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Centrifugal pump A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure of a fluid. Centrifugal pumps are commonly used to move liquids through a piping system. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from where it exits into the downstream piping system. Centrifugal pumps are used for large discharge through smaller heads. History Warman centrifugal pump in a Coal Handling and Preparation Plant (CHPP) application According to Reti, the Brazilian soldier and historian of science, the first machine that could be characterized as a centrifugal pump was a mud lifting machine which appeared as early as 1475 in a treatise by the Italian Renaissance engineer Francesco di Giorgio Martini. True centrifugal pumps were not developed until the late 17th century, when Denis Papin made one with straight vanes. The curved vane was introduced by British inventor John Appold in 1851. How it works Like most pumps, a centrifugal pumps converts mechanical energy from a motor to energy of a moving fluid; some of the energy goes into kinetic energy of fluid motion, and some into potential energy, represented by a fluid pressure or by lifting the fluid against gravity to a higher level. The transfer of energy from the mechanical rotation of the impeller to the motion and pressure of the fluid is usually described in terms of centrifugal force, especially in older sources written before the modern concept of centrifugal force as a fictitious force in a rotating reference frame was well articulated. The concept of centrifugal force is not actually required to describe the action of the centrifugal pump. In the modern centrifugal pump, most of the energy conversion is due Cutaway view of centrifugal pump to the outward force that curved impeller blades impart on the fluid. Invariably, some of the energy also pushes the fluid into a circular motion, and this circular motion can also convey some energy and increase the pressure at the outlet. The relationship between these mechanisms was described, with the typical mixed conception of centrifugal force as known as that time, in an 1859 article on centrifugal pumps, thus: Centrifugal pump To arrive by a simpler method than that just given at a general idea of the mode of action of the exterior whirlpool in improving the efficiency of the centrifugal pump, it is only necessary to consider that the mass of water revolving in the whirlpool chamber, round the circumference of the wheel, must necessarily exert a centrifugal force, and that this centrifugal force may readily be supposed to add itself to the outward force generated within the wheel; or, in other words, to go to increase the pumping power of the wheel. The outward force generated within the wheel is to be understood as being produced entirely by the medium of centrifugal force if the vanes of the wheel be straight and radial; but if they be curved, as is more commonly A centrifugal pump uses a spinning "impeller," the case, the outward force is partly produced through the which normally has backward-swept blades that medium of centrifugal force, and partly applied by the vanes to directly push water outward. the water as a radial component of the oblique pressure, which, in consequence of their obliquity to the radius, they apply to the water as it moves outwards along them. On this subject it is well to observe that while the quantity of water...
Table of contents 1. Different types of pump systems 2. Three important characteristics of a pump system: pressure, friction and flow 3. What is friction in a pump system 4. Energy and head in pump systems 5. Static head 6. Flow rate depends on elevation difference or static head 7. Flow rate depends on friction 8. How does a centrifugal pump produce pressure 9. What is total head 10 What is the relationship between head and total head 11. How to determine friction head 12. The performance or characteristic curve of the pump 13. How to select a centrifugal pump Examples of total head calculations - sizing a pump for a home owner application 14. Examples of common residential water systems 15. Calculate the pump discharge pressure from the pump total head. Appendix A Flow rate and friction loss for different pipe sizes based at different velocities Appendix B Formulas and an example of how to do pipe friction calculations Appendix C Formulas and an example of how to do pipe fittings friction calculations Appendix D Formula and an example of how to do velocity calculation for fluid flow in a pipe Appendix E The relationship between pressure head and pressure... This tutorial is intended for anyone that has an interest in centrifugal pumps. There is no math, just simple explanations of how pump systems work and how to select a centrifugal pump. For