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West River Academy's Class of 2010 included 40 graduates from all over the world. While most were in the US, we also had 2 in China, 1 in Spain, 1 in Germany, 2 in Colombia, 7 in Chile, 1 in Taiwan, 2 in Korea and 1 in Japan. The ones in the picture were the 6 who chose to come to Grand Junction, Colorado to participate in the Commencement Exercises. And what was special for me was the graduation of my youngest daughter, Rachel (to my right in the photo). Each graduate gave a short speech, some with powerpoint, movie or musical presentations. Truly, each one was a valedictorian!
THE 9/11 COMMISSION REPORT Final FM.1pp 7/17/04 5:25 PM Page v CONTENTS List of Illustrations and Tables ix Member List xi Staff List xiii–xiv Preface xv 1. “WE HAVE SOME PLANES” 1 nside the Four Flights 1 Improvising a Homeland Defense 14 National Crisis Management 35. 2. THE FOUNDATION OF THE NEW TERRORISM 47. A Declaration of War 47 Bin Ladin’s Appeal in the Islamic World 48 The Rise of Bin Ladin and al Qaeda (1988–1992) 55 Building an Organization, Declaring War on the United States (1992–1996) 59 Al Qaeda’s Renewal in Afghanistan (1996–1998) 63. 3. COUNTERTERRORISM EVOLVES 71. From the Old Terrorism to the New: The First World Trade Center Bombing 71 Adaptation—and Nonadaptation— . . . in the Law Enforcement Community 73 . . . and in the Federal Aviation Administration 82 . . . and in the Intelligence Community 86. Page vi . . . and in the State Department and the Defense Department 93 . . . and in the White House 98 . . . and in the Congress 102. 4. RESPONSES TO AL QAEDA’S INITIAL ASSAULTS 108 4.1. Before the Bombings in Kenya and Tanzania 108 Crisis: August 1998 115 Diplomacy 121 Covert Action 126 Searching for Fresh Options 134 5. AL QAEDA AIMS AT THE AMERICAN HOMELAND 145. Terrorist Entrepreneurs 145 The “Planes Operation” 153 The Hamburg Contingent 160 A Money Trail? 169 6. FROM THREAT TO THREAT 174. The Millennium Crisis 174 Post-Crisis Reflection: Agenda for 2000 182 The Attack on the USS Cole 190 Change and Continuity 198 The New Administration’s Approach 203 7. THE ATTACK LOOMS 215. First Arrivals in California 215 The 9/11 Pilots in the United States 223 Assembling the Teams 231 Final Strategies and Tactics 241 8. “THE SYSTEM WAS BLINKING RED” 254. The Summer of Threat 254 Late Leads—Mihdhar, Moussaoui, and KSM 266 9. HEROISM AND HORROR 278. Preparedness as of September 11 278 September 11, 2001 285 Emergency Response at the Pentagon 311 Analysis 315. 10. WARTIME 325 10.1 Immediate Responses at Home 326 10.2 Planning for War 330 10.3 “Phase Two” and the Question of Iraq 334 11. FORESIGHT—AND HINDSIGHT 339. Imagination 339 Policy 348 Capabilities 350 Management 353 12. WHAT TO DO? A GLOBAL STRATEGY 361. Reflecting on a Generational Challenge 361 Attack Terrorists and Their Organizations 365 Prevent the Continued Growth of Islamist Terrorism 374 Protect against and Prepare for Terrorist Attacks 383 13. HOW TO DO IT? A DIFFERENT WAY OF ORGANIZING THE GOVERNMENT 399. Unity of Effort across the Foreign-Domestic Divide 400 Unity of Effort in the Intelligence Community 407 Unity of Effort in Sharing Information 416 Unity of Effort in the Congress 419 Organizing America’s Defenses in the United States 423 Appendix A: Common Abbreviations 429 Appendix B:Table of Names 431 Appendix C: Commission Hearings 439 Notes 449
For a Criminal Investigation of the Events of September 11th, 2001 The worst single criminal act ever committed on US soil, the attacks of September 11th, 2001 have served as justiﬁcation for: US invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq; a new doctrine of preventive war; the USA PATRIOT Act and Department of Homeland Security; torture and indeﬁnite detention of “enemy combatants”; surveillance of citizens without a court warrant; and shifting trillions of dollars in public spending priorities. Surveys by Zogby and Scripps-Howard found that signiﬁcant proportions of US citizens believe their own government had “actionable foreknowledge” of the attacks and “consciously failed to act” (Zogby 2004), or even that elements of the state were