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Product Folder Sample & Buy Technical Documents Support & Community Tools & Software LM35 www.ti.com SNIS159D – AUGUST 1999 – REVISED OCTOBER 2013 LM35 Precision Centigrade Temperature Sensors FEATURES DESCRIPTION The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, with an output voltage linearly proportional to the Centigrade temperature. Thus the LM35 has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from the output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±¼°C at room temperature and ±¾°C over a full −55°C to +150°C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration of the LM35 make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. The device is used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As the LM35 draws only 60 μA from the supply, it has very low self-heating of less than 0.1°C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a −55°C to +150°C temperature range, while the LM35C is rated for a −40°C to +110°C range (−10° with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface-mount smalloutline package and a plastic TO-220 package.
Photoelectric Sensors E3F2 Threaded Cylindrical Photoelectric Sensors with Built-in Amplifier for Use as an Optical Proximity Switch • M18 DIN-sized cylindrical housing • Housing materials: plastic, nickel plated brass and stainless steel • Axial and radial types (with integrated 90°-optics) • Enclosure rating IP67 • DC switching types with connectors for easy maintenance • Full metal plug-in type • Sensing distance separate types: 7 m, 10 m • Retroreflective polarizing types: 2 m, 4 m • Background suppression type: 10 cm • Long detection distance (0.3 m, 1 m) with sensitivity adjuster for diffuse type • Wide-beam characteristics (10 cm) for diffuse type • Wide operating voltage range (10 to 30 VDC or 24 to 240 VAC) • Short-circuit and reverse connection protection (DC switching type) • UL and CSA approved (AC switching types) • UL listed (DC switching types) Photoelectric Sensors E3F2 1 Ordering Information ■ DC-Switching Models Housing Material: Plastic Note: Shaded models are normally stocked. Sensing method Appearance Multi purpose Through-beam pre-wired Sensing distance 7m - precision detection (*1) - test input axial...
GP2D120 Optoelectronic Device FEATURES • Analog output • Effective range: 4 to 30 cm • Typical response time: 39 ms 1 2 3 • Typical start up delay: 44 ms • Average Current Consumption: 33 mA DESCRIPTION PIN SIGNAL NAME The GP2D120 is a distance measuring sensor with integrated signal processing and analog voltage output. 1 VO 2 GND 3 VCC GP2D120-8 Figure 1. Pinout GND VCC PSD SIGNAL PROCESSING CIRCUIT VOLTAGE REGULATOR OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT OUTPUT CIRCUIT LED DRIVE CIRCUIT Vo LED MEASURING DISTANCE IC GP2D120-4 Figure 2. Block Diagram 1 Data Sheet GP2D120 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Absolute Maximum Ratings Ta = 25°C, VCC = 5 VDC PARAMETER SYMBOL RATING UNIT Supply Voltage VCC -0.3 to +7 V Output Terminal Voltage VO -0.3 to (VCC +0.3) V Operating Temperature Topr -10 to +60 °C Storage Temperature Tstg -40 to +70 °C Operating Supply Voltage PARAMETER SYMBOL RATING UNIT Operating Supply Voltage VCC 4.5 to 5.5 V Electro-optical Characteristics Ta = 25°C, VCC = 5 VDC PARAMETER SYMBOL Measuring Distance Range ΔL Output Terminal Voltage VO CONDITIONS MIN. TYP. MAX. UNIT NOTES 4 — 30 cm 1, 2 L = 30 cm...
PEMBAHASAN DAN KUNCI JAWABAN GEOGRAFI KELAS XII PAKET B 1. Berdasarkan soal nomor 1 a. Konsep aglomerasi adalah merupakan gabungan, kumpulan, 2 atau lebih pusat kegiatan dalam 1 lokasi/kawasan terterntu seperti kawasan industri, pemukiman, perdagangan, dsb. b. Konsep morfologi menjelaskan kenampakan bentuk-bentuk muka bumi, seperti dataran rendah, lereng, bukit/dataran tinggi. c. Konsep pola menitik beratkan pada pola keruangan baik fisik maupun sosialnya seperti pola permukiman penduduk, pola aliran sungai, dsb. d. Konsep lokasi mengkaji letak suatu objek dipermukaan bumi. Pada konsep ini utamanya dalam menjawab pertanyaan dimana (where). e. Konsep ketergantungan adalah konsep yang menunjukkan keterkaitan keruangan antar wilayah akibat adanya perbedaan potensi antar wilayah. Seperti keterkaitan antara desa dengan kota. Kunci jawaban D 2. Prinsip-prinsip geografi ada 4 a. Prinsip deskripsi, merupakan penjelasan lebih jauh mengenai gejala-gejala yang diselidiki/dipelajari. Deskripsi disajikan dalam bentuk tulisan, diagram tabel/gambar/peta. b. Prinsip korologi, merupakan gejala, fakta/masalah geografi disuatu tempat yang ditinjau dari sebaran, interelasi, interaksi, dan integrasinya dalam ruang. c. Prinsip persebaran, merupakan suatu gejala dan fakta yang tersebar tidak merata dipermukaan bumi. d. Prinsip interelasi, merupakan suatu hubungan yang saling terkait dalam ruang antara gejala yang 1 dengan gejala lain. e. Prinsip distribusi, merupakan suatu gejala dan fakta yang tidak merata dipermukaan bumi.
