450 year 2008, these details may vary according to different production lots or vehicle equipment. Please refer to the schemes/layouts supplied with the Renault technical manual to identify the CAN-Bus line of the AdBlue system, its protection fuse and the power feeding. The main working procedure of SEAS modules does not vary.
Certain Renault 1.5 DCi models, produced between June 2001 and June 2002, without air-conditioning, could have issues with the accessory drive belt, as a result of tensioner problems. The tensioner base plate could deform, resulting in misalignment, belt noise and early failure. In order to cure this, Renault launched a technical note, saying the old tensioner (OE ref. 8200262773, 8200292784), the 2 tensioner bolts (torxhead) and the accessory drive belt (OE ref. 8200020924) have to be replaced. Vehicles involved: *Clio II, Symbol, Van 1.5DCi. Chassis codes: BB07, BB08, CB07, CB08, LB07, SB07, SB08; with engine K9K700 or K9K702. *Kangoo, Rapid, Express 1.5DCI. Chassis codes: FC07, FC08, KC07, KC09 ; with engine K9K700, K9K702 or K9K710. How to proceed: Loosen tensioner bolts Remove old accessory drive belt Remove old tensioner bolts and tensioner Install new tensioner (OE ref. 8200328372) Use 2 new bolts (OE ref. 7703002059 - hex head) Install the 2 bolts hand tight Install a new Micro-V® XF belt 5PK1133 (OE ref. 8200020924). ATTENTION!!! The pulleys of this drive have 6 grooves, while the needed belt only has 5 ribs. The groove closest to the engine bloc has to remain free. Tensioning the new belt: The belt has to be tensioned (with tool Mot. 1638, OE ref. 0000163800) to a higher tension than with the original drive set-up Technical Bulletin 013 Copyright © 2006 Gates Corporation
展示名:欧州航空大混乱！ －アイスランド火山噴火－ アイスランドのエイヤフィヤットラヨークトル氷河で4月14日から続いている火山噴火によって、大量の火山灰 が欧州上空を覆った。飛行機は火山灰によってエンジン停止の可能性があるため飛べず、航空網が寸断さ れ、経済活動・政治活動など様々な部分に影響が及んでいる。 展示期間 平成22年4月20日～ 5月6日 展示本リスト 平成22年4月20日現在 【高知県立図書館所蔵】 書 名 著 者 出版社 出版年 請求記号 配架場所 1 局地風のいろいろ 改訂版 荒川 正一 成山堂書店 2001 451.4 一般 2 世界の風・日本の風 吉野 正敏 成山堂書店 2008 451.4 一般 3 風の気象学 竹内 清秀 東京大学出版 会 1997 451.4 一般 4 偏西風の気象学 田中 博 成山堂書店 2007 451.4 一般 5 再生 吉田 正夫 古今書院 2002 453.8 一般 6 火山のはなし 災害軽減に向けて 下鶴 大輔 朝倉書店 2000 453.8 一般 7 火山大災害 金子 史朗 古今書院 2000 453.8 一般 ディック・トンプソン ／著 地人書館 山越 幸江／訳 2003 453.8 一般 白尾 元理 地人書館 2002 453.8 一般 サイモン・ウィン チェスター／著 柴田 裕之／訳 早川書房 2004 453.8 一般 11 史上最強カラー図解 鈴木真二／監修 ナツメ社 2009 538 ジョブ 12 わかりやすい航空工学入門 橋本 孝明 晃洋書房 2004 538.1 ジョブ 新星出版社 2006 538.6 ジョブ 自然力を知る ピナツボ火山災害地域の環境 8 火山に魅せられた男たち 噴火予知に命がけで挑む科学者の物語 火山とクレーターを旅する 地球ウォッチング 9 紀行 クラカトアの大噴火 世界の歴史を動かした火 10 山 プロが教える飛行機のすべてがわかる本 飛行機のしくみ 最新の機体の構造から操縦 新星出版社編集 部／編 13 システムのしくみまで 14 大空への挑戦 ジェット機編 鳥養 鶴雄 グランプリ出版 2002 538.6 ジョブ 15 飛行機の百科事典