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GP2D12 Optoelectronic Device FEATURES • Analog output • Effective Range: 10 to 80 cm • LED pulse cycle duration: 32 ms 1 2 3 • Typical response time: 39 ms • Typical start up delay: 44 ms • Average current consumption: 33 mA PIN SIGNAL NAME • Detection area diameter @ 80 cm: 6 cm 1 VO DESCRIPTION 2 GND The GP2D12 is a distance measuring sensor with integrated signal processing and analog voltage output. 3 VCC GP2D12-8 Figure 1. Pinout VCC GND PSD SIGNAL PROCESSING CIRCUIT VOLTAGE REGULATOR OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT LED DRIVE CIRCUIT OUTPUT CIRCUIT LED VO DISTANCE MEASURING IC GP2D12-4 Figure 2. Block Diagram 1 Data Sheet GP2D12 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Absolute Maximum Ratings Ta = 25°C, VCC = 5 VDC PARAMETER SYMBOL RATING UNIT Supply Voltage VCC -0.3 to +7.0 V Output Terminal Voltage VO -0.3 to (VCC + 0.3) V Operating Temperature Topr -10 to +60 °C Storage Temperature Tstg -40 to +70 °C Operating Supply Voltage PARAMETER SYMBOL RATING UNIT Operating Supply Voltage VCC 4.5 to 5.5 V Electro-optical Characteristics Ta = 25°C, VCC = 5 VDC PARAMETER SYMBOL Measuring Distance Range ΔL Output Voltage VO CONDITIONS MIN. TYP. MAX. UNIT NOTES 10 80 cm 1, 2 0.25 L = 80 cm 0.4 0.55 V 1, 2 Output Voltage Difference ΔVO Output change at L change 1.75 (80 cm - 10 cm) 2.0 2.25 V 1, 2 Average Supply Current ICC L = 80 cm 33 50 mA 1, 2 - NOTES: 1. Measurements made with Kodak R-27 Gray Card, using the white side, (90% reflectivity). 2. L = Distance to reflective object. VCC (POWER SUPPLY) 38.3 ms ±9.6 ms DISTANCE MEASURMENT OPERATING 1st MEASUREMENT 2nd MEASUREMENT nth MEASUREMENT VO (OUTPUT) UNSTABLE OUTPUT 1st OUTPUT 2nd OUTPUT nth OUTPUT 5.0 ms MAX. GP2D12-5 Figure 3. Timing Diagram 2 Data Sheet GP2D12 RELIABILITY The reliability of requirements of this device are listed in Table 1. Table 1. Reliability TEST ITEMS TEST CONDITIONS FAILURE JUDGEMENT CRITERIA SAMPLES (n), DEFECTIVE (C) Temperature Cycling One cycle -40°C (30 min.) to +70°C in 30 minutes, repeated 25 times n = 11, C = 0 High Temperature and High Humidity Storage +40°C, 90% RH, 500h n = 11, C = 0 High Temperature Storage +70°C, 500h n = 11, C = 0 Low Temperature Storage -40°C, 500h Operational Life (High Temperature) +60°C, VCC = 5 V, 500h Mechanical Shock 100 m / s2, 6.0 ms 3 times / ±X, ±Y, ±Z direction n = 6, C = 0 Variable Frequency Vibration 10-to-55-to-10 Hz i n 1 minute Amplitude: 1.5 mm 2 h i n e a c h X, Y, Z direction n = 6, C = 0 Initial × 0.8 > VO VO > Initial × 1.2 n = 11, C = 0 n = 11, C = 0 NOTES: 1. Test conditions are according to Electro-optical Characteristics, shown on page 2. 2. At completion of the test, allow device to remain at nominal room temperature and humidity (non-condensing) for two hours. 3. Confidence level: 90%, Lot Tolerance Percent Defect (LTPD): 20% / 40%. MANUFACTURER’S INSPECTION Inspection Lot Inspection shall be carried out per each delivery lot. Inspection Method A single sampling plan, normal inspection level II based on ISO 2859 shall be adopted. Table 2. Quality Level DEFECT INSPECTION ITEM and TEST METHOD AQL (%) Major Defect Electro-optical characteristics defect 0.4 Minor Defect Defect to appearance or dimensions (crack, split, chip, scratch, stain)* 1.0 NOTE: *Any one of these that affects the Electro-optical Characteristics shall be considered a defect.
