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The all-new 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 arrive first as a crew cab, followed soon by a regular cab and a double cab, which replaces the extended cab of previous years. Early buyers can choose from either a 4.3L V6 engine or a 5.3L V8 engine. A new 6.2L V8 engine will follow later in the year. For the first time, 1500 crew cabs will be available with a longer 6’6” cargo box, in addition to the previous 5’8” cargo box, enabling customers to carry more cargo while still being able to park in many garages. Three all-new EcoTec3 engines will be offered. The EcoTec3 engines feature three state-of-the-art technologies — direct injection, V4 Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and continuously variable valve timing — to make the most of power, torque and efficiency across a broad range of operating conditions. Full-Size Truck Brake Pipe Kit All kits are pre-formed and pre-flared to aid installation. The brake pipe kits have a nylon coating that provides better All-New 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 Have Arrived. . . . . . 1 Full-Size Truck Brake Pipe Kit . . . . . . . . . . 1 New EcoTec3 Engines ACDelco recently released new hydraulic brake pipe kits for 1999-2007 Chevrolet Silverados and GMC Sierras and 1999-2006 Cadillac Escalade, Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Suburban, Chevrolet Avalanche and GMC Yukon models. These kits can be used any time the replacement of the entire brake pipe assembly is required. IN THIS ISSUE corrosion protection; and they are a lower-cost alternative to pipe replacement. The kits are not intended for the repair of a single damaged brake pipe. They are intended for the replacement of the entire brake pipe assembly due to c orrosion or wear. Service bulletin 13D-079 GMT800 details the procedures for installing these kits. It includes a part number l isting for each application. continued on page 3...
If you live in an apartment or condo and dream of cozying up by the fire, there is an ideal solution: an electric fireplace. The warm, radiant heat of today’s electric fireplaces can be purchased at the store, carried home in the back of your car and installed in minutes. Simply plug the fireplace into an outlet and you’re ready to fire it up. It’s even easy to carry an electric fireplace up a flight of stairs. Electric fireplaces are designed to be plug-andplay appliances, much like a stereo or a television. Simply turn them off and on as needed, and enjoy them when the mood hits! And with realistic fire technology that rivals a wood burning fire, the end result is snap, crackling great! BEAUTIFUL FIRE FOR WARMER CLIMATES Electric fireplaces make having a fire possible no matter the time of year…and, for just pennies a day. On a warm night, simply turn on the fire – minus the heat – and in seconds you can be basking in the glow of the fire while still sitting in your shorts. Then, when evening temperatures dip, turn on the heat option to take the chill off. Electric fireplaces work well in colder climates, as well. With variable heat controls, you can create enough heat to warm your toes or crank it up to keep a 400 square foot space at a comfortable temperature. And, because it requires no venting, an electric fireplace is perfect for locations where installing a fireplace is tricky, such as basements. those who desire a more traditional design, there are electric fireplaces that mimic wood or gas burning fireplaces, complete with mantel, fireplace surround and doors. From Victorian details to classic lines, there are many options for traditional homes. IDEAL ELECTRIC LOCATIONS: • • • • • Condos Cabins RVs Dens Entertainment centers • Town homes • Mobile homes • Basements • Bedrooms • Offices • Cottages Realistic Crackling: Pop a CD of crackling sounds into the stereo to simulate the sounds of a fire while enjoying your electric fireplace. EURO-MODERN STYLING, OR NOT The design of an electric fireplace can be modern or traditional. Electric fireplaces can be found with angular lines, unique shapes and “Austin Powers” features. These Euro-styled fireplaces can include frosted glass beads instead of logs, and fire in shades of pink, blue and red. Yet, for For a list of specialty retailers, visit www.hpba.org. Electric Fireplace Checklist on reverse side
Wall Ovens Warmer Drawers Induction Built-In Range Cooktops EW30IS65J S Featuring Wave-Touch® Controls & Induction Cooktop 30" INDUCTION BUILT-IN RANGE Yes 1 1 1 1 Yes Yes Ceramic Glass Smoothtop 10" Induction Cooking Element – 2500W / 3400W 8" Induction Cooking Element – 2400W / 3400W 7" Induction Cooking Element – 1900W / 2600W 6" Induction Cooking Element – 1500W / 1900W Hot-Surface Indicator Light Surface Controls Oven Features More Energy-Efficient Cooking with induction is 70% more efficient than gas and 20% more efficient than electric. Capacity Hidden Bake Element Eight-Pass Bake Element – 2500 Watts Eight-Pass Broil Element – 4000 Watts Convection Element – 2500 Watts Cobalt Blue Interior Self-Clean Options with Door Lock Perfect Convect3® with Variable 2-Speed Fan Cooking Modes – Bake, Broil, Convection Bake, Convection Roast, Convection Broil, Keep Warm, Slow Cook Baking Options – Perfect Turkey®, Defrost, Dehydrate, Bread Proof, My Favorites, Multi-Stage Cooking, Temperature Probe, Rapid Preheat, Delay Bake, Convection Convert Luxury-Design® Lighting with Dual 40W Halogen Bulbs Luxury-Glide® Racks Conventional Racks Convection Roasting Rack 4.2 Cu. Ft. