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Hydroponics – Sustainable ... WHY HYDROPONICS: DO YOU KNOW. WHERE ... 1,400,000. 1,600,000. 1,800,000. 2,000,000. 1991. 2001. Cucumber. Tomato. Hydroponics – Sustainable st Century Agriculture for the 21 Richard Tyson University of Florida / Orange County Extension WHY HYDROPONICS: DO YOU KNOW WHERE YOUR FOOD COMES FROM ? LOCAL FOODS Food security Economic security Food safety Socially responsible Environmentally responsible The local foods movement - Lovavores Sourcing locally grown food is now just as important as sourcing organically grown foods – FreshPointe Regional Sales Manager, Orlando Homegrown Coop - Local Food Cooperative Local Harvest website http://www.localharvest.org/ Hydroponics : Definition • Growing plants without soil in a liquid or soilless media with a mineral nutrient solution
History of Hydroponics. • Hanging gardens of ... World War II-hydroponics in western Pacific. • Plastics .... TOV (tomato on the vine): Tradiro, Ambiance,. Balance ... History of Hydroponics • • • • • Hanging gardens of Babylon Aztec floating gardens World War II-hydroponics in western Pacific Plastics changed everything! Boom in 1990’s – – – – Space program Growing in deserts Vertical farming Large scale production Advantages •Crops can be grown where soil is unsuitable •Reduced plant disease •More control •Bigger yields Disadvantages •Initial costs higher •Deeper knowledge is needed •If introduced, diseases can easily spread •Needs more attention The basics • Growing substrates • Nutrient solution • System designs Growing Substrates • What makes a good media? – Provides support – Good pore size – Does not clog system – Does not affect nutrient solution Photo: /www.aquaponicsusa.com
Greenhouse tomato production has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production in order to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise. Marketing The development of farmers markets, roadside farm markets, and produce auctions across the state offer significant opportunities to sell produce from the farm. Tomatoes can be sold directly from the greenhouse at retail prices. Wholesale markets include supermarkets, restaurants, caterers, and wholesale distributors. Market Outlook The U.S. greenhouse tomato market is increasing dramatically as many consumers will now pay an increased price for a red, ripe tomato. It is possible for Kentucky growers to sell greenhouse tomatoes in this expanding market. Early-season tomato production may also capture higher prices resulting in profitability from intensive production systems. Excellent light, moderate heating costs, high yields, and good prices make spring the best time for greenhouse tomato production in Kentucky. On the other hand, fall and winter production generally results in low returns due to reduced yields and high fuel costs. For this reason, it is difficult to recommend production schedules where tomato harvest would be expected from December through mid February. Production Considerations Production systems There is no single best system for successfully growing greenhouse tomatoes. Many production systems will work if the grower correctly manages fertilization and watering. With experience, individual growers will be able to determine the best and most economic techniques to use in their greenhouse. A number of different types of growing media can be used for greenhouse tomatoes, including good field soil, packaged commercial mixes, and various types of hydroponic media. Use only materials that have been sterilized, pasteurized, or manufactured under clean, disease-free conditions. Small growers often use in-ground soil culture in the beginning, but generally switch to perlite or pinebark culture as they learn more about tomato production. A drip irrigation system is used for the distribution of water and nutrients. Tomatoes require 4 square feet of space per plant. This crop will require attention everyday to ensure success. Equipment (such as fans, vents,...
Hydroponics – Sustainable. Agriculture for the ... Variety of Hydroponic Systems Based on. Nutrient ... field grown vs $1.00 / lb for hydroponic tomatoes. Target ... Hydroponics – Sustainable st Century Agriculture for the 21 Richard Tyson University of Florida / Orange County Extension WHERE DOES YOUR FOOD COME FROM ? LOCAL FOODS Food security Economic security Food safety Socially responsible Environmentally responsible Hydroponics : Definition Growing plants without soil in a liquid or soilless media with a mineral nutrient solution Hydroponics Greenhouse or outdoor systems Environmental and labor friendly Crop choices ‐ environment and cost factors pH recommendation range from 5.5‐6.5 High tech and low tech systems
All rights reserved. Mechanical, electronic, photographic or other reproduction or copying from this book or parts of it are according to the present Danish copyright law not allowed without written permission from or agreement with GRUNDFOS Management A/S. GRUNDFOS Management A/S cannot be held responsible for the correctness of the information given in the book. Usage of information is at your own responsibility. In the Department of Structural and Fluid Mechanics we are happy to present the first English edition of the book: ’The Centrifugal Pump’. We have written the book because we want to share our knowledge of pump hydraulics, pump design and the basic pump terms which we use in our daily work. ’The Centrifugal Pump’ is primarily meant as an internal book and is aimed at technicians who work with development and construction of pump components. Furthermore, the book aims at our future colleagues, students at universities and engineering colleges, who can use the book as a reference and source of inspiration in their studies. Our intention has been to write an introductory book that gives an overview of the hydraulic components in the pump and at the same time enables technicians to see how changes in construction and operation influence the pump performance. In chapter 1, we introduce the principle of the centrifugal pump as well as its hydraulic components, and we list the different types of pumps produced by Grundfos. Chapter 2 describes how to read and understand the pump performance based on the curves for head, power, efficiency and NPSH. In chapter 3 you can read about how to adjust the pump’s performance when it is in operation in a system. The theoretical basis for energy conversion in a centrifugal pump is introduced in chapter 4, and we go through how affinity rules are used for scaling the performance of pump impellers. In chapter 5, we describe the different types of losses which occur in the pump, and how the losses affect flow, head and power consumption. In the book’s last chapter, chapter 6, we go trough the test types which Grundfos continuously carries out on both assembled pumps and pump components to ensure that the pump has the desired performance. The entire department has been involved in the development of the book. Through a longer period of time we have discussed the idea, the contents and the structure and collected source material. The framework of the Danish book was made after some intensive working days at ‘Himmelbjerget’. The result of the department’s engagement and effort through several years is the book which you are holding. We hope that you will find ‘The Centrifugal Pump’ useful, and that you will use it as a book of reference in you daily work. Enjoy!...