those who want to do detail calculations, some examples have been included in the appendices. This tutorial answers the following questions: - What are the important characteristics of a pump system? - What is head and how is it used in a pump system to make calculations easier? - What is static head and friction head and how do they affect the flow rate in a pump system? - How does a centrifugal pump produce pressure? - Why is total head and flow the two most important characteristics of a centrifugal pump? - What is meant by the pump rating? And what is the optimal operating point of a centrifugal pump? - How to do details calculations that will allow you to size and select a centrifugal pump? - How to verify that your centrifugal pump is providing the rated pressure or head? - What is density and specific gravity and how do they relate to pressure and head? Copyright . 2005---- www.lightmypump.com---------- Revised October 9, 2007
The all-new 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 arrive first as a crew cab, followed soon by a regular cab and a double cab, which replaces the extended cab of previous years. Early buyers can choose from either a 4.3L V6 engine or a 5.3L V8 engine. A new 6.2L V8 engine will follow later in the year. For the first time, 1500 crew cabs will be available with a longer 6’6” cargo box, in addition to the previous 5’8” cargo box, enabling customers to carry more cargo while still being able to park in many garages. Three all-new EcoTec3 engines will be offered. The EcoTec3 engines feature three state-of-the-art technologies — direct injection, V4 Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and continuously variable valve timing — to make the most of power, torque and efficiency across a broad range of operating conditions. Full-Size Truck Brake Pipe Kit All kits are pre-formed and pre-flared to aid installation. The brake pipe kits have a nylon coating that provides better All-New 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 Have Arrived. . . . . . 1 Full-Size Truck Brake Pipe Kit . . . . . . . . . . 1 New EcoTec3 Engines ACDelco recently released new hydraulic brake pipe kits for 1999-2007 Chevrolet Silverados and GMC Sierras and 1999-2006 Cadillac Escalade, Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Suburban, Chevrolet Avalanche and GMC Yukon models. These kits can be used any time the replacement of the entire brake pipe assembly is required. IN THIS ISSUE corrosion protection; and they are a lower-cost alternative to pipe replacement. The kits are not intended for the repair of a single damaged brake pipe. They are intended for the replacement of the entire brake pipe assembly due to c orrosion or wear. Service bulletin 13D-079 GMT800 details the procedures for installing these kits. It includes a part number l isting for each application. continued on page 3...
The report identifies major end user industries and provides power rental revenue estimates from each major end user industries for all geographic regions and major countries.
[244 Pages Report] Combustion Controls, Equipment & Systems Market Report categories the global market By Product (Boilers, Thermal Oxidizers, Incinerators, Gas Turbines), Systems, Monitoring & Control Instruments), Application & Geography.
When you find yourself a landlord you may have a duty to ensure that the home you rent out is safe and equipped with all of the vital electricals.
Setting up the wireless speaker adapter 1. Connect the power supply to the wireless speaker adapter. 2. Plug the power supply into an AC outlet. 3. Connect the wireless speaker adapter to powered speakers or an AV receiver using the included Y-cable. 4. Press the connect button on the wireless speaker adapter to place it in Bluetooth® pairing mode. 5. The wireless speaker adapter connects to smart phones, tablets, and Bluetooth-enabled computers. Put your Bluetooth device in pairing mode. (Refer to the documentation that comes with your device for pairing instructions.) If your Bluetooth device requests a security code, PIN, or pass code, enter 0000. The Bluetooth connection is made. You’re ready to play some music. For PC users: Specifying the wireless speaker adapter as the default audio output device for your operating system Windows® XP 1. Go to the Start/Control Panel/Sounds and Audio Devices/Audio tab. 2. In the Sound Playback/Default Device window, choose Logitech Wireless Speaker Adapter. 3. Click OK, and then restart your media application. Windows® Vista and Windows® 7 1. Go to the Start/Control Panel/Hardware and Sound/Sound/Playback Devices tab. 2. Choose Playback Devices, and then choose Logitech Wireless Speaker Adapter. 3. Click Set Default, and then click OK. 4. Restart your media application. Mac® OS X 1. Open System Preferences. 