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This paper assesses the net welfare associated with the adoption of Bench Terraces (BT), Contour Bunds (CB), and Napier Grass Strips (NGS) in the Saba Saba sub-catchment of the Upper Tana catchment in Kenya. An agro-economic survey and informal interviews were conducted in the Saba Saba sub-catchment to elicit farm level quantitative data for the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Financial functions in excel were used to analyze the on-site costs and benefits of adopting the identified SWC technologies on farms with crops such as maize, coffee, and tea. In this research CBA was used as a decision tool after the computation of all cost and benefits were valued in local currency to obtain the Net Present Value (NPV) or net welfare. The results show that investment in SWC measures may not be a feasible short-term option from farmers’ perspective. There is, therefore, a strong case for intervention, especially in the initial years where SWC adoption yields negative returns.
Cholistan is locally known as Rohi.This famous desert is 30 km from Bahawalpur. East of Bahawalpur is the Cholistan Desert which covers an area of about 15,000 km and extends into the Thar Desert of India. The region was once watered by the Hakra River, known as the Saravati in vedic times. At one time there were 400 forts in the area and archaeological finds around the Derawar Fort, the only place with a perennial waterhole, indicate that it was contemporaneous with the Indus Valley Civilization. The average annual rainfall is only 12 cm, and the area's scant cultivation is made possible by underground wells, drawn up by camels. The water is stored in troughs, built by the tribes, between sandhills and din waterholes called tobas. The people are racially similar to those in Rajasthan - tall, with sharp features. They live in large, round, mud and grass huts, usually built on the top of sandhills. On the whole, they are pastoral and nomadic.The word Cholistan is derived f
Primary productivity and selected relevant associated physico-chemical parameters in the euphotic zone of Lagos Harbour, a tropical Harbour was monitored at NIOMR Jetty station (Latitude 6º 25 ´ 14, 88º N, Longitude 3º 24´ 24, 42º E) on a monthly basis from October, 2012 to March, 2013. Air and surface water temperature ranged from 23.5⁰C to 28⁰C and between 27 ⁰C and 30⁰C respectively. Alkaline pH ranged (7.81 to 8.45). Brackish salinity varied from 6.2 to 35.4PSU while Electrical conductivity minimum and maximum values were 11200 and 53300µS/cm respectively. Moderate dissolved oxygen ranged between 5.0mg/l and 6.4mg/l, slightly lower than 6.8mg/l standard suggested by FEPA. Total dissolved solid ranged from 7504 to 35711mg/l while Low Alkalinity varied between 12 and 20mg/l. Rainfall minimum and maximum values were 8.8 and 229mm respectively. Gross primary production (GPP) varied from 0.22 to 0.46gC/m 2 /day. The corresponding Net primary production (NPP)
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Coliforms Contamination of Households Drinking Water in some parts of Kano Metropolis, Nigeria.
The study investigated the effects of different methods of application of selected mordants on dyeing woven cotton with dyes from the stem bark of Albizia coriaria. The methods of application of mordants used includes; pre-mordanting, simultaneous mordanting and post-mordanting. The effects on cotton analyzed are color fastness to; light, washing, wet and dry rubbing and color characteristics on CIELab color coordinates. Aqueous extraction method was used to extract the dye. Some selected mordants were used for dyeing viz; alum, ferrous sulphate1, and iron water. In the control dyeing without the use of mordants, very good fastness were registered with the following fastness rating