involved in orchestrating the attacks. The widespread disbelief in the ofﬁcial story indicates a deep crisis of trust in government, one that only an exhaustive and fearless criminal investigation can address. We ﬁrmly believe there is probable cause for such an investigation. The case for investigation is based on three pillars: 1) evidence of cover-up and a lack of serious investigation after the fact; 2) evidence of misconduct on the day of 9/11 3) evidence of foreknowledge and preparation before September 11th. Undertaking a full-scale, truly independent investigation is imperative, not only because there must be justice for the victims, but also because of the role 9/11 has played in justifying policies of aggression supposedly justifed by 9/11 must be halted, and a shattered public trust must be repaired. The 9/11 Cover-up 1 • During their 2002 inquiry, the Congressional joint intelligence committees (who redacted 1/4 of their report) were scrutinized by an FBI counter-investigation, which invaded the Senate in search of an alleged leak. It was widely believed that the FBI investigation may have been intended to have a chilling effect on the conduct of the Congressional Joint Inquiry. • The Congressional investigation failed to pursue solid evidence of a money trail to the alleged hijackers from the US-allied Pakistani intelligence agency (ISI). The ISI chief was removed from his post when strong evidence of his connection to the plot surfaced in early October 2001, but no serious punitive action was taken against him. • Evidence was destroyed or withheld, including suppression of the discovery of black boxes from the two ﬂights at Ground Zero and the destruction of tapes made by the air trafﬁc controllers who handled the same ﬂights.2 • Whistleblowers such as FBI translator Sibel Edmonds and Anthony Shaffer of “Able Danger” were disciplined or ﬁred, even as FBI, CIA, and military ofﬁcials who were blamed for failures received promotions and medals. • The September 11th relatives who lobbied for the 9/11 Commission (after 14 months of White House resistance) submitted 400 questions that Commissioners accepted as a “roadmap.” 70 percent of the questions were fully ignored in The 9/11 Commission Report. Many of the relatives later declared the Report a whitewash.3 • 9/11 Commissioner Max Cleland resigned in late 2003, calling the panel a whitewash and saying, “Bush is scamming America.” There • Philip Zelikow, the 9/11 Commission executive director who oversaw the panel’s activities, refused to step down after the September 11th families called for his resignation due to grave conﬂicts of interest (close association with Condoleezza Rice, member of White House national security staff both before 9/11 and in 2002, member of Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board). • Rice may have committed perjury in her April 2004 Commission testimony that an August 2001 Presidential Daily Brieﬁng to Bush was only of “historical signiﬁcance,” when in fact it detailed current intelligence. • The 9/11 Commission Report claimed the ﬁnancial background of the attacks was unknown, but dismissed the question as being of “little practical signiﬁcance” (page 172). Since when doesn’t an investigation “follow the money”? • Large sections of the report are based on the confessions of “enemy combatants” such as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, as provided in the form of transcripts by the government. The 9/11 Commission staff was not allowed to see or interview any of these “enemy combatants.” • Over a period of several years, NORAD, FAA, White House and military ofﬁcials gave widely divergent and conﬂicting accounts of the air defense response to 9/11, but no one was ever held accountable for upholding falsehoods. The 9/11 Commission chairs later admitted they considered a criminal investigation of NORAD’s statements, but preferred instead to present a unanimous report. • The focus of the Commission will be on the future. We’re not interested in trying to assess blame. We do not consider that part of the Commission’s responsibility. – Lee Hamilton, 9/11 Commission vice-chairman.
