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Description The QRD1113 and QRD1114 reflective sensors consist of an infrared emitting diode and an NPN silicon phototransistor mounted side by side in a black plastic housing. The on-axis radiation of the emitter and the on-axis response of the detector are both perpendicular to the face of the QRD1113 and QRD1114. The phototransistor responds to radiation emitted from the diode only when a reflective object or surface is in the field of view of the detector. Phototransistor Output No-Contact Surface Sensing Unfocused for Sensing Diffused Surfaces Compact Package Daylight Filter on sensor Schematic 2 3 1 4 PIN 1. Collector PIN 3. Anode PIN 2. Emitter PIN 4. Cathode Ordering Information Part Number QRD1113 QRD1114 Operating Temperature -40 to +85°C © 2005 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation QRD1113 / QRD1114 Rev. 1.2.0 Package Top Mark Packing Method Custom 4L QRD1113 Bulk Custom 4L QRD1114 Bulk www.fairchildsemi.com 1 QRD1113 / QRD1114 — Reflective Object Sensor June 2013 Stresses exceeding the absolute maximum ratings may damage the device. The device may not function or be operable above the recommended operating conditions and stressing the parts to these levels is not recommended. In addition, extended exposure to stresses above the recommended operating conditions may affect device reliability. The absolute maximum ratings are stress ratings only. Values are at TA = 25°C unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter Min. TOPR Operating Temperature TSTG Storage Temperature TSOL-I Lead Temperature (Solder Iron)(1,2,3) 240 for 5 s TSOL-F Lead Temperature (Solder Flow)(1,2) Unit -40 to +85 260 for 10 s -40 to + 100 °C EMMITER IF Continuous Forward Current 50 mA VR Reverse Voltage 5 V PD Power Dissipation 100 mW VCEO Collector-Emitter Voltage 30 VECO Emitter-Collector Voltage SEMSOR PD V V Power Dissipation(4) 100 mW
FM RECEIVER CIRCUIT FOR BATTERY SUPPLY DESCRIPTION The SC1088 is a bipolar integrated circuit for use in mono portable and pocket radios. It is used when a minimum of perpheral components (of small dimensions and low costs) is important. The circuit contains a frequency-locked-loop(FLL) system with an intermediate frequency(IF) of about 70kHz. Selectivity is achieved by active RC-filters. De-tuning related to the IF and too weak input signal is suppressed by the mute circuit. FEATURES * Equipped with all stages of a mono receiver from antenna to audio output. * Mute Circuit * Search tuning with a single varicap diode * Mechanical tuning with integrating AFC * AM application supported * Power supply polarity protection * Power supply voltage down to 1.8V SOP-16 APPLICATION 1. Mechanical tuning: This is possible with or without integrated AFC circuit 2. Electrical tuning: This is realized by one directional(band-up) search tuning facility, including RESET to the lower-band limit.
INFINITI EX35 2008-2010 INTELLI-KEY Rev.: 20091211 Not included: 1x Fuse 15Amp XK09-PKN3 3x Diodes 1Amp 3x Relays Override OEM Transponder Immobilizer Via Data (No Key Required). Interfaces directly with the latest models in Nissan & Infinity ignition immobilizer systems to provide seemless, safe and secure system integration when adding an aftermarket remote starter. BCM 1 (-) (+) 12V Battery (Pin 1) White (+) 12V Battery (Passenger kick panel) BCM Diode 1Amp (-) Start 1 (Pin 132) Light Blue 86 Pins 34 and 56 at BCM for lock/unlock do not contain wires. 30 (-) Trunk (-) Ignition 2 (Pin 127) Yellow (-) Lock/Arm (Pin 56) Insert wire Diode 1Amp (+) Accesory 1 (Pin 83) Orange (-) Security LED (-) Unlock/Disarm (Pin 34) Insert wire (Double pulse) (+) Accesory 2 (Pin 90) Orange 86 87 DO NOT USE THE GROUND OUT WHILE RUNNING 85 30 (+) Ignition 1 (Pin 70) Red INPUTSecurity Light (connector side) 20 pin connector wire side view or (+) Ignition 2 87a OUTPUT Security Light (LED side) (-) Ignition 2 Only if remote starter does not have (-) ignition out Remote Starter (Pin 49) Green 85 87 87a (-) Trunk release (Pin 147) Gray Car must be disarmed before remote start to allow take over. or (+) Start 1 Only if remote starter does not have (-) starter out You can either insert lock/unlock wires directly from the remote starter or run wires into door and connect to Violet for lock and Yellow for unlock at window control switch. (-) Start 1 CAN High: Blue (PIN 79) to Tan/Black of CANMAX Yellow...