The research reported in this document was made possible through support extended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Research Laboratory of Electronics, jointly by the Army Signal Corps, the Navy Department (Office of Naval Research), and the Army Air Forces (Air Materiel Command), under the Signal Corps Contract No. W-36-039 sc-32037. An analysis of impulse noise in an ideal (amplitude insensitive) FM receiver has indicated that the effect of impulse noise should be negligible. From the analysis additional transient functions of a limiter are inferred. These functions are shown to be approximated by two germanium crystals paralleled with reversed polarities. Experimental results are shown in the form of oscillograms. It is a generally accepted fact today that frequency modulation (FM) is a realizable means of faithfully transmitting intelligence, and one which offers many advantages and improvements over amplitude modulation (AM). The development of FM, extending back to approximately the beginning of this century, has not been an easy task. One of the more important problems has been the development of a successful FM receiver. This hurdle has been responsible, more than any other single factor, for the failure of many early attempts to use FM, and, in fact, today still presents a reduced, but definite, limitation of the FM system. The difficulty in realizing a satisfactory FM receiver can in general be narrowed down to the development of its two basic component parts - the limiter and the TI detector, since, with the exception of these two elements, the FM receiver may be considered similar to the conventional AM receiver.
The design of the All Digital FM Receiver circuit in this project uses Phase Locked Loop (PLL) as the main core. The task of the PLL is to maintain coherence between the input (modulated) signal frequency, ωi and the respective output frequency, ωo via phase comparison. This self-correcting ability of the system also allows the PLL to track the frequency changes of the input signal once it is locked. Frequency modulated input signal is assumed as a series of numerical values (digital signal) via 8-bit of analog to digital conversion (ADC) circuit. The FM Receiver gets the 8 bit signal every clock cycle and outputs the demodulated signal. The All Digital FM Receiver circuit is designed using VHDL, then simulated and synthesized using ModelSim SE 6 simulator and Xilinx ISE 6.3i, respectively. FPGA implementation also provided, here we use Virtex2 device. The real measurement is done using ChipScope Pro 6.3i. The system of All Digital FM Receiver consists of a digital PLL cascaded with digital low pass filter. The block diagram of system is shown in Fig. 1.
A high-performance FM receiver for audio and digital applicatons This receiver design offers high sensitivity and low distortion for today’s demanding high-signal environments. By Wayne C. Ryder O ne of the fundamental parameters governing radio receiver performance is its sensitivity. This article discusses an FM radio receiver design, called SUPRX, which overcomes sensitivity deficiencies. The approach is to optimize carefully the strong signal wideband characteristics of the receiver front end and mixer. The objective is to maintain front-end weak signal sensitivity when the receiver is subjected to adjacent channel high-level signals. For this article this will be referred to as the “apparent sensitivity” of the radio. Another concern is intermediate frequency (IF) harmonic distortion. As this article suggests, careful selection of components can provide acceptably low levels of distortion. A means for simulating the signal environment in a controlled and repeatable way is also shown, as is a way to make use of this method for the stage and integrated receiver-level evaluation.
The purpose of these diagrams is to graphically explain the overall operation of AM, PM, and FM communications systems using very little mathematics. This explanation is accomplished by tracing a simple sinusoidal signal through all stages of each system. Although students who are "mathematically challenged" will find these diagrams very helpful, most students who are beginning the study of electrical communications systems can benefit from these same diagrams. More advanced courses can also use these diagrams as a basis on which to organize and present abstract mathematics. ● S tudents: M. B. Suranga Perera, Nikolay Ostrovskiy and Johnny Lam. They produced the professional graphics in these vector art diagrams and created the pages. To pay these students, the following persons or organizations at NYCCT generously offered financial advice or funds: The unique features of these diagrams are the following: presenting the signal in both the time domain and frequency domain together at each stage of the communication process ● using a color code to show the distribution of information in the signals in both the time domain and frequency domain simultaneously. ● Former Dean Phyllis Sperling of the School of Technology & Design ● ● Former Dean Annette Schaefer of the School of Arts and Sciences ● Professor Joseph Rosen, head of the Freshman Year Program at NYCCT and current acting Dean of the School of Liberal Arts and Sciences The history of preparing this booklet is a long one. Before beginning the arduous work of producing these diagrams, we inspected about 70 standard textbooks on electrical communications to determine whether we could save ourselves a lot of effort by simply using their diagrams; but none of those books contained the above simultaneous diagrams. Some of the basic ideas underlying these diagrams were presented by us in 2001 at a conference of FIE (Frontiers In Education) in Reno, Nevada. Completion of this booklet took about three more years of devoted labor, research, and collaboration. Ms. Jewel Escobar, Executive Director of NYCCT Foundation
