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What is Structural Analysis? Structural analysis enhances the ability to identify words as well as build vocabulary through analyzing the morphological structure of words in conjunction with the syllable structure. Morphological structure refers to the study of meaningful units of language or morphemes (e.g., prefix, root and suffix) and how they are combined to create words. In Lexia Reading Core5, structural analysis activities include work on recognizing meaningful parts of multisyllabic words derived from Latin and Greek. What is the role of Structural Analysis in learning to read and spell? Research indicates that awareness of the morphological structure of language is correlated with the acquisition of reading skills. At first, students learn to decode words by applying phonic word attack strategies based on knowledge of sound-symbol correspondence and syllable types. Once they have learned to apply this knowledge to one and two syllable words, they can begin to think about meaningful word parts, including prefixes, roots and suffixes, which make up the majority of longer, multi-syllabic words. This type of word analysis, focusing on meaningful word parts rather than syllables, is often referred to as structural analysis. Knowledge of meaningful word parts is helpful both for word identification as well as for understanding the meaning of less familiar words made up of Latin and Greek derived forms. Spelling of multi-syllabic words is also enhanced through knowledge of word parts as many spelling rules are based in morphological structure.
Analysis and Design of Structures The word structure has various meanings. By an engineering structure we mean roughly something constructed or built. The principal structures of concern to civil engineers are bridges, buildings, walls, dams, towers, shells, and cable structures. Such structures are composed of one or more solid elements arranged so that the whole structures as well as their components are capable of holding themselves without appreciable geometric change during loading and unloading. Analysis and Design of Structures The purposes of the roof truss and of the columns are, on the one hand, to hold in equilibrium their own weights, the load of roof covering, and the wind and snow Also to provide rooms for housing a family, for a manufacturing plant, or for other uses During its development the design is generally optimized to achieve minimum expenditure for materials and construction Analysis and Design of Structures The design of a structure involves many considerations, among which are four major objectives that must be satisfied: The structure must meet the performance requirement (utility). The structure must carry loads safely (safety). The structure should be economical in material, construction, and cost (economy). Theory of Structures - Defined The complete design of a structure is outlined in the following stages:...
There is nothing inherent in the term service itself that necessarily indicates a commercial relationship. The word service has a very long history and has changed meaning with changes in social relations in society
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Section One: General CNC Questions 1) The spindle speed for a particular tool in a program is incorrect and you wish to reduce it. The kind of CNC word you must change is: q A) an F word q C) an S word q B) a G word q D) a T word 2) You determine that a feedrate for a particular tool must be 5.0 inches per minute (or 5 millimeters per minute in the metric mode). The correct designation in the program would be: q A) F0.5 q C) F5.0 q B) S5.0 q D) F0.005 3) You are running a proven program (one run before) for the first time in a new setup. You are cautiously allowing the first tool come into its approach position when you determine that the tool is not going where it is supposed to. It is most likely that: q A) the spindle speed is not correct q B) the program zero designation is not correct q C) the dry run switch should be turned on q D) the programmed coordinates are not correct 4) When coordinates going into a program are specified relative to the program zero point, it is called: q A) the incremental mode q B) the absolute mode q C) the rapid mode q D) the canned cycle mode 5) What mode switch position allows programs to be modified? q A) Jog q D) Edit q B) Auto...