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 3 Yes Freestanding Ranges Induction Cooktop Features Microwaves Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 7 10 Yes 2 1 Yes Vent Hoods Wave-Touch® Electronic Oven Control Perfect Set® Element Controls Keypad Entry of Time & Temperature Electronic Clock & Timer Temperature Display Automatic Oven (Delay, Cook & Off) Built-In Ranges Control Panel Features Accessories Optional Specifications Exceptional Temperature Control Adjust heat with greater accuracy than gas or electric cooktops, especially at lower settings. Perfect for melting chocolate and cooking delicate foods and sauces. Cooking Flexibility The sensors automatically detect the presence of magnetic cookware, activate the induction field and adjust it to the exact size of the pan. Color – Stainless Steel Oven Cavity Dimensions – Height Width Depth Product Dimensions – Height (Adjustable) Width Depth (to Center of Arc) (with 90° Door Open) Power Supply Connection Location Connected Load (kW Rating) @ 240 / 208 Volts Amps @ 240 / 208 Volts Minimum Circuit Required (Amps) Shipping Weight (Approx.) S Refrigerators Included Included 16-1/2" 24-1/8" 18-1/32" 35-5/8" – 36-5/8" 30" 28-5/16" 45-1/2" Left Bottom Rear 13.2 / 9.9 55 / 48 50 258 Lbs. *When properly installed, meets the appliance standards in the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines as published by the United States Access Board on June 23, 2004, as amended August 5, 2005. NOTE: Always consult local and national electric codes. Refer to Product Installation Guide for detailed installation instructions on the web at electroluxappliances.com. Specifications subject to change. electroluxappliances.com Freezers Porcelain Broiler Pan and Insert Cleaning Sponge 2" Rear Filler Kit, Side Panel Kit, Backguard Kit, Side Trim Kit – See Back for Part Numbers Under Counter Cooking with induction is more responsive than gas or electric — you can instantly adjust the heat to a delicate simmer or bring it to a quick boil. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Washers / Dryers More Responsive Luxury-Hold™ Oven Door Extra-Large Glass Window Perfect Pair Lower Oven® Adjustable Leveling Legs Sabbath Mode (Star-K® Certified) A.D.A. Compliant* Dishwashers / Kitchen Cleanup Additional Features Induction Built-In Range EW30IS65J S 30" Induction Built-In Range Specifications Countertop Preparation • Product For detailed preparation instructions, refer to installation guide on the web. • Flat square-finish (flat) countertop requires no preparation since rangetop flange lays directly on countertop edge. • Formed front-edged countertops require front molded edge to be shaved flat 3/4" from each front corner of opening. • Tile countertops may need cut back 3/4" from each front corner of opening and / or rounded edge flattened. • For existing cutout width greater than 30-1/16" reduce the 3/4" overlap dimension or for cutout width of 29", replace actual side trim panels with smaller side trim panels, available with optional Side Trim Kit (refer to detailed kit installation instructions). Weight – 238 Lbs. phase 3- or 4-wire cable, 120 / 240 or 120 / 208 Volt, 60 Hertz, fused on both sides of line with ground. (If local code permits, range may be connected by hard-wiring or by means of power supply cord kit.) • Connected Load (kW Rating) @ 240 / 208 Volts = 13.2 / 9.9 kW • Amps @ 240 / 208 Volts = 55 / 48 Amps • Recommended Circuit Breaker – 50 Amps • Always consult local and national electric codes. • Countertop MUST be level in all directions and adjustable range height at least 1/16" greater than tallest cabinet height, to ensure metal rangetop flange will fit properly on countertop edge. • When installing optional Backguard Kit, cutout depth of 21-3/4" minimum / 22-1/8" maximum needs increased to 24". • Overhead cabinetry should not exceed a 13" maximum depth. • Absolute minimum horizontal distance between overhead cabinets installed to either side of appliance must be no less than maximum width of appliance. • Allow 24" minimum clearance between rangetop and bottom of cabinet when bottom of wood or metal cabinet is protected by not less than 1/4" flame-retardant millboard covered with not less than No. 28 MGS sheet steel, 0.015" stainless steel, 0.024" aluminum or 0.020" copper. Allow 30" minimum clearance when cabinet is unprotected. • To reduce risk of fire when using overhead cabinetry, install range hood that projects horizontally a recommended minimum of 5" beyond bottom of cabinets. • When installing range into existing cutout depth greater than 22-1/8", optional 2" Rear Filler Kit available. • Single Note: For planning purposes only. Refer to Product Installation Guide on the web at electroluxappliances.com for detailed instructions.
