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Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability ... - IPCC

ASSESSING AND MANAGING THE RISKS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Human interference with the climate system is occurring,1 and climate change poses risks for human and natural systems (Figure SPM.1). The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5) evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change. It considers how impacts and risks related to climate change can be reduced and managed through adaptation and mitigation. The report assesses needs, options, opportunities, constraints, resilience, limits, and other aspects associated with adaptation. Climate change involves complex interactions and changing likelihoods of diverse impacts. A focus on risk, which is new in this report, supports decision-making in the context of climate change, and complements other elements of the report. People and societies may perceive or rank risks and potential benefits differently, given diverse values and goals. Compared to past WGII reports, the WGII AR5 assesses a substantially larger knowledge base of relevant scientific, technical, and socioeconomic literature. Increased literature has facilitated comprehensive assessment across a broader set of topics and sectors, with expanded coverage of human systems, adaptation, and the ocean. See Background Box SPM.1.2 Section A of this summary characterizes observed impacts, vulnerability and exposure, and adaptive responses to date. Section B examines future risks and potential benefits. Section C considers principles for effective adaptation and the broader interactions among adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable development. Background Box SPM.2 defines central concepts, and Background Box SPM.3 introduces terms used to convey the degree of certainty in key findings. Chapter references in brackets and in footnotes indicate support for findings, figures, and tables. Figure SPM.1: Illustration of the core concepts of the WGII AR5. Risk of climate-related impacts results from the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardou...

Overestimated global warming over the past 20 years

G lobal mean surface temperature over the past 20 years (1993–2012) rose at a rate of 0.14 ± 0.06 °C per decade (95% confidence interval)1. This rate of warming is significantly slower than that simulated by the climate models participating in Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). To illustrate this, we considered trends in global mean surface temperature computed from 117 simulations of the climate by 37 CMIP5 models (see Supplementary Information). These models generally simulate natural variability — including that associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and explosive volcanic eruptions — as well as estimate the combined response of climate to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol abundance (of sulphate, black carbon and organic carbon, for example), ozone concentrations (tropospheric and stratospheric), land use (for example, deforestation) and solar variability. By averaging simulated temperatures only at locations where corresponding observations exist, we find an average simulated rise in global mean surface temperature of 0.30 ± 0.02 °C per decade (using 95% confidence intervals on the model average). The observed rate of warming given above is less than half of this simulated rate, and only a few simulations provide warming trends within the range of observational uncertainty (Fig. 1a). The inconsistency between observed and simulated global warming is even more striking for temperature trends computed over the past fifteen years (1998–2012). For this period, the observed trend of 0.05 ± 0.08 °C per decade is more than four times smaller than the average simulated trend of 0.21 ± 0.03 °C per decade (Fig. 1b). It is worth noting that the observed trend over this period — not significantly...

The Facts and Science of Climate Change - U.S. Senate ...

Committee on Environment and Public Works The Facts and Science of Climate Change by U.S. Senator James M. Inhofe Chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works The climate is constantly changing, and has done so throughout history. The challenge is to understand the natural changes in the climate and whether humans are contributing significantly to those changes. The larger challenge is to separate the politics from the discussion of the science, in order to better understand the state of knowledge of climate change science. Today, even saying there is scientific disagreement over global warming is itself controversial. But anyone who pays even cursory attention to the issue understands that scientists vigorously disagree over whether human activities are responsible for global warming, or whether those activities will precipitate apocalyptic natural disasters. It is extremely important for the future of this country that the facts and the science get a fair hearing. Without proper knowledge and understanding, alarmists will scare the country into enacting their ultimate goal: making energy suppression, in the form of harmful mandatory restrictions on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse emissions, the official policy of the United States. Such a policy would induce serious economic harm, especially for low income and minority populations. Energy suppression, as official government and nonpartisan private analyses have amply confirmed, means higher prices for food, medical care, and electricity, as well as massive job losses and drastic reductions in gross domestic...

Amazing benefits of Dudu-osun black soap

Visit http://www.ginika.com to know more about Dudu-osun black soap and it's benefits. It is pure natural soap from tropical Africa. It is highly recommended for children. It has excellent healing properties. For any query call us at (1)-773-703-0555.

Grown In Your Own Backyard The Hydroponics Tomato Greenhouse ...