What occurred on September 11th, 2001 is a matter of facts, physics and unprecedented violations of national protocol by American officials themselves. Here are 10 points to consider. There are hundreds more. What occurred on September 11th, 2001 is a matter of facts, physics and unprecedented violations of national protocol by American officials themselves. Here are 10 points to consider. There are hundreds more. 1. No steel-framed building before or since 9/11 has ever collapsed due to fire. 2. No official agency (FAA, FBI, or the airlines) has ever released a list of the 9/11 passengers. But within hours, the FBI released a list of the hijackers. 3. Multiple air-defense drills were planned for the morning of 9/11. These exercises left only two fighter jets available to protect the entire Northeastern United States. 4. Building 7, a 47-story skyscraper and part of the World Trade Center complex, was not struck by a plane but collapsed in 6.5 seconds at 5:20 p.m. on September 11th, in the exact manner of a controlled demolition. 5. There was no visible airplane debris where Flight 93 supposedly crashed in Pennsylvania – only a smoking hole in the ground, much like a bomb crater. 6. Office fires burn at low temperatures of 600-800 dF. Jet fuel is an ordinary hydrocarbon; its maximal burning temperature is 1200 dF in open air. Steel melts at 2750 dF. Neither jet fuel nor the burning contents of the buildings could cause the towers’ steel structure to buckle or fail. 7. Tests have shown that cell-phone calls cannot be made at altitudes over 4000 to 8000 feet, as cell towers are located on the ground. Commercial airplanes fly at 30,000 feet and above. No passenger could have successfully placed a call for help by cell phone from an airborne plane on 9/11, as reported. 8. 9/11 was immediately declared an “act of war” by President Bush. The rubble from the Twin Towers’ collapse was carted away and the steel sold and shipped overseas without examination. 9. Enormous profits were made by insiders on plummeting stock prices of the two airlines involved in 9/11 – American and United. Federal law protects their identities. 10. Accepting victims’ compensation barred 9/11 families from further discovery through litigation. To download and print copies of this list, visit 911WeKnow.com. Pass around and engage in discussion!
NO MIXING D28402 4-1/2" (115mm) Small Angle Grinder with Paddle Switch MSC# 05474655 D28114N 4-1/2" / 5" High Performance No-Lock On Paddle Switch Grinder D28114 4-1/2" - 5" High Performance Heavy Duty Grinder MSC# 86314655 MSC# 89870778 D28112 4-1/2" (115mm) Small Angle Grinder with Slide Switch D28131 4-1/2" - 5" High Performance Grinder with Lock-on Slide Switch MSC# 01059971 MSC# 86314663 D28144N 6" High Performance Cut-Off/Grinder w/ No Lock-On Paddle Switch D28115 4-1/2" / 5" High Performance Grinder w/ Trigger Grip MSC# 52440112 MSC# 45936655 Wheels pictured with grinders above may be sold separately; please see store for details on package contents. GET THIRD ONE AT NO CHARGE Offer Valid November 23, 2012 through March 18, 2013 Must be postmarked by March 31, 2013 - By Mail-In Redemption Copyright ©2012 D EWALT. The following are examples of trademarks for one or more D EWALT power tools and accessories: the yellow and black color scheme; the “D”-shaped air intake grill; the array of pyramids on the handgrip; the kit box conﬁguration; and the array of lozenge-shaped humps on the surface of the tool. HB MSC GrinderMIR 100512.ai/GDS/TV_WMJ#12-3202 Check the DEWALT GRINDERS purchased PURCHASE TWO GRINDERS, GET THE THIRD ONE AT NO CHARGE: NO MIXING MSC ORDER # DESCRIPTION MFR’s. # 05474655 4-1/2" (115mm) Small Angle Grinder with Paddle Switch D28402 D28402 INSTANTLY WITH PURCHASE OF TWO 89870778 4-1/2" / 5" No-Lock On Paddle Switch Grinder D28114N D28114N INSTANTLY WITH PURCHASE OF TWO 86314655 4-1/2" - 5" High Performance Heavy Duty Grinder D28114 D28114 INSTANTLY WITH PURCHASE OF TWO 01059971 4-1/2" (115mm) Small Angle Grinder with Slide Switch D28112 D28112 INSTANTLY WITH PURCHASE