KEL-VARIA – Complete machining in ultimate quality 28 different wheelheads universal diagonal tandem types Workhead n 8-800 min-1 with work holder MT5 / ASA5 DIN 55026 #5 Wheelhead with ﬁxed intermediate section manual indexing 2.5° automatic indexing 1° B-axis 2 Workhead with rotating spindle, only n 8-800 min-1 with work holder MT5 / ASA5 DIN 55026 #5 KEL-SET automatic grinding wheel measuring system F Hydrostatics X- and Z- guideways no stick slip good damping Cooling system for a stable machine hydrostatics wheelhead spindles Design separation of base and infrastructure no external inﬂuences on machining processes Transportation hook machine rapid commissioning of machine C-axis for unround components and threads Swivel angle display for manual swivelling of the workhead Hydrostatic guideways eliminating any «stick-slip» effect and providing excellent damping for smooth operation Weight of workpiece up to 150 kg Centre height 175 / 225 mm Distance between centres 800 / 1000 / 1500 mm Grinding length 600 / 1000 / 1500 mm Spindle drive 10 kW / 2 x 10 kW Grinding wheel dimensions 400 x 63 x 127 mm 500 x 80 (100) x 203 mm Tailstock adjustment range +/- 150 µm morse taper 4 retraction of sleeve 50 mm Swivelling dressing unit operated with an additional B-axis for special proﬁles Flushing of base pan for good conveyance of grinding dust prevents dirt deposits 3 Product range KEL-VIVA – The innovative grinding system 4 2 different wheelheads UR-wheelhead – B-axis R-wheelhead – ﬁxed intermediate section Workhead n 8-800 min-1 with work holder MT5 / ASA5 DIN 55026 #5 C-axis for unround components and threads B-axis automatic inﬁnitely variable positioning of the wheelhead indirect measuring KEL-SET automatic grinding wheel measuring system F Swivel angle display for manual swivelling of the workhead Hydrostatics X- and Z-guideways no stick slip good damping Cooling system for a stable machine electrical cabinet wheelhead spindle Tailstock adjustment range +/- 60 µm morse taper 4 retraction of sleeve 48 mm Hydrostatic guideways eliminating any «stick-slip» effect and providing excellent damping for smooth operation Weight of workpiece up to 100 kg Centre height 175 mm Distance between centres 800 / 1000 mm Grinding lenght 600 / 1000 mm Spindle drive 7,5 kW Grinding wheel dimensions 400 x 63 x 127 / 500 x 80 x 203 mm Flushing of base pan for good conveyance of grinding dust prevents dirt deposits Design separation of base and infrastructure no external inﬂuences on machining processes KEL-TOUCH Gap Control with up to 3 sensors operation and display integrated in the control system Transportation hook machine rapid commissioning of machine KEL-BALANCE semi automatic balancing for 1 or 2 wheel / s operation and display integrated in the control system 5 Product range KEL-VISION – The small production machine 6 2 different wheelheads URS-wheelhead RS-wheelhead Workhead n8-800 min-1 work holder MT5 / ASA5 DIN 55026 #5 manual ﬁne adjustment for corrections of parallelism B-axis precision bearings distortion-free clamping Workhead with rotating spindle, only n8-800 min-1 with work holder MT 5 / ASA 5 DIN 55026 #5 Indexing manual indexing 2,5° automatic indexing 1° Ev. neue Montage C-axis high speed cycle unround workpieces thread KEL-SET automatic grinding wheel measuring system Design design of stationary table with X- and Z-axes underneath the wheelhead Design separation of base and infrastructure no external inﬂuences on machining processes Transportation hook machine rapid commissioning of machine Tailstock morse taper 4 retraction of sleeve 50 mm Stationary table with X- and Z-axes underneath the wheelhead (classical guideways) Weight of workpiece up to 100 kg Centre height 125 mm Distance between centres 760 mm Grinding length 430 mm Spindle drive 7,5 / 10 kW Grinding wheel dimensions 400 x 63 x 127 mm 500 x 80 (100) x 203 mm High frequency dressing device for rotating dressing tools Equipment Arobotech-steady-rest loading systems The machine design results in easy maintenance and gives good access to the infrastructure 7 Product range KEL-VISTA – The economical universal CNC machine 8 UR-wheelhead for external, internal and face grinding Workhead n8-800 min-1 with work holder MT5 / ASA5 DIN 55026 #5 R-wheelhead for external cylindrical grinding Thread external thread internal thread RS-wheelhead for Angular infeed grinding grinding lengths 400 / 800 mm Swivel angle display for manual swivelling of the workhead Hydrodynamic multi-surface spindle bearings high-accuracy spindle bearings, pre-stressed