The Top-Flo® name represents the finest in sanitary process equipment. TOP-FLO® pumps have been designed to offer efficient transfer of product over a wide range of head and viscosity conditions. TOP-FLO® pumps are easy to install, clean, and operate. This catalog will answer many of the questions you may have regarding TOP-FLO® pumps. If you require additional information, a representative will be happy to assist you and can be reached at 1-800-458-6095. TOP-FLO® pumps are suitable for use in CIP (clean-in-place) installations. This feature enables easy self-cleaning with no dismantling or take-down. Sanitizing of all product contact areas is automatic. All TOP-FLO® pumps are available in standard inlet sizes and outlet sizes. In addition, enlarged inlet sizes are available for... Motor Data is not included as part of 4-step ordering number. Provide the following information: • Horsepower and RPM TF-C100, TF-C114, TF-C216, TF-C218, TF-C328 • Electrical phase and voltage Note: • TEFC is standard • TF-C Series furnished without legs unless otherwise specified on order. If motor is furnished from another source, supply the following: • Casing Gaskets: BUNA (Standard). If other type is required, specify on order. • Enlarged inlet: When ordering pump with enlarged inlet state inlet size, i.e., TF-C218MD with 3" inlet. 3 port connections • Horsepower • RPM • NEMA frame size M - Clamp (Standard) Remember to order needed accessories: T - Acme Bevel Seat Thread • Seal Kits and Parts S - NPT Female Thread • Gaskets F - Flanged • Clamps W - Weld • Hangers type of seal/standard material: 4 D - External balanced sanitary seal DG - External balanced sanitary seal w/clamped insert E - Water cooled balanced double seal F - External balanced seal w/cascading water • Air Relief Valves • Check Valve • Butterfly Valves • Ball Valves • Fittings 1 TOP-FLO® TF-C Series Centrifugal Pumps seal specifications TYPE D External Balanced Seal (Sanitary) "tf-c" series Model No. TF-C100 TF-C114 TF-C216 TF-C218 TF-C328 Inlet 1-1/2 1-1/2 or 2 2 or 2-1/2 2 or 3 3 or 4 Outlet 1 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 2 Max. Imp. 3.68 4 6 8 8 pump specifications Pump Casings: • Volute type - Standard • Inlet-oversizing as noted in chart above Pump Connections: sanitary: industrial: • Clamp • Threaded • Bevel Seat (ACME) • Flanged Pump Construction Materials: • All wetted parts - 316 SS • Seals - Carbon (other seals available) • Casing Gasket - BUNA (Standard) • FKM, EPDM, and PTFE are available Pump Finishes: • Polished or Electropolished Pump Seals: • Available in D, DG, E, and F styles Motor, Electrical: • 3 Phase - 230/460 volts - 1750 & 3500 rpm • Single Phase - 115/230 volts - 1750 & 3500 rpm Motor Housings: • TEFC (Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled) • Washdown Duty • Other styles available on request For light duty transfer requirements, see Top Line brochure (TF-C100). 2 This versatile seal has numerous applications but yet is extremely durable. Dairy products, soft vegetables, beverages, and even acid cleaning solutions and detergents are among the recommended uses. type DG External Balanced Seal with Clamped-in Seat (Sanitary) The DG seal uses the standard Type D rotating seal components with a reversible silicon carbide, tungsten carbide or ceramic seat. Typical applications include liquid sugar, beverage syrup, chocolate and abrasive products.
