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What is abdominal pain? Ordinarily, we are unaware of any of the actions of the organs in the abdomen or any discomfort from activities such as eating, movement of food through the intestines, or bowel movements. Nerves are constantly monitoring activities in the body, and when those messages are transmitted to the brain and come into consciousness as unpleasant sensations, we may sense pain or discomfort. What causes abdominal pain? Pain can arise from any of the structures within the abdomen or the abdominal wall. In addition, pain messages originating in the chest, back, or pelvis can sometimes be perceived as coming from the abdomen. For example, patients with heart attacks or pneumonia sometimes complain of upper abdominal pain rather than chest pain. There are many possible causes of pain. The table shows some of the more common causes of pain: Non-abdominal causes: Pneumonia (lung infection) Myocardial infarction (heart attack) Pleurisy (irritation of the lining around the lungs) Pulmonary embolism (blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of the rib cartilages) Injury (blunt trauma, muscle pulls) Nerve irritation (neuropathy) Hernias (protrusions of structures through the abdominal wall) Scars © The American College of Gastroenterology 6400 Goldsboro Rd., Suite 450, Bethesda, MD 20817 P: 301-263-9000 F: 301-263-9025 Internet: www.acg.gi.org
A 4-year-old boy was brought to the emergency department with a long history of constipation and recent onset of abdominal pain. His mother stated that he did not have diarrhea, vomiting, or fever, but noted that “his belly is getting hard.” He had a small bowel movement 2 days previously. On the day of presentation, he woke up with abdominal pain. The patient previously had been in good health and had regularly seen his pediatric primary care physician. He had never had surgery or an illness requiring hospitalization. Physical Examination On examination, the following vital signs were obtained: oral temperature, 98.5°F; heart rate, 145 bpm; respiratory rate, 30 breaths/min; blood pressure, 108/59 mm Hg. He was pale and appeared to be uncomfortable due to the abdominal pain. The abdominal examination revealed a large mass in the right side of his abdomen. The mass was firm and slightly tender. He also had guarding. He had bilaterally descended testicles and no evidence of inguinal hernias. His musculoskeletal and neurologic examinations showed normal results, and skin examination revealed decreased turgor and coolness of peripheral extremities, with no rashes, bruising, or petechiae.
Abdominal Complaints in School Age Children Michael A. D’Amico, MD Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition May 16, 2012 Objectives • Become familiar with common causes of abdominal complaints in school age children • Understand the therapeutic approach to these conditions • Know when to make appropriate referrals • Explore presentation content further with Q & A’s Statements • No financial disclosures • I may be discussing off-label use of some medications Common Abdominal Complaints • Developmental level of child – introspection • Comfort level • Social context Often difficult to express or verbalize precise sensation Common Complaints (symptoms) • Pain – Most common – Vague • Don’t feel well, My tummy hurts, Hunger, Nausea • Upset stomach • Constipation – Hard to go, takes a long time going • Diarrhea
Diagnostic Laparoscopy for Chronic Abdominal Pain Richmond University Hospital, July 2012 David A Vivas, MD www.downstatesurgery.org Case Presentation HPI • 25 y/o female with no significant PMH who was seen in clinic c/o intermittent, moderate to severe, dull abdominal pain, located in epigastric area and right abdomen for the last 3 years. Patient denied any other symptoms (N/V, weight loss) • PMH: None • PSH: None www.downstatesurgery.org Case Presentation • Work up: • EGD: No pathologic findings • RUQ US: No gallstones or other biliary or liver pathology • Pelvic US: No GYN pathology www.downstatesurgery.org Case Presentation • Work up: • CT scan abdomen and pelvis with PO/IV contrast: • Probable diverticulum in the ascending colon • Otherwise unremarkable www.downstatesurgery.org Case Presentation • Work up: • Colonoscopy: • 0.5 cm sessile, friable mass in the distal ascending colon • Mass was removed with cold technique • Area was tattooed with India ink and sent to pathology • Rest of the study was unremarkable for any pathology
Copyright © 2006 Ulrich R. Orth and Keven Malkewitz All rights reserved Ulrich R. Orth, Prof. Dr. habil. (primary contact) Agribusiness & Food Marketing Professor College of Business Oregon State University Bexell Hall 330, Corvallis, OR 97331-2603 Phone: (503) 678 1264, x44 Fax: (503) 678 5986 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Keven Malkewitz, PhD Assistant Professor of Marketing College of Business Oregon State University 410 Bexell Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331-2603 Phone: (541) 737 3688 E-mail: email@example.com The authors wish to thank Andrea Marks, Jay Thompson, and Joseph Cote for their comments during this research, Cindy Lederer for providing access to the Oregon Consumer Panel and numerous professional designers for their input. Financial support and assistance in collecting the data was provided in part by Willamette Valley Vineyards, particularly Jim Bernau, Shelby Zadow, and Jon Mason. Please direct all inquiries to the first author.
Ksenia Polyakova Packaging design as a Marketing tool and Desire to purchase, 72 pages, 2 appendices Saimaa University of Applied Science Faculty of Business Administration, Lappeenranta Degree Programme in International Business Bachelor’s Thesis 2013 Instructor: Mr. Riku Hytönen Senior Lecturer, Saimaa University of Applied Sciences The purpose of the study was to examine the consumer perception on different design elements of a milk package and to provide essential information for the companies about the consumer attraction and importance of design attributes from the consumer point of view. The theoretical framework was based on the secondary data (articles and books) and included core concepts of packaging, packaging design, consumer behavior, consumer perception, and consumer attraction. The mixed method was selected for acquiring and analyzing the research results. Quantitative data was collected from 30 questionnaire responses and was analyzed with the computer program Excel. Qualitative data was obtained from two interviews conducted with the companies, Valio Ltd and Tetra Pak Ltd. The results of the study revealed the importance of packaging design in consumer buying behavior. By examining the consumer perception, it was found out that packaging design elements such as graphics, color, and product information play a key role in decision making and ensure consumer’s attention. Based on the findings, it was defined that successful milk packaging design could be created by the cooperation between the consumer and the company. Further research could investigate other product packages’ design elements.
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