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Using Excel: Frequency Distributions, Histograms ... - Cosmos

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Using Excel: Frequency Distributions, Histograms, Scatterplots, Line Graphs • The Analysis ToolPak, available with all PC versions of Excel, can be used for many of the tasks found in a standard statistics course. Many of these tasks can be done without the ToolPak, but they are generally much easier if you have it. Here is how to install the the Analysis ToolPak for PC’s As of this writing, if you are running Excel 2008 or higher on a Mac, the analysis ToolPak is not available. There is an application called StatPlus:Mac LE which is a free version of the full StatPlus application. It can handle most of the tasks performed by the Analysis ToolPak and in it’s full version is probably superior - but that costs money. The free version does not have the Histogram function installed. This is a problem with no easy work-around. There are various histogram templates available on the web. • Frequency Distributions and Histograms with the ToolPak: 1. Put the data in a single column. 2. Create a column with the bin values (class boundaries). 3. Click on Data Analysis section under the DATA tab. 4. Click on Histogram. 5. In input range put in the cells that contain the data. 6. In the bin range put in the cells that contain the bin values (class boundaries). 7. Do not click labels unless you have included labels in the data entries. 8. Put in a range of cells for the output range (or click new worksheet ply) 9. Check the include chart option 10. Then Click OK. 11. Your frequency distribution and histogram should appear where you told Excel to place it. 12. In order to make the frequency distribution table look like an actual frequency distribution, you should edit the left column. Instead of the class boundaries (bin values), replace these with the actual classes such as 30-39, 40-49, . . .. This will automatically change the x-axis labels in the graph. 13. The histogram can be edited to look a lot better by clicking on the graph and choosing various options from the chart tools menu. I like the option which includes axis titles and a main title. 14. Technically, a histogram’s bars are adjacent to each other. To do this, right click one of the bars, and choose Format Data Series. From here you can set the Gap Width to zero and put in borders. 15. The trickiest part is getting the x-axis to look good. By default, the axis has the class boundaries under each bar. This is confusing. By editing the frequency table (a few steps back) the axis labels now have the actual classes. If you ask me, that is good enough. If you want to place the actual class boundaries on the x-axis, you must delete the x-axis label then insert a text-box with the appropriate boundary values positioned in just the right places. This is tricky and has to be re-scaled if you change the size of the graph. I’d rather have the actual class ranges under each bar and save myself the headache of creating a custom text box. • Histograms from a frequency distribution without the ToolPak: If you already have the frequency table (as in some of the homework problems), creating a histogram is quite easy using the bar-chart option in Excel and no ToolPak is necessary. 1. In the ﬁrst column enter the classes as text. Format this column as text if necessary, otherwise you will get a double histogram (not what you want). In the second column enter the frequencies...

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