If you live in an apartment or condo and dream of cozying up by the fire, there is an ideal solution: an electric fireplace. The warm, radiant heat of today’s electric fireplaces can be purchased at the store, carried home in the back of your car and installed in minutes. Simply plug the fireplace into an outlet and you’re ready to fire it up. It’s even easy to carry an electric fireplace up a flight of stairs. Electric fireplaces are designed to be plug-andplay appliances, much like a stereo or a television. Simply turn them off and on as needed, and enjoy them when the mood hits! And with realistic fire technology that rivals a wood burning fire, the end result is snap, crackling great! BEAUTIFUL FIRE FOR WARMER CLIMATES Electric fireplaces make having a fire possible no matter the time of year…and, for just pennies a day. On a warm night, simply turn on the fire – minus the heat – and in seconds you can be basking in the glow of the fire while still sitting in your shorts. Then, when evening temperatures dip, turn on the heat option to take the chill off. Electric fireplaces work well in colder climates, as well. With variable heat controls, you can create enough heat to warm your toes or crank it up to keep a 400 square foot space at a comfortable temperature. And, because it requires no venting, an electric fireplace is perfect for locations where installing a fireplace is tricky, such as basements. those who desire a more traditional design, there are electric fireplaces that mimic wood or gas burning fireplaces, complete with mantel, fireplace surround and doors. From Victorian details to classic lines, there are many options for traditional homes. IDEAL ELECTRIC LOCATIONS: • • • • • Condos Cabins RVs Dens Entertainment centers • Town homes • Mobile homes • Basements • Bedrooms • Offices • Cottages Realistic Crackling: Pop a CD of crackling sounds into the stereo to simulate the sounds of a fire while enjoying your electric fireplace. EURO-MODERN STYLING, OR NOT The design of an electric fireplace can be modern or traditional. Electric fireplaces can be found with angular lines, unique shapes and “Austin Powers” features. These Euro-styled fireplaces can include frosted glass beads instead of logs, and fire in shades of pink, blue and red. Yet, for For a list of specialty retailers, visit www.hpba.org. Electric Fireplace Checklist on reverse side
Electric Fireplaces About Industry Leader Unsurpassed Quality ClassicFlame is the world leader in the design and manufacturing of electric fireplaces ClassicFlame employs the highest manufacturing protocols including: • First to design mantels of the most sought after furniture styles, crafted from the finest quality hardwood solids and hand selected fine furniture veneers. • Incoming Quality Control (IQC) on components and materials IQC - Ensures the product will conform to all specifications at all times, within the intended product life. • First to use fine furniture grade construction techniques. • • First to design electrical inserts with glowing logs and ember beds that look realistic when turned on or off. In-line and finished goods inspections to AQL standards. AQL - Measures the acceptable quality levels of products. • • ClassicFlame has earned the reputation of “The Finest Furniture in the Electric Fireplace Industry”. ISTA packaging standards Packaging is the one thing protecting your product from structural or environmental damage when shipped. • CSA certifications for U.S. and Canadian Markets Tested to meet or exceed all UL 2021 standards. CSA Certification & UL Standards - Provides increased assurance of quality and safety in electrical components. Solid hardwood blocks with metal on metal connections The only fireplaces with SpectraFire blue flame effect Furniture quality design and construction Twin-Star International Is On Designed and Engineered in the USA. www.twinstarhome.com ©2012 TWIN-STAR INTERNATIONAL, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED CF-CAT-103112 $ave Money with Zone Heating HEATS UP TO 1,000 SQ. FT ZONE HEATING SAVES Heat 400 ft2 UP TO with our standard line of electric fireplaces Heat 1000 ft2 UP TO with Quartz InfraRed Heating Technology Cost efficient: Heat any room in your house for just pennies an hour 100% Energy Efficient Flame operates with or without heat for all year use. Turning down your thermostat by 10-15 degrees for 8 hours a day can save as much as 10% off your heating bill. * *Source: Energy Information Administration Twin-Star International Is On Designed and Engineered in the USA. Sales@twinstarhome.com ©2012 TWIN-STAR INTERNATIONAL, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED CF-CAT-103112 www.twinstarhome.com Green, Clean, Safe ClassicFlame is widely recognized for making “The Finest Furniture in the Electric Fireplace Industry”. We are LEED Certified and proud members of the Sustainable Furnishings Council and Green Builders Council. Choose Electric. Unlike gas and wood burning fireplaces, ClassicFlame Electric Fireplaces emit no Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Methane or formaldehyde, which means zero emissions - no indoor or outdoor pollution. Step out of the Stone Age. ClassicFlame Electric Fireplaces do not require the consumption of wood or fossil fuels to operate. 100% Energy Efficient. All of the electric input energy is converted to heat. ZONE HEATING SAVES Zone Heating Saves. Warm only the room you’re in without wasting energy or money, by heating other rooms that are rarely used. Taking Things to the Next Level. Our technology is 2 years ahead of the competition. We have a constant commitment to take our already energy efficient and environmentally friendly fireplaces to the next level. Don’t Burn Your Money. The LED’s we use to power our flame effect only use 11.2 watts of electric power and have a life span of over 75,000 hours, versus regular incandescent light bulbs that use 120 watts and have to be replaced every 2,000 hours or so. That’s a difference in product life of about 8.5 years versus 83 days. Twin-Star International Is On