Found 897 related files. Current in page 1
The production of energy using renewable natural resources such as wind, sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat, etc., has gained much importance in recent years as it is an effective means of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need for innovative technologies to make the grid smarter has recently emerged as a major trend as the increase in electrical power demand observed worldwide makes it harder for the actual grid in many countries to keep up with demand. Furthermore, electric vehicles, from bicycles to cars, are developed and marketed with more and more success in many countries all over the world. To answer the increasingly diversified needs for training in the wide field of electrical energy, Lab-Volt developed the Electric Power Technology Training Program, a modular study program for technical institutes, colleges, and universities. The program starts with a variety of courses providing in-depth coverage of basic topics related to the field of electrical energy such as ac and dc power circuits, power transformers, rotating machines, ac power transmission lines, industrial controls, and power electronics. These basic courses incorporate most of the subject matter covered in other well established Lab-Volt training systems such as the Electromechanical Training System, Model 8006, Power Electronics Training System, Model 8032, Industrial Controls Training Systems, Series 8036, and Power Transmission Training System, Model 8055, as well as many new topics related to recent technologies. The program then builds on the knowledge gained by the student through these basic courses to provide training in more advanced subjects such as home energy production from renewable resources (wind and sunlight), large-scale electricity production from hydropower, large-scale electricity production from wind power (doubly-fed induction generator [DFIG],
Of the several known methods to produce electricity, by far the most practical for large scale production and distribution involves the use of an “electrical generator.” In an electrical generator, a magnet (rotor) revolves inside a coil of wire (stator), creating a flow of electrons inside the wire. This flow of electrons is called electricity. Some mechanical device (wind turbine, water turbine, steam turbine, diesel engine, etc.) must be available to provide the motive force for the rotor. When a turbine is attached to the electrical generator, the kinetic energy (i.e., motion) of the wind, falling water, or steam pushes against the fan-type blades of the turbine, causing the turbine, and therefore, the attached rotor of the electrical generator, to spin and produce electricity. In a hydroelectric power plant, water, flowing from a higher level to a lower level, travels through the metal blades of a water turbine, causing the rotor of the electrical generator to spin and produce electricity. In a fossil-fueled power plant, heat, from the burning of coal, oil, or natural gas, converts (boils) water into steam (A), which is piped to the turbine (B). In the turbine, the steam passes through the blades, which spins the electrical generator (C), resulting in a flow of electricity. After leaving the turbine, the steam is converted (condensed) back into water in the condenser (D). The water is then pumped (E) back to the boiler (F) to be reheated and converted back into steam.
SELF-CANCELING TURN SIGNAL KIT General This kit is designed for use on the following motorcycles: MODEL FLTs FLHs FLHS's Softails FXWGs XLs FXEs FXRs FXRTs MODEL YEARS 1980 - 1988 (Includes FLHS 1987 - 1988) 1972 - 1984 1981 - 1984 1984 - 1990 1980 - 1986 1975 - 1990 1975 - 1985 1982 - 1990 1983 1/2 - 1990 NOTE This kit cannot be used on 1986 models that have the stock “latching type” turn signal switches. This kit contains the following components: QTY 3 1 2 2 1 1 6 1 DESCRIPTION Ring terminal Connector, male-to-male, spade, insulated Terminal, spade female Cable strap Module, turn signal Wire harness Connector, Scotchlok* Vinyl conduit, 3/8 in. inside diameter x 34 in. long Installation General (All Models) 1WARNING Module is designed to operate two lights and one indicator at one time. More than two lights will create an overload, causing the flashes to occur too fast to be seen. Making a turn with a constantly lit turn signal could confuse other motorists. Such confusion could result in an accident and personal injury. FLT Models (1980 - 1988) 1. Remove outer fairing on FLHTs. See applicable Service Manual for detailed instructions. FLT’s mounting location and flasher are accessible without removing headlight housing. 2. Connect wire harness to module at 10 pin/socket connector housings. NOTE On 1987 - 1988 FLHS models, mount the canceler module in a suitable location using cable straps or a bolt through mounting hole in module. 3. Use cable straps to secure turn signal module to right fork tube just above rubber fork stop. Ground black wire to front fork bracket with ring ter minal or spade connector on later models. 4. Route wires from module up to area of four-way flasher switch. Wires must be routed between top triple clamp and flasher bracket, not over the top of flasher bracket. 5. See Figure 2 (shows stock signal light circuit) and Figure 3 (shows kit connected in signal light circuit). Locate pink wire that connects to four-way flasher switch. Cut wire near switch. Connect with Scotchlok*, white/violet striped wire from module to pink wire going to four-way flasher switch. Connect with Scotchlok*, violet wire from module to remaining end of pink wire leading into main wiring harness and connected to left signal light switch.
