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Puji syukur penulis sampaikan ke hadirat Tuhan Yang Mahaesa. Oleh karunia dan rahmatNya penyusunan buku Sains Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, untuk kelas 3 SD dapat penulis selesaikan dengan baik. Penulisan buku ini bertujuan agar para siswa dapat lebih memahami sains sebagai suatu hal yang secara nyata terdapat pada kehidupan sehari-hari. Dalam buku ini memuat berbagai hal yang memenuhi petunjuk pengembangan buku ajar khususnya untuk pelajaran anak SD. Pada setiap bab juga terdapat berbagai bentuk evaluasi sebagai bentuk umpan balik terhadap materi yang disampaikan sebelumnya. Evaluasi berupa soal refleksi, pilihan ganda, isian, dan esai. Untuk memperkaya pengetahuan siswa, juga ditambahkan Wacana Salingtemas. Aspek afektif dan psikomotorik terasah melalui Tugas Proyek Sains. Di akhir setiap bab diberikan rangkuman materi terkait. Selain itu, juga diberikan Latihan Ulangan Umum Semester 1 dan 2. Buku ini juga dilengkapi berbagai ilustrasi dan gambar-gambar. Hal ini dilakukan agar anak-anak lebih tertarik dan mudah mempelajari materi yang disajikan. Bahasa yang digunakan telah disesuaikan dengan kemampuan penguasaan bahasa Indonesia untuk siswa SD. Dengan demikian, diharapkan para siswa lebih mudah mempelajarinya. Mudah-mudahan buku ini dapat dipergunakan dengan baik dan menjadi penunjang belajar anak. Jakarta, Mei 2008 Penyusun
Dear Valued Customer, Welcome to the CPI family of customers. Thank you for choosing CPI to protect your home and family. Our staff of dedicated Installation Technicians, Customer Care Agents, and Central Monitoring Operators are eager to begin serving your family with the fastest response time possible in the event of a burglary, fire or medical emergency. As your security provider, we strongly encourage you to take a few moments and review this Users Manual. It has been created using an easy to understand format that will allow you to use your new security system to its maximum potential. We also have a staff of Customer Care professionals that will be happy to assist you, day or night, if you have questions or concerns. We are looking forward to serving you and your family for many years to come. Sincerely, Ken J. Gill C.E.O. CPI Security Systems CPI SECURITY SYSTEMS • 4200 SANDY PORTER ROAD • CHARLOTTE, N.C. • 28273 • 1-800-948-7133 Customer Care (800) 948-7133
Complete Cylinder Head Torque Specifications for Domestic and Imported Passenger Cars and Light/ Medium Duty Trucks ©2009 Federal-Mogul Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Form# FP099191 FEL-PRO ONLINE ® VEHICLE SEALING When you consider what can go wrong when TEC bulletins even “minor” gaskets fail, you realize one thing: Sealing solutions for problematic applications, straight from Fel-Pro engineers. THERE ARE NO UNIMPORTANT GASKETS! Each one, no matter how small, plays a critical role in vehicle sealing. Each has to be the best. ® That’s why you should be… 100% Fel-Pro. Product applications Quick links to downloadable charts and the latest on technology trends and new number availability. Why trust Fel-Pro gaskets for ALL of your vehicle sealing needs? Product news Press releases and helpful “Did You Know” articles. • The undisputed sealing technology leader • Engineered for the repair environment • Molded rubber chemistry and manufacturing expertise • Global engineering resources • Latest technology across every gasket repair category The “Fel-Pro Only” website gives countermen and technicians easy access to the latest Fel-Pro sealing information and updates, including: Torque specs Find the most up-to-date torque spec listings in electronic format. FelPro-Only.com is your convenient source for advanced sealing DRIVETRAIN ENGINE REPAIR FUEL SYSTEM information. It’s the place to learn and share “tricks of the trade,” find proper diagnosis and installation instructions, and enjoy easy access to parts reference. While there, you can also sign up for email alerts for Inside Sealing, the Fel-Pro newsletter that helps you solve sealing challenges on popular domestic and import engines. Written by our technical experts, it covers a full range of sealing topics.