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CONTENTS CHAPTER I Introduction to Computer Numerical Control Manufacturing I —I Chapter Objectives 1 2 Introduction — I I 1 3 Numerical Control Definition, Its Concepts and Advantages — I 1-4 Definition of Computer Numerical Control and Its Components 1-5 Advantages of CNC Compared with NC 4 1 6 Special Requirements for Utilizing CNC 4 — 1-7 Financial Rewards of CNC Investment 5 1 8 CNC Machining Centers and Turning Centers — 1-9 Other Types of CNC Equipment I —10 CNC Input and Storage Media I-11 Chapter Summary 6 8 8 II Review Exercises CHAPTER 1 13 Modern Machine Tool Controls 2-1 Chapter Objectives 2-2 Introduction 13 13 2-3 Different Types of System Control 13 2—4 Loop Systems f o r Controlling Tool Movement 16 2—5 Establishing Locations via Cartesian Coordinates 2-6 CNC Machine Axes of Motion 2-7 Types ofTool Positioning Modes 24 2-8 Units Used for Positioning Coordinates 2—9 Chapter Summary 19 20 25 25 Review Exercises CHAPTER 3 Too/ing for Hole and Milling Operations 3-1 Chapter Objectives 3—2 Introduction 32 32 32 3-3 Tooling for Drilling Operations 32 XI xii Contents 3 4 Carbide Insert Technology — 37 3 5 Tooling for Hole Operations That Follow Drilling — 3-6 Tool Speeds and Feeds for Hole Operations 41 3—7 Tooling for Profile Milling and Facing Operations 3-8 Coated Tooling 38 44 48 3-9 Tool Speeds and Feeds for Milling Operations 3-10 Feed Directions for Milling Operations 3-11 Cutting Fluids for CNC Operations 3-12 Chapter Summary 49 51 52 54 Review Exercises CHAPTER 4 Exploring Features of CNC Machining Centers 4-1 Chapter Objectives 4-2 Introduction 56 56 56 4-3 Background on CNC Machining Centers 56 4—4 Tooling Systems Used with Automatic Tool Changers 4-5 Methods of Securing Tools in Tool Holders 60 62 4—6 Methods of Securing Tooling Systems to the CNC Spindle 4-7 Automatic Tool Changer Systems 4-8 Pallet Loading Systems 64 65 67 4-9 Features of the Machine Control Unit (MCU) Machining Centers 4—10 Chapter Summary 70 77 Review Exercises CHAPTERS Review of Basic Blueprint Reading for CNC Programmers 5-1 Chapter Objectives 5-2 Introduction 5-3 Sheet Sizes 80 80 80 5 4 Drawing Formats — 81 5 5 Interpreting Lines in Drawings — 87 5-6 Projection Conventions Used in Drawings 91 5-7 Visualizing 3D Objects from 2D Othographic Views 5-8 Auxiliary Views 93 5-9 Sectional Views 93 5-10 Reading Dimensions 93 5-11 Reading Threads and Thread Notes 115 5-12 Reading Surface Finish Symbols and Notes 5-13 Chapter Summary Review Exercises Bibliography 80 131 125 93 Contents xiii CHAPTER 6 Review of Basic Material for CNC Programmers 6-1 Chapter Objectives 6-2 Introduction Specifications 133 133 133 6-3 Reading Material Specifications 133 6-4 Understanding Heat Treatment Notes 6—5 Interpreting Surface Coating Notes 6-6 Chapter Summary 141 145 150 Review Exercises Bibliography CHAPTER 7 Review of Basic Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for CNC Programmers 7-1 Chapter Objectives 7—2 Introduction 151 151 7-3 GDTTerminology 152 7—4 Part Form Controls 7-5 Datums 151 154 158 7-6 Part Profile Controls 159 7-7 Part Location, Orientation, and Runout Controls 7—8 Chapter Summary 166 159 < Review Exercises Bibliography CHAPTER 8 Mathematics 8-1 Chapter Objectives 8-2 Introduction for CNC Programming 168 168 8-3 Determining Sides of Right Triangles 8-4 Useful Angle Concepts 8—6 Oblique Triangles 168 169 8-5 Determining Angles of Right Triangles 173 175 8-7 KwikTrig Trigonometry/Geometry Software 8-8 Installation 168 175 176 8-9 Starting KwikTrig 8-10 Chapter Summary 176 178 Review Exercises CHAPTER 9 An Overview of CNC Shop Activities 9-1 Chapter Objectives 9-2 Introduction 182 182 182 xiv Contents 9-3 Essential CNC Shop Activities 9-4 Part Drawing Study 182 182 9—5 Methodizing o f Operations f o r C N C Machining Centers 9-6 Deciding on a CNC Machine 185 9-7 Methods of Holding the Part During Machining 9—8 Machining Determination 9-9 Cutting Conditions 186 193 194 9-10 Writing a Programming Manuscript 194 9-11 Inputting Programs to the Machine Control Unit 9-12 Setup Procedure 194 195 9-13 Debugging and Verifying the Program 9-14 Part Production 185 200 201 9-15 Chapter Summary 201 Review Exercises C H A P T E R 10 Word Address Programming 10-1 Chapter Objectives 10-2 Introduction 203 203 203 10-3 Programming Language Format 203 10-4 Programming Language Terminology 204 10-5 Arrangement of Addresses in a Block 205 10-6 Program and Sequence Numbers (O, N Codes) 10-7 Preparatory Functions (G Codes) 207 10-8 Dimension Words ( X . Y . Z . . . Codes) 10-9 Feed Rate (F Code)
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