Installation This auxiliary lamp kit fits: • All 1988 and later XL and Dyna Glide model motorcycles (except FXDWG, XDS-CONV or FXDXT). • 1988 through 1994 FXR, FXRS and FXLR models. 1WARNING To prevent accidental vehicle start-up, which could cause death or serious injury, disconnect negative (-) battery cable before proceeding. (00048a) This kit DOES NOT fit: • FXR models equipped with engine guards. • FXR models equipped with Turn Signal Relocation Kit 68517-94A. NOTE Auxiliary / fog lamps are not included in this kit. The desired style of lamp must be purchased separately. HDI (International) motorcycles should only use approved fog lamps. 1WARNING Disconnect negative (-) battery cable first. If positive (+) cable should contact ground with negative (-) cable connected, the resulting sparks can cause a battery explosion, which could result in death or serious injury. (00049a) 1. Refer to the service manual and follow the instructions given to remove the seat and disconnect the battery cables, negative cable first. See the Service Parts illustration on the last page of these instructions for kit contents. Models with turn signals mounted on the upper or lower triple clamp will also require Front Directional Relocation Kit (Part No. 68603-01), available separately at your HarleyDavidson Dealer. CAUTION It is possible to overload your motorcycle’s charging system by adding too many electrical accessories. If your combined electrical accessories operating at any one time consume more electrical current than your vehicle’s charging system can produce, the electrical consumption can discharge the battery and cause vehicle electrical system damage. See a HarleyDavidson Dealer for advice about the amount of current consumed by additional electrical accessories, or for necessary wiring changes. (00211b) 1WARNING Stop the engine when refueling or servicing the fuel system. Do not smoke or allow open flame or sparks near gasoline. Gasoline is extremely flammable and highly explosive, which could result in death or serious injury. (00002a) 2. Remove the fuel tank. See FUEL TANK – REMOVAL in the applicable service manual. 3. See Figure 1. The mounting brackets (1) and clamps (2) are side-specific. Select the right-hand or left-hand bracket and clamp, and install on the fork tube using two button-head screws (3) from the kit. NOTE Tighten the outer screw first. i02292
http://www.brltest.com BRL Test – low prices on sales and repairs is what we're about. Our world class repair lab is what sets us apart. Premium quality used spectrum analyzers, network analyzers, oscilloscopes, signal generators, communication testers, RF, microwave, telecommunications equipment and more. Shop and save on over 7,000 models from Agilent, HP, Keysight, R&S, Anritsu, Advantest, Tektronix and the like. Each unit is calibrated and certified per order. Z-540 & 17025 calibrations also available (ISO9001:2000 / A2LA.) Purchase easy knowing that you are receiving high quality equipment ready to work accurately right out of the box – no worries.
GMC ACADIA / ACADIA DENALI New for 2014: Forward Collision Alert and Lane Departure Warning, standard on Denali and available on SLT-1 and SLT-2 Two charging-only USB ports on the rear of the center console for second-row use 2014 GMC ACADIA HIGHLIGHTS SAFETY, CONVENIENCE FEATURES With its reputation for comfort, performance and efficiency, GMC Acadia has remained a popular choice since it was introduced as the brand’s first crossover SUV in 2007. Its luxury-minded Denali model, which came to market in mid-2010, has widened this midsize crossover’s appeal to customers looking for a high level of style, power and functionality. In 2014, the Acadia focuses on safety with the addition of Forward Collision Alert and Lane Departure Warning, crash-avoidance systems that use a camera and sensors to help detect when the driver is getting too close to a vehicle ahead, or when the vehicle enters another lane without the use of a turn signal. The systems alert the driver with visual cues on the dashboard, as well as audible signals. They complement Side Blind Zone Alert and Cross Traffic Alert, which were added in 2013. The camera technology was recently named a “Top Ten Tech Breakthrough of 2012” by Popular Mechanics. The new model year also brings an additional convenience feature: two charging-only USB ports on the rear of the center console to power up electronics from the second row. Acadia’s lineup for 2014 includes the SLE (with SLE-1 and SLE-2 trims), the SLT (with SLT-1 and SLT-2 trims) and the Denali models, with seven- or eight-passenger configurations. A 3.6L V-6 VVT engine that uses gasoline direct injection technology powers all Acadia models, optimizing performance and fuel economy across the board. The engine is paired with Acadia’s fuel-saving six-speed automatic transmission to help give FWD models an EPA-estimated 24 mpg on the highway. The transmission controls provide quick and consistent shifts for a commanding feel behind the wheel. All-wheel drive is also available. Towing capability for the Acadia is 5,200 pounds (2,364 kg), when...