Warnings and Safety information The navigation system helps you find your way to your destination with a connected GPS receiver. The software does not transmit your GPS position; others cannot track you. It is important that you look at the display only when it is safe to do so. If you are the driver of the vehicle, we recommend that you operate your software before you start your journey. Plan the route before your departure and stop if you need to change the route. You must obey the traffic signs and follow the road geometry. If you deviate from the recommended route, your software changes the instructions accordingly. Never place your device where it obstructs the driver's view, where it is in the deployment zone of an airbag or where it might cause injuries in an accident. For more information, consult the End User License Agreement (page 64). 2 2 Getting started The software is optimized for in-car use. There is no need to use a stylus. You can use it easily by tapping the screen buttons and the map with your fingertips. When using the navigation software for the first time, an initial setup process starts automatically. Do as follows: 1. Select the written language of the application interface. Later you can change it in Regional settings (page 61). 2. Read the End User License Agreement. Tap to continue. 3. The Configuration wizard starts. Tap 4. Select the language and speaker used for voice guidance messages. Later you can change it in Sound and Warnings settings (page 61). 5. If needed, modify the time format and unit settings. Later you can change them in Regional settings (page 61). 6. If needed, modify the default route planning options. Later you can change them in Route settings...
A new kitchen or kitchen remodel opens up a world of design options. You can completely customize your kitchen. You can add more details and completely change the format in terms of features and shapes. You can maximize your space and utilize it to various levels. View More on: http://www.barnesofashburton.co.uk/
The Dension Gateway Five lets you connect your iPod or USB storage (stick, hard drive or mass storage capable mp3 player) to your original car radio, providing music playback, menu based control and charging. Gateway Five iPod, USB, Bluetooth The Gateway Five also offers Bluetooth connectivity for music streaming (via A2DP) and handsfree mobile call handling via the original buttons and screens of your vehicle. Supported audio devices User Manual USB Flash Memory and Hard Disk Drive (UBS1.1 and higher) File System: FAT16 or FAT32 Storage capacity: up to 250 GB* Music Format: MP3, WMA and WAV, OGG iPod Getting started You can pair the Gateway Five with a Bluetooth capable mobile phone for music streaming (requires an A2DP capable phone) or handsfree use (if that option is active in the Gateway). Pairing is controlled from the mobile phone the same way as connecting to other Bluetooth accessories. The pin code to the Gateway Five is 0000 (for further details read Section 7). How to control The menu of the Gateway Five is displayed on the central display (cluster) on the dashboard (between the two main instruments). Due to the capabilities of your car, the Gateway Five menu is not visible on the radio screen....
Triumph's Daytona 675 middleweight sports bike has drawn acclaim from riders, racers and the motorcycling press since its first appearance. Routinely occupying the front of the grid in both the British and World SuperSport series, the 675’s credentials on the racetrack have been proven beyond question. Triumph 675-based, racing & track day motorcycles custom-built up to British Supersport competition specification The engine at its heart follows Triumph’s trademark triple format, a configuration that combines the punchy mid-range exit drive of a v-twin with the peak power characteristics of an inline-four. The frame provides an ideal foundation of assured, agile and responsive handling. Triumph Daytona 675 Race & Track Day Bikes Since 2007, JHS Racing have specialised in developing and tuning the Triumph 675 for track use, refining both engine and handling to fulfil the specific demands of the circuit, adapting this exceptional base platform into a devastatingly effective Supersport weapon. JHS Racing have been creating competitive racing motorcycles for over a decade. We both build customer bikes to racing or track day specification as well as participating with our own race team in events up to and including the British Supersport series. In recent years we have specifically focused upon campaigning the Triumph 675. We are recognised as being among the UK’s foremost experts in optimising these motorcycles for maximum effectiveness on the racetrack. JHS Racing Limited Unit 3, Unity Court, Broadmead Lane, Keynsham, Bristol, BS31 1ST Tel: 0117 986 8844 email: email@example.com Registered in the UK no. 6399852 See overleaf for full details of the customer race & track day motorcycles that we build to order. Learn more about us at: www.jhsracing.co.uk