product! A ThankyoufrpcsigMKI Congratulations on choosing a MAKITA chain saw! We are conÞdent that you will be satisÞed with this modern piece of equipment. The DCS3500-DCS4301 are very handy and robust chain saws with a new Design. The automatic chain lubrication with variable-ßow oil pump and maintenance-free electronic ignition ensure trouble-free operation, while the hand-saving anti-vibration system and ergonomic grips and controls make work easier, safer, and less tiring for the user. The Featherlight-Start system lets you start the saw effortlessly with a spring-loaded starting assist. For some countries the saw is also equipped with a catalytic converter. This reduces the amount of pollutants in the exhaust, and meets European Guideline 2002/88/EG. MAKITA chain saws DCS3500-DCS4301 are equipped with the latest safety features and meet all national and international standards. These features include: hand guards on both handles, grip throttle lever lock, chain catch, safety saw chain, and chain brake. The chain brake can be actuated manually, and is also inertia-actuated automatically in case of kickback.
Important: Read this instruction manual carefully before putting the chain saw into operation and strictly observe the safety regulations! Only persons who have completed training in working from elevated platforms (cherry pickers, lifts), from platforms mounted on ladders or who are proﬁcient in climbing with ropes are permitted to operate this chain saw. Keep this Instruction Manual! Congratulations on choosing a MAKITA chain saw! We are conﬁdent that you will be satisﬁed with this modern piece of equipment. The DCS3410TH (Tophandle) is a very light and handy chain saw with the handle on the top. This model was developed especially for tree surgery and care. Only persons who have completed training in working from elevated platforms (cherry pickers, lifts), from platforms mounted on ladders or who are proﬁcient in climbing with ropes are permitted to operate this chain saw. The automatic chain lubrication with variable-ﬂow oil pump and maintenance-free electronic ignition ensure trouble-free operation, while the hand-saving anti-vibration system and ergonomic grips and controls make work easier, safer, and less tiring for the user. The safety features of the DCS3410TH are state of the art and meet all German and international safety standards. They include handguards on both grips, grip safety, chain catch, safety saw chain, and chain brake. The chain brake can be actuated manually, and is also inertia-actuated automatically in case of kickback. In order to ensure the proper functioning and performance of your new chain saw, and to safeguard your own personal safety, it is imperative that you read this instruction manual thoroughly before operation. Be especially careful to observe all safety precautions! Failure to observe these precautions can lead to severe injury or death! EU Conformity Declaration The undersigned, Tamiro Kishima and Rainer Bergfeld, as authorized by DOLMAR GmbH, declare that the MAKITA machines, Type: 170 EU prototype test certiﬁcate No. DCS3410TH M6T 09 06 24243 098 manufactured by DOLMAR GmbH, Jenfelder Str. 38, 22045 Hamburg, Germany, conforms to the basic safety and health requirements of the applicable EU guidelines: EU Machinery Directive 98/37/ EG, EU EMC Directive 2004/108/ EG, Outdoor Noise Directive 2000/14/EG. Starting on 29 Dec. 2009, Directive 2006/42/EG will come into force, replacing Directive 98/37/EG. This product meets the requirements of the new Directive. The most important standards applied to properly meet the requirements of the above EU Directive were: EN 14982, EN ISO 11681-2, EN 61000-4-2, EN 61000-4-3, CISPR 12. The conformity assessment procedure 2000/14/EG was performed per Annex V. The measured noise level (Lwa) is 106 dB(A). The guaranteed noise level (Ld) is 108 dB(A). The EU Type-Examination Certiﬁcate was performed by: TÜV Product Service GmbH, Zertiﬁzierungsstelle, Ridlerstraße 31, D-80339 München.