AUTO-SCAN FM RADIO KIT MODEL FM-88K ELENCO® 150 Carpenter Avenue Wheeling, IL 60090 (847) 541-3800 Website: www.elenco.com e-mail: email@example.com To see our complete line of Educational Products go to WWW.ELENCO.COM Assembly and Instruction Manual ELENCO ® Copyright © 2011 by ELENCO® All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher. 753050 PARTS LIST GLOSSARY (Continued) If you are a student, and any parts are missing or damaged, please see instructor or bookstore. If you purchased this kit from a distributor, catalog, etc., please contact ELENCO® (address/phone/e-mail is at the back of this manual) for additional assistance, if needed. DO NOT contact your place of purchase as they will not be able to help you. RF Radio Frequency. Sensitivity The ability of a receiver to pick up low-amplitude signals. Speaker An electronic device that turn electric impulses into sound. Surface-mount Technology RESISTORS Symbol R5 R1 R3 R4 R2 R6/S3 Value Color Code 10Ω 5% 1/4W brown-black-black-gold 680Ω 5% 1/4W blue-gray-brown-gold 5.6kΩ 5% 1/4W green-blue-red-gold 10kΩ 5% 1/4W brown-black-orange-gold 18kΩ 5% 1/4W brown-gray-orange-gold Potentiometer 50kΩ & switch w/ nut & washer Part # 121000 136800 145600 151000 151800 192522 CAPACITORS Qty. r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r2 r1 r1 r6 r2 r1 r1 r2 Symbol C6 C7 C10 C5 C8 C4 C13 C23 C11, C12 C15 C19 C3, C9, C14, C16, C17, C* C21, C22 C20 C1 C2, C18 Value 33pF 82pF 180pF 220pF 330pF 470pF 680pF 1500pF 3300pF 0.033μF 0.047μF 0.1μF 10μF 22μF 100μF 220μF Description Discap (33) Discap (82) Discap (181 or 180) Discap (221 or 220) Discap (331 or 330) Discap (471 or 470) Discap (681 or 680) Discap (152) Discap (332) Discap (333) Discap (473) Discap (104) Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Part # 213317 218210 221810 222210 223317 224717 226880 231516 233310 243318 244780 251010 271044 272244 281044 282244 COILS Qty. r1 r1 Symbol L2 L1 Value Qty. r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 Symbol D1 D2 D3 U2 U1 Description Coil 4-turn Coil 6-turn Value BB909/BB910 1N4001 Part # 430150 430160 SEMICONDUCTORS LM-386 or identical TDA7088T or identical Description Varactor Semiconductor silicon diode Red LED 3mm Low voltage audio power amplifier FM receiver SM installed on PC board Part # 310909 314001 350003 330386 MISCELLANEOUS Qty. r1 r1 r2 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 Description Antenna FM PC board w/ installed U1 (TDA7088T) Push button switch 12mm Battery holder Speaker 8Ω Cap push button switch yellow Cap push button switch red Knob pot / switch Qty. r1 r2 r1 r1 r1 r 3” r1 Part # 484005 517038 540005 590096 590102 622001 622007 622050 -1- Description Screw M1.8 x 7.5mm Antenna screw M2 x 5mm Nut M1.8 Socket IC 8-pin Speaker pad Wire 22 ga. solid Solder Lead-free Part # 641100 643148 644210 664008 780128 834012 9LF99 Trimmer A semiconductor component that can be used to amplify signals, or as electronic switches. Varactor A method of using special components that are soldered to the PC board’s surface. A diode optimized to vary its internal capacitance with a change in its reverse bias voltage. Voltage Electrical potential difference measured in volts. An adjustable fine-tuning resistor, capacitor, or inductor of small values. Voltage Regulator A circuit that holds the DC voltage. QUIZ INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following examination, check your answers carefully. 6. The capacitance of the varactor is determined by . . . r A) the voltage level. r B) the amount of current in the circuit. r C) the signal strength of the RF carrier. r D) the amount of resistance in the circuit. 1. The number of cycles produced per second by a source of sound is called the . . . r A) amplitude. r B) vibration. r C) sound wave. r D) frequency. 7. The ability to select a specific band of frequencies, while rejecting others, is called . . . r A) selectivity. r B) sensitivity. r C) demodulation. r D) none of the above. 2. The frequency of the modulating signal determines the ... r A) number of times the frequency of the carrier changes per second. r B) maximum deviation of the FM carrier. r C) maximum frequency swing of the FM carrier. r D) amount of amplitude change of the FM carrier. 