Order no. 6515079413 Part no. 2045843383 Edition A 2014 C-Class É2045843383ÁËÍ 2045843383 Symbols Registered trademarks: i Practical tips or further information that RBluetooth® X is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG Inc. RDTS is a registered trademark of DTS, Inc. RDolby and MLP are registered trademarks of DOLBY Laboratories. RBabySmart™, ESP® and PRE-SAFE® are registered trademarks of Daimler AG. RHomeLink® is a registered trademark of Johnson Controls. RiPod® and iTunes® are registered trademarks of Apple Inc. RLogic7® is a registered trademark of Harman International Industries. RMicrosoft® and Windows media® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. RSIRIUS is a registered trademark of Sirius XM Radio Inc. RHD Radio is a registered trademark of iBiquity Digital Corporation. RGracenote® is a registered trademark of Gracenote, Inc. RZAGATSurvey® and related brands are registered trademarks of ZagatSurvey, LLC. In this Operator's Manual you will find the following symbols: could be helpful to you. This symbol indicates an instruction that must be followed. Several of these symbols in X succession indicate an instruction with several steps. (Y page) This symbol tells you where you can find more information about a topic. This symbol indicates a warning or YY an instruction that is continued on the next page. Display This font indicates a display in the multifunction display/COMAND display. Parts of the software in the vehicle are protected by copyright © 2005 The FreeType Project http://www.freetype.org. All rights reserved. Publication details Internet Further information about Mercedes-Benz vehicles and about Daimler AG can be found on the following websites: http://www.mbusa.com (USA only) http://www.mercedes-benz.ca (Canada only) Editorial office ©Daimler AG: Not to be reprinted, translated or otherwise reproduced, in whole or in part, without written permission from Daimler AG. Vehicle manufacturer Daimler AG Mercedesstraße 137 70327 Stuttgart Germany G WARNING Warning notes make you aware dangers which could pose a threat to your health or life, or to the health and life of others. H Environmental note Environmental notes provide you with information on environmentally aware actions or disposal. ! Notes on material damage alert you to dangers that could lead to damage to your vehicle. As at 15.11.2012 Welcome to the world of Mercedes-Benz We urge you to read this Operator's Manual carefully and familiarize yourself with the vehicle before driving. For your own safety and a longer vehicle life, follow the instructions and warning notices in this manual. Ignoring them could result in damage to the vehicle or personal injury to you or others. Vehicle damage caused by failure to follow instructions is not covered by the MercedesBenz Limited Warranty. The equipment or product designation of your vehicle may vary depending on: RModel ROrder RCountry specification RAvailability Mercedes-Benz therefore reserves the right to introduce changes in the following areas: RDesign REquipment RTechnical features The equipment in your vehicle may therefore differ from that shown in the descriptions and illustrations.
2009-07-16T17:54:06+02:00 - Seite 1 Version: 126.96.36.199 2009-07-16T17:54:06+02:00 - Seite 2 Version: 188.8.131.52 204_AKB; 5; 23, en-US d2ureepe, Symbols Trademarks: RBabySmartTM is a trademark of Siemens Automotive Corp. RBluetooth® is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG Inc. RESP® is a registered trademark of Daimler. RHomeLink® is a registered trademark of Prince, a Johnson Controls Company. RLogic 7® is a registered trademark of Harman International Industries, Incorporated. RMicrosoft® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and other countries. RSIRIUS and related marks are trademarks of SIRIUS XM Radio Inc. RWindows media® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and other countries. The following symbols are found in this Operator’s Manual: G Warning! Warning notices draw your attention to hazards that may endanger your health or life, or the health or life of others. ! Highlights hazards that may result in damage to your vehicle. i Helpful hints or further information you may find useful. X X Y page This symbol points to instructions for you to follow. A number of these symbols appearing in succession indicates a multiple-step procedure. This symbol tells you where to look for further information on a topic. YY This continuation symbol marks a warning or procedure which is continued on the next page. Display Text in displays, such as the control system, are printed in the type shown here. 204_AKB; 5; 23, en-US d2ureepe, 2009-07-16T17:54:06+02:00 - Seite 1 Version: 184.108.40.206 Our company and staff congratulate you on the purchase of your new Mercedes-Benz. Your selection of our product is a demonstration of your trust in our company name. Furthermore, it exemplifies your desire to own an automobile that will be as easy as possible to operate and will provide years of service. Your Mercedes-Benz represents the efforts of many skilled engineers and craftsmen. To help assure your driving pleasure, and also the safety of you and your passengers, we ask you to make a small investment of time: RPlease read this manual carefully, then return it to your vehicle where it will be handy for your reference. RPlease follow the recommendations contained in this manual. They are designed to acquaint you with the operation of your Mercedes-Benz. RPlease pay attention to the warnings and cautions contained in this manual. They are designed to help improve the safety of the vehicle operator and occupants. We extend our best wishes for many miles of safe, pleasurable driving. Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC A Daimler Company ...