Nije zapadni sistem superioran, to ima veze sa privilegijom koju je zapad sebi prisvojio, a to je stampanje novca u nedogled, bez pokrica, ili kako se to popularno kaze "out of thin air". Svako zna platiti naucnika enormno, ali je drugacije kada je za to potrebno stvoriti vrednost, recimo u paradajzu, kozama ili gasu. Ruska nauka je pratila zapadnu i bez novaca. Izumitelj LED diode je umro u opsadi tadasnjeg Lenjingrada. ******** НОВАЦ БЕЗ ПОКРИЋА
Testing Electrical Systems with a Digital Multimeter Perhaps the most important tool you'll use in troubleshooting auto electrical systems is the multimeter. Basic multimeters measures voltage, current and resistance, while more elaborate multimeters, such as the Fluke 78, or Fluke 88 have featues that can check things such as frequency, duty cycle, dwell, make diode tests, and even measure temperature, pressure and vacuum. Starter Current S tarting system troubles are often confused with charging system problems. Many a dead battery has been replaced when the real cause was a faulty charging system. Be sure that the charging system is functioning properly before you replace the battery. Make sure the battery is charged and passes a load test, then look for resistance in the starter circuit if the engine still cranks slowly. Investigate excessive current draw; check for worn-through insulation, a seized or tight engine, a faulty starter, etc. If the starter turns the engine slowly, the current draw is not high, and the battery is in good condition, check the resistance in the starter circuit. Fig 6 - Measuring Starter Current Draw Determine how much current the starter is drawing by using Fluke's 80i-401, 80i-1010, or 90i-610s Inductive Current Clamp on the starter cable. This accessory will allow the multimeter to measure starter current up to 1000 amps. Check manufacturer's specs for exact figures.
FEATURE ARTICLE Too much AC in the DC Charging System RippleVoltage 06 StarTuned Subtle troubles can occur if those diodes are leaking Editor's Note: We're aware of the preference for the term "generator" in some quarters, but we believe "alternator" makes a useful distinction -- MercedesBenz vehicles tend to last so long that there are still many on the road that have actual DC generators. Got a vehicle with mysterious electrical problems? Too much ripple in an alternator’s output can cause electronic modules to misbehave, along with all sorts of other problems. Modules may reset, self-trigger, or misinterpret sensor readings when they’re not supplied with good, clean power, or are getting hit with excessive EMI (electromagnetic interference). Measuring alternator ripple is a quick and easy test to perform. It should take under a minute, depending on how challenging access to the alternator is, and the results can warn you of potential charging system problems. In this article we’ll discuss the best ways to check ripple, the correct tools to use, and what you should be on the lookout for. DMM and lab scope An open diode may produce a pattern like this on a lab scope. StarTuned 07
This paper addresses the requirements for the semiconductor sensing circuitry and SCR crowbar devices used in DC power supply over/under voltage protection schemes. The Zener Sense Circuit The simplest way to protect against overvoltage is to use a Zener diode to sense the output voltage (Figure 1). When the Zener goes into avalanche, it triggers the SCR. There are problems with this kind of protection: 1. No threshold adjustment, except by selecting different Zener diodes. 2. Inability to ignore momentary transients. 3. Poor SCR reliability caused by inadequate trigger–current rise time when slowly varying voltage is sensed. INTRODUCTION It is uncommon now to find several hundred dollars worth of microprocessors and memory chips powered from a single low DC supply. If this supply on the board doesn’t have overvoltage or undervoltage protection, potentially large sums of money can literally go up in smoke due to component failure, or, for instance, a tool may be accidentally dropped across the supply buses of different voltages during testing or repair of the system.