OF TWO 86314663 4-1/2" - 5" High Performance Grinder with Lock-on Switch D28131 D28131 INSTANTLY WITH PURCHASE OF TWO 52440112 6" Cut-Off/Grinder w/ No Lock-On Paddle Switch D28144N D28144N INSTANTLY WITH PURCHASE OF TWO 45936655 4-1/2" / 5" High Performance Grinder w/ Trigger Grip D28115 D28115 INSTANTLY WITH PURCHASE OF TWO Offer Valid November 23, 2012 through March 18, 2013 - Must be postmarked by March 31, 2013 - By Mail-In Redemption - Limit of 3 Redemptions Per Customer BUY TWO GRINDERS, GET THE THIRD ONE AT NO CHARGE All of the below steps must be completed and purchases must be made between 11/23/12 and 3/18/13 and postmarked no later than March 31, 2013 to qualify for this DEWALT Mail-in Redemption. 1. Include the following items with your claim: (mail claim in a stamped envelope) • Redemption form completed in its entirety (please use capital letters). • Original MSC sales receipt(s) or sales invoice(s) dated between 11/23/12 and 3/18/13. UPC barcode (Please make a copy of your receipt(s) or invoice(s) for your own records). • Original UPC barcodes cut from the outside product packaging of the DEWALT products purchased. 3. Participant also acknowledges that purchases made and submitted in connection with this program cannot be combined with any other redemption, offer or other promotion, regardless of whether offered by DEWALT or a DEWALT authorized retailer. 4. Participant hereby acknowledges that the information provided herein is true and accurate in all material respects. 2. Please send my Bonus Grinder to: 5. Did you remember to include the following?...
Fuel injectors last a long time but, like everything else, are eventually subject to failure. The can fail in various ways, some of which can be fixed and others not. Just to give you and idea of the kind of tests and service injectors normally get by a professional, here is a list of things that were reported when I sent mine out for cleaning and testing in 1999, for $20 each (a unit of measure or the qualitative assessment indicators used is given in parentheses): • Flow for an equivalent of 15 seconds continuous operation (CC), before and after cleaning. Rate of flow is critical because the ECU depends upon the specified flow during an energizing pulse of particular duration. Since injectors are designed for pulsed rather than continuous operation they are tested by pulsing, but the results are expressed in terms of "equivalent continuous operation." Dirty injectors have lower flow rates. In my case flow rate went up by about 10% or more due to cleaning. • Leaks (OK or Leaks), before and after cleaning. Leakage can be either through the tip or internal. Tip leakage is caused by the valve not closing completely, perhaps due to dirt particles at the seat, which can't be seen without removing the injector from the car. Sometimes cleaning will resolve tip leaks. Internal leaks are when the casing breaks or something so that fuel goes where it shouldn't be. Sometimes this results in visible leakage from the plastic part of the injector body, so they can be seen without removing the injector. However, the testers rejected two of my injectors for internal leakage and I don't remember seeing any external signs, so I don't fully understand this failure mode. At any rate, cleaning won't fix this. • Spray pattern (OK, stringy, or plugged), before and after cleaning. Even if the flow rate is OK and there are no leaks an injector can develop a poor spray pattern, possible affecting combustion. I have heard of shops servicing the racers that give actual spray patterns recorded on a blotter for each injector. The service I used only say OK, Stringy, or Plugged. Four of my 12 went from Stringy to OK after cleaning. • Coil resistance (Ohms), cool and hot. The resistance of the solenoid coil is one measure of electrical soundness of an injector. I don't know everything that can happen in this category, but coil burn out is possible I suppose, in which case the resistance would be infinite. Perhaps internal leakage could result in corrosion, ...