2. Select the Sound/Output tab. 3. Select Logitech Wireless Speaker Adapter. 4. Restart your media application. Wireless connection indications Einrichten des Wireless Speaker Adapter 1. Schließen Sie das Stromkabel an den Adapter an. 2. Schließen Sie das Stromkabel an eine Steckdose an. 3. Schließen Sie den Wireless Speaker Adapter mithilfe des mitgelieferten Y-Kabels an Lautsprecher mit eigenem Stromanschluss oder an einen AVEmpfänger an. 4. Drücken Sie die Verbindungstaste auf dem Adapter, um ihn in den Bluetooth®-Pairing-Modus zu versetzen. 5. Der Wireless Speaker Adapter kann eine Verbindung zu Smartphones, Tablet-PCs und Bluetooth-fähigen Computern herstellen. Versetzen Sie Ihr Bluetooth-Gerät in den Pairing-Modus. (In der Dokumentation zu Ihrem Gerät finden Sie Anweisungen zum Pairing.) Falls Ihr Bluetooth-Gerät Sie zur Eingabe eines Sicherheitscodes, einer PIN oder eines Passcodes auffordert, geben Sie 0000 ein. Die Bluetooth-Verbindung wurde hergestellt. Sie können jetzt Musik hören. Für PC-Benutzer: Einrichten des Wireless Speaker Adapter als Standardgerät für die Audioausgabe auf Ihrem Betriebssystem Windows® XP 1. Klicken Sie auf „Start > Systemsteuerung > Sounds und Audiogeräte“ und wählen Sie die Registerkarte „Audio“. 2. Wählen Sie im Abschnitt „Soundwiedergabe“ unter „Standardgerät“ den Logitech Wireless Speaker Adapter. 3. Klicken Sie auf „OK“ und starten Sie Ihre Multimedia-Anwendung neu. Windows® Vista und Windows® 7 1. Klicken Sie auf „Start > Systemsteuerung > Hardware und Sound > Sound“ und wählen Sie die Registerkarte „Wiedergabegeräte“. 2. Wählen Sie „Wiedergabegeräte“ und anschließend Logitech Wireless Speaker Adapter. 3. Klicken Sie auf „Als Standard“ und anschließend auf „OK“. 4. Starten Sie die Multimedia-Anwendung neu. Mac® OS X 1. Öffnen Sie die Systemeinstellungen. 2. Wählen Sie die Registerkarte „Ton/Ausgabe“. 3. Wählen Sie den Logitech Wireless Speaker Adapter. 4. Starten Sie die Multimedia-Anwendung neu.
CAUTION! ELECTRIC SHOCK HAZARD • Read these instructions. • Keep these instructions. • Heed all warnings. • Follow all instructions. • Do not use this apparatus near water. • Clean only with dry cloth. • Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. • Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus (including amplifiers) that produce heat. • Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two blades with one wider than the other. A grounding type plug has two blades and a third grounding prong. The wide blade or the third prong is provided for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet. • Protect the power cord from being walked on or pinched particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the apparatus. • Only use attachments/accessories specified by the manufacturer. • Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or when unused for long periods of time. • Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the apparatus has been damaged in any way, such as power-supply cord or plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects have fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate normally, or has been dropped. • Do not push objects into apparatus vents or slots because fire or electric shock hazards could result. • No naked (open) flame sources, such as lighted candles, should be placed on or near the apparatus. • The device has been evaluated for use in tropical and moderate climates only. • The apparatus shall not be exposed to dripping or splashing. No objects filled with liquids, such as vases, shall be placed on or near the apparatus. • Place apparatus in a stable location so it will not fall causing product damage or bodily harm. • Operate the apparatus only from the low level audio line output jack of the computer or of an audio device. • If headphone jack is provided, the following warning should be observed: Excessive or extended sound pressure from earphones and headphones can cause hearing damage or loss. Listen at reasonable volume level. • For portable apparatus or apparatus weighing 7kg (15 lbs) or less: the product label may be affixed under a lid, on the exterior of the bottom, or on the stands of the apparatus. • The apparatus shall be disconnected from the mains by placing the power/ standby switch in the standby position and unplugging the power cord of the apparatus from the AC mains receptacle. • The socket-outlet (receptacle) shall be installed near the equipment and shall be easily accessible and the AC mains disconnect device (plug) shall remain readily operable. • Due to environmental concerns, please follow battery disposal recycling instructions following at the end of the product life. • Danger of explosion if the remote control battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with the same or equivalent type.