8. The process of mixing two signals to produce a third signal is called . . . r A) filtering. r B) detecting. r C) rectification. r D) heterodyning. 3. The FM broadcast band is . . . r A) 550 – 1,600kHz. r B) 10.7MHz. r C) 88 – 108MHz. r D) 98.7 – 118.7MHz. 9. The circuit designed to supply substantial power output into low impedance load is called . . . r A) power supply. r B) pre-amplifier. r C) power amplifier. r D) detector. 4. The AFC circuit is used to . . . r A) automatically hold the local oscillator on frequency. r B) maintain constant gain in the receiver to prevent such things as fading. r C) prevent amplitude variations of the FM carrier. r D) automatically control the audio frequencies in the receiver. 5. The device most often used for changing the local oscillator frequency with the AFC voltage is a . . . r A) feedthrough capacitor. r B) variable inductor. r C) varactor. r D) trimmer capacitor. 10. The gain of the LM-386 amplifier can be set in range from . . . r A) 1 to 20. r B) 20 to 200. r C) 0 to 200. r D) 50 to 100. Answers: 1. D, 2. A, 3. C, 4. A, 5. C, 6. A, 7. C, 8. D, 9. C, 10. B
FM Radio Receiver • FM Radio Block Diagram • Aliased ADC • Channel Selection • Channel Selection (1) • Channel Selection (2) • Channel Selection (3) • FM Demodulator • Differentiation Filter • Pilot tone extraction • Polyphase Pilot tone • Summary DSP and Digital Filters (2013-3924) 14: FM Radio Receiver FM Radio: 14 – 1 / 12 FM Radio Block Diagram 14: FM Radio Receiver • FM Radio Block Diagram • Aliased ADC • Channel Selection • Channel Selection (1) • Channel Selection (2) • Channel Selection (3) • FM Demodulator • Differentiation Filter • Pilot tone extraction • Polyphase Pilot tone • Summary FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz 200 kHz per channel 87.5 108 MHz [This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing] DSP and Digital Filters (2013-3924) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12 FM Radio Block Diagram 14: FM Radio Receiver • FM Radio Block Diagram • Aliased ADC • Channel Selection • Channel Selection (1) • Channel Selection (2) • Channel Selection (3) • FM Demodulator • Differentiation Filter • Pilot tone extraction • Polyphase Pilot tone • Summary FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz Each channel: ±100 kHz 200 kHz per channel 87.5 108 MHz [This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing] DSP and Digital Filters (2013-3924) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12 FM Radio Block Diagram 14: FM Radio Receiver • FM Radio Block Diagram • Aliased ADC • Channel Selection • Channel Selection (1) • Channel Selection (2) • Channel Selection (3) • FM Demodulator • Differentiation Filter • Pilot tone extraction • Polyphase Pilot tone • Summary FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz Each channel: ±100 kHz 200 kHz per channel Baseband signal: Mono (L + R): ±15 kHz 87.5 108 MHz L-R L+R RDS 0 15 19 23 38 53 57 kHz [This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing] DSP and Digital Filters (2013-3924) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12 FM Radio Block Diagram 14: FM Radio Receiver • FM Radio Block Diagram • Aliased ADC • Channel Selection • Channel Selection (1) • Channel Selection (2) • Channel Selection (3) • FM Demodulator • Differentiation Filter • Pilot tone extraction • Polyphase Pilot tone • Summary FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz Each channel: ±100 kHz 200 kHz per channel Baseband signal: Mono (L + R): ±15 kHz Pilot tone: 19 kHz 87.5 108 MHz L-R L+R RDS 0 15 19 23 38 53 57 kHz [This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing] DSP and Digital Filters (2013-3924) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12