To prevent fire or shock hazard, do not expose the unit to rain or moisture. To prevent fire, do not cover the ventilation of the apparatus with news papers, table-cloths, curtains, etc. And don’t place lighted candles on the apparatus. To prevent fire or shock hazard, do not place objects filled with liquids, such as vases, on the apparatus. Do not install the appliance in a confined space, such as a bookcase or built-in cabinet. Don’t throw away batteries with general house waste; dispose of them correctly as chemical waste. For customers in the United States This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: – Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna. – Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver. – Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
Even if FM radio broadcasting is a fundamental means of communication, it can’t escape one of the big trends in electronics today: miniaturization. As mobile communication devices are gaining more and more functionalities, people still want to have the option of listening to FM radio on their smart phones or MP3 players. This can only be achieved through the miniaturization of the FM reception process by implementing all its functions into a microchip. This miniaturization process is widely used in the industry, but has not been explored in depth by undergraduate students. In order to appreciate the complexity of such a task, we decided to design an FM receiver in a microchip. To make the project more interesting, we chose to create a user interface facilitating its use.
The design of FM receivers for broadcast reception are generally low-cost single conversion designs. The system comprises the front end, the IF amplifier plus limiter, and the detection stage. The latter two are nowadays almost always part of an integrated circuit to reduce costs. Until about the early 1990s the FM front end has always been constructed using two transistors. In a bid to further reduce costs and make the design simpler to manufacture, various manufacturers had begun to offer integrated circuits that provide a complete FM front end with just the addition of external tuned circuits. From about the mid 1990s and to the present day, semiconductor vendors have offered even greater integration, with a complete FM-AM receiver in a single chip, including a 1-watt audio amplifier, requiring minimal external circuitry. However the complete end-to-end analog design is meeting its end, as everything is moving to digital broadcasting. Nonetheless the techniques presented here remain valid, regardless of whether the radio carries analog audio or digital bitstreams. The following describes in detail, designs used for virtually all mass-produced radio sets,...
1. Introduction The design of the All Digital FM Receiver circuit in this project uses Phase Locked Loop (PLL) as the main core. The task of the PLL is to maintain coherence between the input (modulated) signal frequency, ωi and the respective output frequency, ωo via phase comparison. This self-correcting ability of the system also allows the PLL to track the frequency changes of the input signal once it is locked. Frequency modulated input signal is assumed as a series of numerical values (digital signal) via 8-bit of analog to digital conversion (ADC) circuit. The FM Receiver gets the 8 bit signal every clock cycle and outputs the demodulated signal. The All Digital FM Receiver circuit is designed using VHDL, then simulated and synthesized using ModelSim SE 6 simulator and Xilinx ISE 6.3i, respectively. FPGA implementation also provided, here we use Virtex2 device. The real measurement is done using ChipScope Pro 6.3i. 2. Architecture Description The system of All Digital FM Receiver consists of a digital PLL cascaded with digital low pass filter. The block diagram of system is shown in Fig. 1.
FM RECEIVER CIRCUIT FOR BATTERY SUPPLY DESCRIPTION The SC1088 is a bipolar integrated circuit for use in mono portable and pocket radios. It is used when a minimum of perpheral components (of small dimensions and low costs) is important. The circuit contains a frequency-locked-loop(FLL) system with an intermediate frequency(IF) of about 70kHz. Selectivity is achieved by active RC-filters. De-tuning related to the IF and too weak input signal is suppressed by the mute circuit. FEATURES * Equipped with all stages of a mono receiver from antenna to audio output. * Mute Circuit * Search tuning with a single varicap diode * Mechanical tuning with integrating AFC * AM application supported * Power supply polarity protection * Power supply voltage down to 1.8V SOP-16 APPLICATION 1. Mechanical tuning: This is possible with or without integrated AFC circuit 2. Electrical tuning: This is realized by one directional(band-up) search tuning facility, including RESET to the lower-band limit.
LM3089 FM Receiver IF System Y General Description The LM3089 has been designed to provide all the major functions required for modern FM IF designs of automotive high-fidelity and communications receivers Y Features Y Y Y Three stage IF amplifier limiter provides 12 mV (typ) b 3 dB limiting sensitivity Balanced product detector and audio amplifier provide 400 mV (typ) of recovered audio with distortion as low as 0 1% with proper external coil designs Y Y Four internal carrier level detectors provide delayed AGC signal to tuner IF level meter drive current and interchannel mute control AFC amplifier provides AFC current for tuner and or center tuning meters Improved operating and temperature performance especially when using high Q quadrature coils in narrow band FM communications receivers No mute circuit latchup problems A direct replacement for CA3089E Connection Diagram Dual-In-Line Package TL H 7149 – 2 Top View Order Number LM3089N See NS Package Number N16E C1995 National Semiconductor Corporation TL H 7149 RRD-B30M115 Printed in U S A LM3089 FM Receiver IF System September 1992 Toko America 1250 Feehanville Drive Mount Prospect IL 60056 (312) 297-0070 TL H 7149 – 1