Never spill liquid of any kind onto or into the product. To avoid damage of internal components and to prevent battery leakage, do not place the product on a vibrating surface. Never use it under sporting, exercising, or any vibrating environment which will probably cause unexpected short current or damage rotor devices, HDD, Optical drive, and even exposure risk from lithium battery pack. · · · Using electrical power · This product should be operated from the type of power indicated on the marking label. If you are not sure of the type of power available, consult your dealer or local power company. Do not allow anything to rest on the power cord. Do not locate this product where people will walk on the cord. If an extension cord is used with this product, make sure that the total ampere rating of the equipment plugged into the extension cord does not exceed the extension cord ampere rating. Also, make sure that the total rating of all products plugged into the wall outlet does not exceed the fuse rating. Do not overload a power outlet, strip or receptacle by plugging in too many devices. The overall system load must not exceed 80% of the branch circuit rating. If power strips are used, the load should not exceed 80% of the power strip's input rating. This product's AC adapter is equipped with a three-wire grounded plug. The plug only fits in a grounded power outlet. Make sure the power outlet is properly grounded before inserting the AC adapter plug. Do not insert the plug into a non-grounded power outlet. Contact your electrician for details. · · · · Warning! The grounding pin is a safety feature. Using a power outlet that is not properly grounded may result in electric shock and/or injury. v Note: The grounding pin also provides good protection from unexpected noise produced by other nearby electrical devices that may interfere with the performance of this product. · Use the product only with the supplied power supply cord set. If you need to replace the power cord set, make sure that the new power cord meets the following requirements: detachable type, UL listed/CSA certified, type SPT-2, rated 7 A 125 V minimum, VDE approved or its equivalent, 4.6 meters (15 feet) maximum length. Product servicing Do not attempt to service this product yourself, as opening or removing covers may expose you to dangerous voltage points or other risks. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Unplug this product from the wall outlet and refer servicing to qualified service personnel when: · the power cord or plug is damaged, cut or frayed · · · · · liquid was spilled into the product the product was exposed to rain or water the product has been dropped or the case has been damaged the product exhibits a distinct change in performance, indicating a need for service the product does not operate normally after following the operating instructions Note: Adjust only those controls that are covered by the operating instructions, since improper adjustment of other controls may result in damage and will often require extensive work by a qualified technician to restore the product to normal condition. Guidelines for safe battery usage This notebook uses a Lithium-ion battery. Do not use it in a humid, wet or corrosive environment. Do not put, store or leave your product in or near a heat source, in a high temperature location, in strong direct sunlight, in a microwave oven or in a pressurized container, and do not expose it to temperatures over 60°C (140°F). Failure to follow these guidelines may cause the battery to leak acid, become hot, explode or ignite and cause injury and/or damage. Do not pierce, open or disassemble the battery. If the battery leaks and you come into contact with the leaked fluids, rinse thoroughly with water and seek medical attention immediately. For safety reasons, and to prolong the lifetime of the battery, charging will not occur at temperatures below 0°C (32°F) or above 40°C (104°F). The full performance of a new battery is achieved only after two or three complete charge and discharge cycles.. Your user manual ACER ASPIRE 5315 Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
This wiring kit is designed for ease of installation. Please read the guidelines below, BEFORE STARTING your installation, to guarantee a successful job! Use an appropriate crimping tool which folds the crimp "wings" on the terminals as shown below. ALL TERMINALS THAT YOU INSTALL SHOULD BE PROPERLY SOLDERED. Our Hood & trunk lights Door jamb switches Custom battery cables Master disconnect switch High quality 100 amp alternators Terminals, connectors, grommets, light sockets Adjustable Fuel Warning Module Billet turn signal switch Neutral safety switch Glove box light LED lights ...AND MUCH MORE ! terminations. wire core end view of terminal OPTIONAL ACCESSORY KITS proper crimp of terminal STEP 1: DISCONNECT YOUR BATTERY : Disconnect the battery before installing the wiring kit to prevent any accidental shorting caused by loose bare wire ends. Brake Switch Brake Switch control Electric cooling fan relay kit p/n 500097 p/n 500145 Button type, 2 blade contact to operate brake lights Button type, 4 blade contact to operate brake lights and cruise p/n 500479 Kit with relay and wiring. STEP 2: START INSTALLING KIT: Neutral Safety switch (GM ) Universal Relay Kit p/n 500104 p/n 500142 GM TH400, TH350, 700R4. Use for any heavy duty application requiring a relay. Glove Box Kit Headlight Extension p/n 18000 Complete assembly with plunger switch. p/n CE57001 Complete OEM style headlight wiring with correct molded grommet for fender feed through. sheets visible through each bag. These letters are the order of operation for installing y our kit. Start with the bag letter "G", then "H", etc. The order of installation is shown below. G H J K L M N 500433 500436 500418 500533 500432 500417 500471 Dash Harness Kit Gauge Cluster Kit Engine Kit Park / Headlamp Connection Kit Front Light Kit Rear Body Kit Courtesy Light Connection Kit STEP 3: RECONNECT YOUR BATTERY: When you have completed the installation and are ready to reconnect the battery, make sure that the following electrical system grounds are in place: ...