AUTO-SCAN FM RADIO KIT MODEL FM-88K ELENCO® 150 Carpenter Avenue Wheeling, IL 60090 (847) 541-3800 Website: www.elenco.com e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org To see our complete line of Educational Products go to WWW.ELENCO.COM Assembly and Instruction Manual ELENCO ® Copyright © 2011 by ELENCO® All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher. 753050 PARTS LIST GLOSSARY (Continued) If you are a student, and any parts are missing or damaged, please see instructor or bookstore. If you purchased this kit from a distributor, catalog, etc., please contact ELENCO® (address/phone/e-mail is at the back of this manual) for additional assistance, if needed. DO NOT contact your place of purchase as they will not be able to help you. RF Radio Frequency. Sensitivity The ability of a receiver to pick up low-amplitude signals. Speaker An electronic device that turn electric impulses into sound. Surface-mount Technology RESISTORS Symbol R5 R1 R3 R4 R2 R6/S3 Value Color Code 10Ω 5% 1/4W brown-black-black-gold 680Ω 5% 1/4W blue-gray-brown-gold 5.6kΩ 5% 1/4W green-blue-red-gold 10kΩ 5% 1/4W brown-black-orange-gold 18kΩ 5% 1/4W brown-gray-orange-gold Potentiometer 50kΩ & switch w/ nut & washer Part # 121000 136800 145600 151000 151800 192522 CAPACITORS Qty. r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r2 r1 r1 r6 r2 r1 r1 r2 Symbol C6 C7 C10 C5 C8 C4 C13 C23 C11, C12 C15 C19 C3, C9, C14, C16, C17, C* C21, C22 C20 C1 C2, C18 Value 33pF 82pF 180pF 220pF 330pF 470pF 680pF 1500pF 3300pF 0.033μF 0.047μF 0.1μF 10μF 22μF 100μF 220μF Description Discap (33) Discap (82) Discap (181 or 180) Discap (221 or 220) Discap (331 or 330) Discap (471 or 470) Discap (681 or 680) Discap (152) Discap (332) Discap (333) Discap (473) Discap (104) Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Part # 213317 218210 221810 222210 223317 224717 226880 231516 233310 243318 244780 251010 271044 272244 281044 282244 COILS Qty. r1 r1 Symbol L2 L1 Value Qty. r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 Symbol D1 D2 D3 U2 U1 Description Coil 4-turn Coil 6-turn Value BB909/BB910 1N4001 Part # 430150 430160 SEMICONDUCTORS LM-386 or identical TDA7088T or identical Description Varactor Semiconductor silicon diode Red LED 3mm Low voltage audio power amplifier FM receiver SM installed on PC board Part # 310909 314001 350003 330386 MISCELLANEOUS Qty. r1 r1 r2 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 Description Antenna FM PC board w/ installed U1 (TDA7088T) Push button switch 12mm Battery holder Speaker 8Ω Cap push button switch yellow Cap push button switch red Knob pot / switch Qty. r1 r2 r1 r1 r1 r 3” r1 Part # 484005 517038 540005 590096 590102 622001 622007 622050 -1- Description Screw M1.8 x 7.5mm Antenna screw M2 x 5mm Nut M1.8 Socket IC 8-pin Speaker pad Wire 22 ga. solid Solder Lead-free Part # 641100 643148 644210 664008 780128 834012 9LF99 Trimmer A semiconductor component that can be used to amplify signals, or as electronic switches. Varactor A method of using special components that are soldered to the PC board’s surface. A diode optimized to vary its internal capacitance with a change in its reverse bias voltage. Voltage Electrical potential difference measured in volts. An adjustable fine-tuning resistor, capacitor, or inductor of small values. Voltage Regulator A circuit that holds the DC voltage. QUIZ INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following examination, check your answers carefully. 