You find within each of the two primary categories the different types of businesses you can operate. Here are a few examples of the ways in which you can generate revenue online:
Table of contents 1. Different types of pump systems 2. Three important characteristics of a pump system: pressure, friction and flow 3. What is friction in a pump system 4. Energy and head in pump systems 5. Static head 6. Flow rate depends on elevation difference or static head 7. Flow rate depends on friction 8. How does a centrifugal pump produce pressure 9. What is total head 10 What is the relationship between head and total head 11. How to determine friction head 12. The performance or characteristic curve of the pump 13. How to select a centrifugal pump Examples of total head calculations - sizing a pump for a home owner application 14. Examples of common residential water systems 15. Calculate the pump discharge pressure from the pump total head. Appendix A Flow rate and friction loss for different pipe sizes based at different velocities Appendix B Formulas and an example of how to do pipe friction calculations Appendix C Formulas and an example of how to do pipe fittings friction calculations Appendix D Formula and an example of how to do velocity calculation for fluid flow in a pipe Appendix E The relationship between pressure head and pressure... This tutorial is intended for anyone that has an interest in centrifugal pumps. There is no math, just simple explanations of how pump systems work and how to select a centrifugal pump. For those who want to do detail calculations, some examples have been included in the appendices. This tutorial answers the following questions: - What are the important characteristics of a pump system? - What is head and how is it used in a pump system to make calculations easier? - What is static head and friction head and how do they affect the flow rate in a pump system? - How does a centrifugal pump produce pressure? - Why is total head and flow the two most important characteristics of a centrifugal pump? - What is meant by the pump rating? And what is the optimal operating point of a centrifugal pump? - How to do details calculations that will allow you to size and select a centrifugal pump? - How to verify that your centrifugal pump is providing the rated pressure or head? - What is density and specific gravity and how do they relate to pressure and head? Copyright . 2005---- www.lightmypump.com---------- Revised October 9, 2007
Heart Healthy Diet: Low Fat, Low Cholesterol, Low Sodium Diet Purpose of the diet Control and / or decrease levels of cholesterol in your blood. Control and / or decrease blood pressure and / or fluid retention. Cholesterol This fat-like substance is necessary for good health. However, high levels in the blood can cause heart and blood vessel diseases. Our bodies make cholesterol. We also get it from eating foods from animals (meats, milk, eggs, cheese, butter). Foods from plants (fruits, vegetables, grains) do not contain cholesterol. Saturated fats These fats are generally solid at room temperature. They tend to increase blood cholesterol levels. Trans fatty acids These are fats that can raise cholesterol levels like saturated fat does. Trans fats are usually listed as partially hydrogenated oils. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats These fats are generally liquid at room temperature. Some can lower blood cholesterol levels. More on next page Learn more about your health care. © Copyright 2000 - March 22, 2012. The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center - Upon request all patient education handouts are available in other formats for people with special hearing, vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Page 2 How can I lower my blood cholesterol level? Decrease total fat intake, especially saturated and trans fats. Saturated fats are mainly in animal foods. Trans fats come mostly from partially hydrogenated plant oils. Foods that may contain trans fats include store bought baked goods, non-dairy whipped toppings, cream substitutes, some crackers and cookies, and many deep fried foods. To check for trans fats in a food, look for any oil that is “partially hydrogenated” in the ingredients on food labels. If a food has less than half a gram of trans fat per serving, the food manufacturer can list “zero grams of trans fat” on the food label, so it is best to check the ingredients for partially hydrogenated oils. Limit high cholesterol foods. Egg yolks, fatty meats, organ meats, butter, whole milk and other high fat dairy products are high cholesterol foods. Substitute monounsaturated fat or polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat in your diet. Monounsaturated fats include olive oil, peanut oil and canola oil. Safflower, corn and sunflower oils, and most margarines and salad dressings are examples of polyunsaturated fats. Also, fish has a higher content of polyunsaturated fat than red meat. A special note on fish: Many fish are low fat. Some fish that have a higher fat content such as salmon are high in a kind of fat called omega 3 fatty acids. This type of fat has been shown to be very heart healthy. It is recommended to eat fish three times a week for this reason. One caution: consider how you prepare it so that you don’t add large amounts of undesired fats. Baking, broiling, grilling or poaching fish is best. What is sodium? Sodium is a mineral that is necessary for good health and is present in all foods. Most people eat more sodium than they need. If the body cannot get rid of the extra sodium, fluid builds up. Extra fluid increases the work of the heart and kidneys, and may increase blood pressure. Eating less sodium may help control these problems. You will sometimes see the term sodium abbreviated "Na", as in NaCl (Sodium Chloride), which is table salt. The recommended sodium intake per day for most people is no more than 2300 milligrams (mg). For anyone who has high blood pressure, is over 50, or is African American, the sodium intake is 1,500 mg. Page 3 Sodium Guidelines To choose foods that are healthier for you, look for these labels: Sodium-free – less than 5 milligrams of sodium per serving Very low-sodium – 35 milligrams or less per serving Low-sodium – 140 milligrams or less per serving Reduced sodium – usual sodium level is reduced by 25 percent Unsalted, no salt added or without added salt – made without the salt, but still has the sodium that's a natural part of the food Know Your Salt When you are on a No Salt Added diet, even a small amount of salt has a lot of sodium in it. Amount of Sodium in Salt ¼ teaspoon salt 600 milligrams of sodium ½ teaspoon salt 1,200 milligrams of sodium ¾ teaspoon salt 1,800 milligrams of sodium 1 teaspoon salt 2,300 milligrams of sodium 1 teaspoon baking soda 1,000 milligrams of sodium How can I limit sodium?
Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. Healthy Eating Plan 1800 Calorie Plan There are many different types of eating plans available; however, the key to success is finding one that works for you. One key ingredient for a meal plan to work is consistency. Many of us fail to keep consistency in our lives or we stay consistent with bad habits. Two examples that come to mind include skipping meals and breakfast. Failure to break-the-fast every day and skipping meals improves the chance that you will fail to reach your goals. Eating breakfast and consuming small meals (4 to 6 per day) prevents binge eating, nighttime snacking, and weight gain. It also keeps your metabolic rate at an optimal pace. The body requires fuel to keep your metabolism burning. Think of metabolism as a campfire. To keep a fire burning strong, it must be fed small doses of wood (i.e., fuel). Dropping a large log onto the fire will keep the fire burning, but not as effectively as if it was fed small portions of wood. With the fire still in mind, you have to look at its preferred fuel choice. Adding paper or “empty calories”, the fire will burn through it very quickly. As a result, the fire becomes starved and must be fed very often. Now if you added a mixture of paper and wood, the fire will have enough fuel to burn for a longer period of time. The wood will satisfy the fire’s appetite more than the paper. Wood is to fire as protein is to humans. Your diet should always include a source of protein at each meal and snack. Serving Sizes Serving sizes are not designed to tell you how much you should eat at each meal, but rather, to give you a pattern with which to compare your intake with your goals. Based your specific goals, try to consume the appropriate amount of food based on the following serving sizes. Breads, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta Group One serving = 80 calories or one of the following: 1 slice bread, 2 slices “extra thin” or “diet” bread, ½ English muffin, ½ frankfurter or hamburger bun, 1 small dinner roll, ½ cup starchy vegetables, ½ cup mashed or 1 small baked potato, ½ cup cooked cereal, pasta, rice, 1 tortilla 6” across, 1 ounce cold cereal, 4-6 crackers, 3 cups air popped popcorn, 2 rice cakes or 5 mini cakes. Fruits One serving = 60-80 calories or one of the following: 1 medium portion of fresh fruit: orange, apple, banana, 2 Tbsp raisins, ¼ cup dehydrated fruit; ½ cup cooked or canned fruit, ½ cup fruit juice ...