CONTENTS CHAPTER I Introduction to Computer Numerical Control Manufacturing I —I Chapter Objectives 1 2 Introduction — I I 1 3 Numerical Control Definition, Its Concepts and Advantages — I 1-4 Definition of Computer Numerical Control and Its Components 1-5 Advantages of CNC Compared with NC 4 1 6 Special Requirements for Utilizing CNC 4 — 1-7 Financial Rewards of CNC Investment 5 1 8 CNC Machining Centers and Turning Centers — 1-9 Other Types of CNC Equipment I —10 CNC Input and Storage Media I-11 Chapter Summary 6 8 8 II Review Exercises CHAPTER 1 13 Modern Machine Tool Controls 2-1 Chapter Objectives 2-2 Introduction 13 13 2-3 Different Types of System Control 13 2—4 Loop Systems f o r Controlling Tool Movement 16 2—5 Establishing Locations via Cartesian Coordinates 2-6 CNC Machine Axes of Motion 2-7 Types ofTool Positioning Modes 24 2-8 Units Used for Positioning Coordinates 2—9 Chapter Summary 19 20 25 25 Review Exercises CHAPTER 3 Too/ing for Hole and Milling Operations 3-1 Chapter Objectives 3—2 Introduction 32 32 32 3-3 Tooling for Drilling Operations 32 XI xii Contents 3 4 Carbide Insert Technology — 37 3 5 Tooling for Hole Operations That Follow Drilling — 3-6 Tool Speeds and Feeds for Hole Operations 41 3—7 Tooling for Profile Milling and Facing Operations 3-8 Coated Tooling 38 44 48 3-9 Tool Speeds and Feeds for Milling Operations 3-10 Feed Directions for Milling Operations 3-11 Cutting Fluids for CNC Operations 3-12 Chapter Summary 49 51 52 54 Review Exercises CHAPTER 4 Exploring Features of CNC Machining Centers 4-1 Chapter Objectives 4-2 Introduction 56 56 56 4-3 Background on CNC Machining Centers 56 4—4 Tooling Systems Used with Automatic Tool Changers 4-5 Methods of Securing Tools in Tool Holders 60 62 4—6 Methods of Securing Tooling Systems to the CNC Spindle 4-7 Automatic Tool Changer Systems 4-8 Pallet Loading Systems 64 65 67 4-9 Features of the Machine Control Unit (MCU) Machining Centers 4—10 Chapter Summary 70 77 Review Exercises CHAPTERS Review of Basic Blueprint Reading for CNC Programmers 5-1 Chapter Objectives 5-2 Introduction 5-3 Sheet Sizes 80 80 80 5 4 Drawing Formats — 81 5 5 Interpreting Lines in Drawings — 87 5-6 Projection Conventions Used in Drawings 91 5-7 Visualizing 3D Objects from 2D Othographic Views 5-8 Auxiliary Views 93 5-9 Sectional Views 93 5-10 Reading Dimensions 93 5-11 Reading Threads and Thread Notes 115 5-12 Reading Surface Finish Symbols and Notes 5-13 Chapter Summary Review Exercises Bibliography 80 131 125 93 Contents xiii CHAPTER 6 Review of Basic Material for CNC Programmers 6-1 Chapter Objectives 6-2 Introduction Specifications 133 133 133 6-3 Reading Material Specifications 133 6-4 Understanding Heat Treatment Notes 6—5 Interpreting Surface Coating Notes 6-6 Chapter Summary 141 145 150 Review Exercises Bibliography CHAPTER 7 Review of Basic Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for CNC Programmers 7-1 Chapter Objectives 7—2 Introduction 151 151 7-3 GDTTerminology 152 7—4 Part Form Controls 7-5 Datums 151 154 158 7-6 Part Profile Controls 159 7-7 Part Location, Orientation, and Runout Controls 7—8 Chapter Summary 166 159 < Review Exercises Bibliography CHAPTER 8 Mathematics 8-1 Chapter Objectives 8-2 Introduction for CNC Programming 168 168 8-3 Determining Sides of Right Triangles 8-4 Useful Angle Concepts 8—6 Oblique Triangles 168 169 8-5 Determining Angles of Right Triangles 173 175 8-7 KwikTrig Trigonometry/Geometry Software 8-8 Installation 168 175 176 8-9 Starting KwikTrig 8-10 Chapter Summary 176 178 Review Exercises CHAPTER 9 An Overview of CNC Shop Activities 9-1 Chapter Objectives 9-2 Introduction 182 182 182 xiv Contents 9-3 Essential CNC Shop Activities 9-4 Part Drawing Study 182 182 9—5 Methodizing o f Operations f o r C N C Machining Centers 9-6 Deciding on a CNC Machine 185 9-7 Methods of Holding the Part During Machining 9—8 Machining Determination 9-9 Cutting Conditions 186 193 194 9-10 Writing a Programming Manuscript 194 9-11 Inputting Programs to the Machine Control Unit 9-12 Setup Procedure 194 195 9-13 Debugging and Verifying the Program 9-14 Part Production 185 200 201 9-15 Chapter Summary 201 Review Exercises C H A P T E R 10 Word Address Programming 10-1 Chapter Objectives 10-2 Introduction 203 203 203 10-3 Programming Language Format 203 10-4 Programming Language Terminology 204 10-5 Arrangement of Addresses in a Block 205 10-6 Program and Sequence Numbers (O, N Codes) 10-7 Preparatory Functions (G Codes) 207 10-8 Dimension Words ( X . Y . Z . . . Codes) 10-9 Feed Rate (F Code)