Symbols Registered trademarks: RBabySmart™ is a registered trademark of the Siemens Automotive Corp. RBluetooth® is a registered trademark of the Bluetooth SIG Inc. RESP® is a registered trademark of Daimler AG. RHomeLink® is a registered trademark of Prince, a Johnson Controls Company. RLogic 7® is a registered trademark of Harman International Industries, Incorporated. RMicrosoft® a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation in the USA and in other countries. RSIRIUS and related brands are registered trademarks of SIRIUS XM Radio Inc. RWindows Media® is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation in the USA and in other countries. In this Operator's Manual you will find the following symbols: G Warning Warning notices draw your attention to hazards that endanger your health or life, or the health or life of others. ! Warning notices draw your attention to hazards that could cause damage to your vehicle. i Practical tips or other information that could be helpful to you. X X Y page This symbol indicates instructions that you must follow. A number of these symbols appearing in succession indicates instructions with several steps. This symbol tells you where to look for further information on a topic. 2010-05-20T09:17:30+02:00 - Seite 2 Version: 220.127.116.11 YY This symbol marks a warning or procedure which is continued on the next page. Display Text in the multifunction display/ COMAND display. BA 204 USA, CA Edition A 2011; 1; 5, en-US hereepe 2010-05-20T09:17:30+02:00 - Seite 1 Version: 18.104.22.168 Welcome to the world of Mercedes-Benz Before you drive off, please familiarize yourself with your vehicle and read this manual, especially the safety and warning notices. This will help you to obtain the maximum pleasure from your vehicle and to avoid endangering yourself and others. The equipment or product designation of your vehicle may vary depending on: Rmodel Rorder Rcountry specification Ravailability Mercedes-Benz is constantly updating its vehicles to the state of the art. Mercedes-Benz therefore reserves the right to introduce changes in the following areas: Rdesign Requipment Rtechnical features You cannot therefore base any claims on the data, illustrations or descriptions contained in this manual. The following are integral parts of the vehicle: ROperator's Manual Instructions1 RService Booklet RSupplements relating to vehicle equipment Keep these documents in the vehicle at all times. When you sell the vehicle, always pass the documents on to the new owner. The technical documentation team at Daimler AG wishes you safe and pleasant motoring. Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC Mercedes-Benz Canada, Inc. A Daimler Company
The Law and Harry Potter? What does Harry Potter have to do with the law? Directly, nothing. Indirectly, however, a great deal. There is no denying that the Harry Potter franchise is an unprecedented cultural phenomenon: hundreds of millions of books in dozens of languages; six movies generating billions of dollars in revenue; a theme park.1 This success shows that the narratives appeal to the public, children and adults alike. Within the narratives Rowling creates a “magical world” complete with laws and legal institutions. Although the stories are not directly about legal issues, law and legal institutions are important parts of the narratives. There are laws against certain curses and the underage use of magic, international treaties on a variety of topics, a wrongful conviction of Sirius Black, the ever powerful (or inept) Ministry of Magic, numerous crimes (by Lord Voldemort and others), a horrible prison (Azkaban), a tribunal that appears to be a combination of judge and jury (the Wizengamot), a banking system (Gringotts), etc. Part of the appeal of the narratives is that the depictions resonate with readers and viewers. This may suggest that the depictions are consistent with readers’ and viewers’ values or opinions. Alternatively, if the depictions are not reflective, they may influence the development of values or opinions. This is not to say that the conditions of Azkaban will generate a movement for prison reform. Certainly any influence would be much more subtle that that. But perhaps readers and viewers will be more willing to consider the plight of those in prison, or to consider the possibility that a person was wrongfully convicted.
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