Variable Valve Timing (VVT) Market categories the global market by Component Features (Direct Starter, Enhanced Starter, Belt-driven Alternator Starter (BAS), Integrated Starter Generator (ISG)), by Cam phasing, Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) & by Geography
Lesson Objectives 1. Explain the function of engine vacuum in providing brake assist to the master cylinder. 2. Perform the following booster tests using the brake pedal: − operating test − air tightness check − air tightness under load 3. Using a brake booster push rod gauge SST, measure booster push rod clearance and determine needed adjustment. 4. List the symptoms of an improperly adjusted booster push rod. Section 5 Brake Booster The brake booster is designed to create a greater braking force from a minimum pedal effort, using a difference in atmospheric pressure and the engine’s manifold vacuum. It increases the pedal force 2 to 4 times depending on the size of the diaphragm. The brake booster is located between the brake pedal and the master cylinder. When pressure is applied to the brake pedal, pressure is exerted on the booster air valve. With pressure created by the booster the master cylinder is applied. Should the booster malfunction, the normal mechanical braking force of the master cylinder is maintained. Construction The brake booster consists of the body, booster piston, piston return spring, reaction mechanism, and control valve mechanism. The body is divided into a constant pressure chamber and a variable pressure chamber. The chambers are separated from each other by a diaphragm. The control valve mechanism regulates the pressure inside the variable pressure chamber. Single Diaphragm Booster The body is divided into a constant pressure chamber and a variable pressure chamber separated from each other by a diaphragm. 42 LEXUS Technical Training Brake Booster Basic Booster The basic principle of the brake booster is pressure differential. When Operation vacuum is applied to both sides of the piston, the piston is pushed to the right by the spring and remains there. Control Valve Closed When vacuum is applied to both sides of the piston, the piston is pushed to the right by the spring. When atmospheric air is allowed into chamber B the piston starts to compress the spring, due to the difference in pressure, and moves to the left. This causes the piston rod to move the piston of the master cylinder, generating hydraulic pressure. Control Valve Open When atmospheric air is allowed into chamber (A), the piston starts to compress the spring due to the difference in pressure. Booster Air Valve In the OFF position, the Air Valve (connected to the Valve Operating Operation Rod) is pulled to the right by the Air Valve Return Spring. The Control Valve is pushed to the left by the Control Valve Spring. This causes the Air Valve to contact the Control Valve. Therefore, the atmospheric air that passes through the air cleaner element is prevented from entering the Variable Pressure Chamber. Section 5 The piston’s Vacuum Valve is separated from the Control Valve in this position, providing an opening between passage A and passage B. Since there is always vacuum in the Constant Pressure Chamber, the opening allows vacuum into the Variable Pressure Chamber. As a result, the piston is pushed to the right by the piston return spring. Booster Air Valve Brakes Not Applied The Vacuum Valve is open allowing vacuum on both sides of the booster piston. In the ON position, when the brake pedal is depressed, the Valve Operating Rod pushes the Air Valve to the left. The Control Valve which is pushed against the Air Valve by the Control Valve Spring, moves to the left until it touches the Vacuum Valve. This blocks off the opening between passage A and passage B (Constant Pressure Chamber (A) and Variable Pressure Chamber (B)). Booster Air Valve Brakes Applied The vacuum valve is closed, cutting off the vacuum source to the variable pressure chamber....