6. The capacitance of the varactor is determined by . . . r A) the voltage level. r B) the amount of current in the circuit. r C) the signal strength of the RF carrier. r D) the amount of resistance in the circuit. 1. The number of cycles produced per second by a source of sound is called the . . . r A) amplitude. r B) vibration. r C) sound wave. r D) frequency. 7. The ability to select a specific band of frequencies, while rejecting others, is called . . . r A) selectivity. r B) sensitivity. r C) demodulation. r D) none of the above. 2. The frequency of the modulating signal determines the ... r A) number of times the frequency of the carrier changes per second. r B) maximum deviation of the FM carrier. r C) maximum frequency swing of the FM carrier. r D) amount of amplitude change of the FM carrier. 8. The process of mixing two signals to produce a third signal is called . . . r A) filtering. r B) detecting. r C) rectification. r D) heterodyning. 3. The FM broadcast band is . . . r A) 550 – 1,600kHz. r B) 10.7MHz. r C) 88 – 108MHz. r D) 98.7 – 118.7MHz. 9. The circuit designed to supply substantial power output into low impedance load is called . . . r A) power supply. r B) pre-amplifier. r C) power amplifier. r D) detector. 4. The AFC circuit is used to . . . r A) automatically hold the local oscillator on frequency. r B) maintain constant gain in the receiver to prevent such things as fading. r C) prevent amplitude variations of the FM carrier. r D) automatically control the audio frequencies in the receiver. 5. The device most often used for changing the local oscillator frequency with the AFC voltage is a . . . r A) feedthrough capacitor. r B) variable inductor. r C) varactor. r D) trimmer capacitor. 10. The gain of the LM-386 amplifier can be set in range from . . . r A) 1 to 20. r B) 20 to 200. r C) 0 to 200. r D) 50 to 100. Answers: 1. D, 2. A, 3. C, 4. A, 5. C, 6. A, 7. C, 8. D, 9. C, 10. B
CHAPTER 4 RF/IF CIRCUITS INTRODUCTION SECTION 4.1: MIXERS THE IDEAL MIXER DIODE-RING MIXER BASIC OPERATION OF THE ACTIVE MIXER REFERENCES SECTION 4.2: MODULATORS SECTION 4.3: ANALOG MULTIPLIERS REFERENCES SECTION 4.4: LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIERS REFERENCES SECTION 4.5: TRUE-POWER DETECTORS SECTION 4.6: VARIABLE GAIN AMPLIFIER VOLTAGE CONTROLLED AMPLIFIERS X-AMPS DIGITALLY CONTROLLED VGAs REFERENCES SECTION 4.7: DIRECT DIGITAL SYNTHESIS DDS ALIASING IN DDS SYTEMS DDS SYSTEMS AS ADC CLOCK DRIVERS AMPLITUDE MODULATION IN A DDS SYSTEM SPURIOUS FREE DYNAMIC RANGE CONSIDERATIONS REFERENCES SECTION 4.8: PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS PLL SYNTHESIZER BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS THE REFERENCE COUNTER THE FEEDBACK COUNTER, N FRACTIONAL-N SYNTHESIZERS NOISE IN OSCILLATOR SYSTEMS PHASE NOISE IN VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS LEESON'S EQUATION CLOSING THE LOOP PHASE NOISE MEASUREMENTS REFERENCE SPURS CHARGE PUMP LEAKAGE CURRENTS... BASIC LINEAR DESIGN SECTION 4.8: PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS (cont.) REFERENCES 4.73 RF/IF CIRCUITS INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 4: RF/IF CIRCUITS Introduction From cellular phones to 2-way pagers to wireless Internet access, the world is becoming more connected, even though wirelessly. No matter the technology, these devices are basically simple radio transceivers (transmitters and receivers). In the vast majority of cases the receivers and transmitters are a variation on the superheterodyne radio shown in Figure 4.1 for the receiver and Figure 4.2 for the transmitter.