An input amplifier for a FM-radio receiver with RF selection (88-108 MHz) has been designed in the radio project. It has about 25 dB gain in the frequency rang 88-108 MHz. Mirror frequency rejection is between 5 dB to 9 dB. Noise figure is about 7 dB at resonant frequency. The amplifier works well, when it is connected to the rest of circuits to receive FM broadcast signals. The input amplifier with RF selection (88-108 MHz) should have low noise, high gain and frequency selection. The specification of the amplifier is as follows:low noise, maximum 2dB more than Fmin gain: Gt ≥ |S21|2 mirror frequency rejection: 20 dB generator impedance: 50Ω load impedance: 50Ω ... In order to fulfill the specification, an appropriate transistor was first chosen and its S-parameters were measured. The input stage has been designed by using a common-emitter amplifier. To compromise between gain and noise, an appropriate operating point is necessary. The amplifier has an inductor tap parallel resonant circuit at its collector to restore the amplifier gain. The frequency of the parallel resonant circuit can be shifted by changing the value of the parallel capacitor. The detail of the project design will be described in chapter 2. Different measurements and results can be found in chapter 3, followed by the conclusion in chapter 4. Chapter 5 is acknowledgement and reference is in chapter 6. In the project, BFR92A transistor is used. It has high power gain, low noise figure and low intermodulation distortion. To compromise between gain and noise, an appropriate operating point should be first considered. From figure 1 (gain as a function of collector current), figure 2 (gain as a function of frequency) and figure 3 (minimum noise figure as a function of frequency), an appropriate operating point was decided. IC = 10mA, VCE = 10V. The values of Fmin and opt for the operating point are not available in the datasheet, but from circles of constant noise figure for other operating points, one can see that Fmin in the project is between 1.7 dB and 2.4 dB.
The TDA7000 is a monolithic integrated circuit for mono FM portable radios, where a minimum on peripheral components is important (small dimensions and low costs). The IC has an FLL (Frequency-Locked-Loop) system with an intermediate frequency of 70 kHz. The i.f. selectivity is obtained by active RC filters. The only function which needs alignment is the resonant circuit for the oscillator, thus selecting the reception frequency. Spurious reception is avoided by means of a mute circuit, which also eliminates too noisy input signals. Special precautions are taken to meet the radiation requirements. The TDA7000 includes the following functions: • R.F. input stage • Mixer • Local oscillator • I.F. amplifier/limiter • Phase demodulator • Mute detector • Mute switch QUICK REFERENCE DATA 2,7 to 10 V Supply voltage range (pin 5) VP Supply current at VP = 4,5 V IP typ. R.F. input frequency range frf 1,5 to 110 MHz 8 mA Sensitivity for -3 dB limiting (e.m.f. voltage) (source impedance: 75 Ω; mute disabled) EMF typ. 1,5 µV EMF typ. 200 mV Signal handling (e.m.f. voltage) (source impedance: 75 Ω) A.F. output voltage at RL = 22 kΩ Vo PACKAGE OUTLINE 18-lead DIL; plastic (SOT102HE); SOT102-1; 1996 July 24. May 1992 2 typ. 75 mV Philips Semiconductors Product speciﬁcation FM radio circuit TDA7000 Fig.1 Block diagram. May 1992 3 Philips Semiconductors Product speciﬁcation FM radio circuit TDA7000 RATINGS Limiting values in accordance with the Absolute Maximum System (IEC 134) Supply voltage (pin 5) VP max. 12 V Oscillator voltage (pin 6) V6-5 Total power dissipation see derating curve Fig.2 Storage temperature range Tstg Operating ambient temperature range Tamb VP−0,5 to VP + 0,5 V −55 to +150 °C 0 to + 60 °C Fig.2 Power derating curve. D.C. CHARACTERISTICS VP = 4,5 V; Tamb = 25 °C; measured in Fig.4; unless otherwise speciﬁed... A.C. CHARACTERISTICS VP = 4,5 V; Tamb = 25 °C; measured in Fig.4 (mute switch open, enabled); frf = 96 MHz (tuned to max. signal at 5 µV e.m.f.) modulated with ∆f = ± 22,5 kHz; fm = 1 kHz; EMF = 0,2 mV (e.m.f. voltage at a source impedance of 75 Ω); r.m.s. noise voltage measured unweighted (f = 300 Hz to 20 kHz); unless otherwise speciﬁed... Signal handling (e.m.f. voltage) for THD < 10%; ∆f = ± 75 kHz Signal-to-noise ratio Total harmonic distortion AM suppression of output voltage (ratio of the AM output signal referred to the FM output signal) FM signal: fm = 1 kHz; ∆f = ± 75 kHz AM signal: fm = 1 kHz; m = 80% Ripple rejection (∆VP = 100 mV; f = 1 kHz) Oscillator voltage (r.m.s. value) at pin 6 Variation of oscillator frequency ∆fosc...