Name Address Phone Email RESEARCH INTERESTS Distribute Systems Control Robust Decentralization Control Mechantronics and Artificial Intelligence Optimization and Robust Control Robotics and Control Precision Engineering Intelligent Control Metrology Automation Applied Nonlinear Control System Identification Vibration Analysis and Control TEACHING INTERESTS Kinematics and Dynamics Feedback Control Mechatronics Nonlinear Control Introduction to Robotics Vibration Analysis and Control Optimization and System Identification Robust Control EDUCATION Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, 2003 Dissertation Title: Modeling and Control of a Flexible Cable System Overall GPA: 3.43/4.0. Major GPA: 3.52 M.S. in Precision Instrument Engineering, Tianjin University, 2000 Thesis Title: A Novel Design of Highway Retroreflector Measurement Devise. Overall GPA: 82.35/100. Major GPA: 87.1/100 B.S. in Precision Instrument Engineering, Tianjin University, 1994 Thesis Title: Research on the Microcomputer Controlled Pressure Measuring System. B.A. minor in Humanities and Social Sciences, Tianjin University, 1994 Thesis Title: The Position of Futurology in the History of Western Philosophy. RESEARCH EXPERIENCE Research Assistant, University of Delaware, 2002-2003 • Developed the model for compliant cable systems with varying cable lengths. • Designed a Lyapunov controller to suppress the vibration of cables. The controller guaranteed the stability of the system and assured the goal of the slider. • Designed a robust controller on the experimentally identified model using H control and LQG/miniMax methodology. • Conducted experiments on flexible six order-of-freedom cable suspended robots using dSPACE 1103 systems with real-time workshop, where the differential flatness theory was applied to calculate the positive tension inputs. • Designed an EKG measurement device for laboratory instruments class. Intern Researcher, Australia Defense Force Academy, 2002 • Designed and successfully implemented robust controller for a flexible cable transporter system, and dramatically reduced the residual vibration. • Derived the model of flexible cable systems using subspace identification t theory. NAME Page 2 of 6 Research Assistant, Tianjin University 1997-2000 • Designed an automatic retroreflector measuring device including mechanical design, electrical circuit design, and optical system for highway applications. • Directed two undergraduate students’ research and supervised their thesis. • Composed the funding proposals which amounted to $50,000. • Taught undergraduate class, supervised experiments and graded assignments. TEACHING EXPERIENCE Graduate Assistant, Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, 2001-2001. • Maintained the homepage for the department, using HTML/mSQL languages. • Led group discussions, prepared the experiment instrumentation, graded their assignments, and video recording presentations for the senior design 2000 class. Assistant Lecturer for introductory electronics experiment, Tianjin University • Preparation of the experimental procedure, setup of the experimental apparatus, providing the introduction of the experiment, responding to their questions they encountered in the experiment, and grading their reports. • Students rated my lecture 4.5 out of 5 point scale. INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE Intern Software Engineer, Zhongxing Communication Inc, Shanghai, 2000. • Developed one module of switchboard software for fee-charging purpose. Project Leader, Daewoo Company, Seoul, 1996-1997. • Directed and administrated the training process of a fifteen-member group. • Exhibited leadership while enhancing teamwork to achieve stated goals. Mechanical Design Engineer, Qingdao Brown-Sharpe Inc., 1994-1996. • Conceptualized and designed prototype of Coordinate Measuring Machine. • Conducted FEM/FEA of the frame and the outer cover of the CMMs. • Enhanced the frame rigidity and the measurement accuracy dramatically by proposing novel ideas and improving previous design. COMPUTER SKILLS Operating Systems: Computer Languages: Scientific Applications: Technical Drawing: Office Applications: Internet Development: Database: ...
Artificial turf has been around now for several decades. It can be argued that artificial turf was originally developed to address the limitations of natural grass. However, the earliest versions were not designed for football and changed the game dramatically. Therefore, football never thoroughly embraced the idea of high-level competition matches on artificial surfaces. The breakthrough came when manufacturers started to develop surfaces specifically designed for football. Manufacturers have now developed a turf that mirrors real grass. In order to get away from the short, tightly packed matting of the earlier generation, nowadays, the concept is to produce longer and more thinly spaced tufts and most of the systems are infilled with sand for support and rubber granules to give bounce. This newest generation of artificial turf has proven to be the most favourable for football to date. FIFA realised that, as the game’s global popularity increases, so the climate plays a greater part in limiting its development. Players in countries at the extreme ends of the temperature range will not necessarily benefit from the predominanace of natural grass turf. With the deployment of football turf, FIFA has recognised the enormous benefits artificial pitches would bring to the global development of football, not only because artificial turf can be used in more extreme climates, but because where a pitch is used intensively it can be used almost 24 hours a day and seven days a week. Due to the numerous manufacturers and installers involved worldwide, all using slightly different systems, the performance of artificial pitches could be extremely variable. Therefore FIFA, as the world governing body of football, wants to ensure that there is a recognised international standard for football turf pitches and in 2001 introduced, the FIFA Quality Concept for Football Turf. This quality testing scheme uses real turf as its benchmark and awards the FIFA RECOMMENDED Marks to those pitches that meet the very stringent quality criteria. FIFA now feels it is appropriate to use “Football Turf“ as the designation for products installed as part of the FIFA Quality Concept. The main reasons for this are because it emphasizes the high-quality pitches that are certified as part of the programme and because the playing characteristics on “Football Turf“ mirror the quality of natural grass pitches, which is required to play the game on a very high level.