Grown In Your Own Backyard The Hydroponics Tomato Greenhouse at Brigham Young University-Idaho is located on the south side of the Benson building. The primary purpose for the on-site greenhouse is not only educational, but it also supplies tomatoes to University’s Food Services. The greenhouse tomatoes are available to the University from January to July, every year. Food Services use an average of 400 to 500 pounds of tomatoes per week. Surprisingly, the greenhouse here on campus can provide at least two-thirds of those tomatoes. The greenhouse was constructed with glass so that natural sunlight can easily penetrate the walls and reach the plants. An advanced ventilation system allows proper airflow to the plants, as a generator then creates carbon dioxide, a gas that tomato plants readily need to survive. “The greenhouse provides hands on learning. You get to work with fertilizers and see how increasing and decreasing certain fertilizers affect the plants,” said Chad Blackburn, Hydroponics Greenhouse Manager. Since tomato plants can grow 24 hours a day, special lamps turn on at certain parts of the day (at night for instance) to supply adequate lighting for the plants. Care such as this, ensures continuous growth. Plants that normally grow in a warm climate are unable to sustain themselves if transported and grown in a colder environment. With the help of a solid, sophisticated greenhouse provides a convenient method of horticultural production. Having a controlled and contained setting, allows plant life to thrive without interruption, a fascinating...

The Market for Greenhouse-Grown Fresh Tomatoes - Product Center

The Strategic Marketing Institute Working Paper The Market for Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes Getachew Abate June 2006 P RODUCT C ENTER For Agriculture and Natural Resources Room 80 Agriculture Hall, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (517) 432-4608 Envisioning, exploring and empowering a profitable future for businesses and industries engaged in Michigan’s agricultural, food and natural resource systems. 1 Market Overview Greenhouse tomatoes include both soil-grown and hydroponic tomatoes. The U.S., Canada and Mexico are major producers of greenhouse tomatoes in North America. In 2003, total greenhouse production in the three countries has been estimated at 528,078 metric tons (Table 1). Canada accounted for about 42% of the total production, while the U.S. and Mexico accounted for 30% and 28% respectively. Mexico is leading in field tomato production, while Canada has the lowest field tomato production. Table 1: North America greenhouse and field tomato production (2003)* United States...

chevrolet - Harnesses Unlimited
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NOTES ON ALL GENERAL MOTORS HARNESS SYSTEMS We have done a great deal of research on General Motors wiring harnesses in order to provide you with the most authentic wiring systems possible. While doing this research, we had the opportunity to study original harness blueprints and specifications for some General Motors products. All of the data we examined specified that the wire was to have a natural cotton base color (a light tan) braided over the rubber insulation, with tracer colors woven in for wire identification. The tracer colors would consist of a single thread parallel tracer or two single thread crossing tracers, as specified on the harness blueprints. After the cotton braid was applied to the wire it was to be given a protective coating consisting of a heat, oil and water resistant varnish. This protective coating would color with age and cause the original wire to appear dark yellow, orange, or brown. All the wire we use for General Motors vehicles conforms to the original color codes as specified by the manufacturer. One note on our General Motors harness systems: At this time we cannot supply the original type GM twist connectors, the rear body plug, or the turn signal switch plug. We do provide substitute connectors...

Poweriser Youth Kangaroo Stilts

Detailed information Weight Bracket: 30 to 50 kg or 66 to 110 pounds. For ages 8 and up! Excellent for fitness & exercise while having safe & exciting fun outdoors. Raises children 10 inches standing; lets them jump & run a little higher and further. Designed for natural movement with 5-10 minute average learning time. Track record of no reported injuries - safe to use as per manual guidelines

Final results about Point Coloring and then Asbestos on Rooms

Different materials not to mention worsens have already been analyzed so they can help the ability related to modern-day own homes and thus architecture. Although, not every each of these natural compounds actually are safe and secure and thus risk-free. Some materials which are put to use in construction homeowners could actually negatively affects yourself and your family with no caution. If you can not desire to reveal yourself and your loved ones to the people detrimental chemical substances, you should know several with reference to a couple of the most usual family unit toxic elements steer painting coupled with mesothelioma.

ItsHot.com: Noted Diamond Jewelry Store Where Style and Sophistication Mingle

Diamonds are known for their ability to enhance anyone’s overall persona. The only catch is that they should be embellished artistically and elegantly - be it a diamond studded ring, earrings or a necklace. A poorly created ornament won’t do justice to the beauty of these rare and precious gemstones.

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