Reflective Optical Sensor with Transistor Output Marking area FEATURES • Package type: leaded • Detector type: phototransistor • Dimensions (L x W x H in mm): 7 x 7 x 6 E D • Peak operating distance: < 0.5 mm • Operating range within > 20 % relative collector current: 0 mm to 5 mm Top view 21835 19158_1 • Typical output current under test: IC = 1 mA • Emitter wavelength: 950 nm DESCRIPTION • Daylight blocking filter The CNY70 is a reflective sensor that includes an infrared emitter and phototransistor in a leaded package which blocks visible light. • Lead (Pb)-free soldering released • Material categorization: For definitions of compliance please see www.vishay.com/doc?99912 APPLICATIONS • Optoelectronic scanning and switching devices i.e., index sensing, coded disk scanning etc. (optoelectronic encoder assemblies). PRODUCT SUMMARY PART NUMBER DISTANCE FOR MAXIMUM CTRrel (1) (mm) DISTANCE RANGE FOR RELATIVE Iout > 20 % (mm) TYPICAL OUTPUT CURRENT UNDER TEST (2) (mA) DAYLIGHT BLOCKING FILTER INTEGRATED 0 0 to 5 1 Yes CNY70 Notes (1) CTR: current transfere ratio, I /I out in (2) Conditions like in table basic charactristics/sensors ORDERING INFORMATION ORDERING CODE CNY70 PACKAGING VOLUME (1) REMARKS Tube MOQ: 4000 pcs, 80 pcs/tube - Note (1) MOQ: minimum order quantity ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS (Tamb = 25 °C, unless otherwise specified) PARAMETER TEST CONDITION SYMBOL VALUE UNIT COUPLER Total power dissipation Tamb ≤ 25 °C Ptot 200 mW Ambient temperature range Tamb - 40 to + 85 °C Storage temperature range Tstg - 40 to + 100 °C Tsd 260 °C Soldering temperature Distance to case 2 mm, t £ 5 s INPUT (EMITTER) Reverse voltage VR 5 V Forward current IF 50 mA Forward surge current Power dissipation Junction temperature tp ≤ 10 μs IFSM 3 A Tamb ≤ 25 °C PV 100 mW Tj 100 °C Document Number: 83751 1 For technical questions, contact: email@example.com THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000 Rev. 1.8, 30-Jul-12 CNY70 www.vishay.com Vishay Semiconductors ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS (Tamb = 25 °C, unless otherwise specified) PARAMETER TEST CONDITION SYMBOL VALUE UNIT Collector emitter voltage VCEO 32 V Emitter collector voltage VECO 7 V IC 50 mA PV 100 mW Tj 100 °C OUTPUT (DETECTOR) Collector current Tamb ≤ 25 °C Power dissipation Junction temperature ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS P - Power Dissipation (mW) 300 Coupled device 200 Phototransistor 100 IR - diode 0 25 0 95 11071 50 75 100 Tamb - Ambient Temperature (°C) Fig. 1 - Power Dissipation vs. Ambient Temperature BASIC CHARACTERISTICS (Tamb = 25 °C, unless otherwise specified) PARAMETER TEST CONDITION SYMBOL MIN. TYP. Collector current VCE = 5 V, IF = 20 mA, d = 0.3 mm (figure 1) IC (2) 0.3 1.0 Cross talk current VCE = 5 V, IF = 20 mA, (figure 2) ICX (3) MAX. UNIT COUPLER Collector emitter saturation voltage IF = 20 mA, IC = 0.1 mA, d = 0.3 mm (figure 1) VCEsat mA 600 nA 0.3 (2) V INPUT (EMITTER) Forward voltage IF = 50 mA VF Radiant intensity IF = 50 mA, tp = 20 ms Ie 1.25 1.6 V 7.5 mW/sr IF = 100 mA λP Method: 63 % encircled energy d Collector emitter voltage IC = 1 mA VCEO 32 V Emitter collector voltage IE = 100 μA VECO 5.