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As companies deal with ever larger amounts of data and increasingly demanding workloads, a new class of databases has taken hold. Dubbed “NoSQL”, these databases trade some of the features used by traditional relational databases in exchange for increased performance and/or partition tolerance. But as NoSQL solutions have proliferated and differentiated themselves (into key-value stores, document databases, graph databases, and “NewSQL”), trying to evaluate the database landscape for a particular class of problem becomes more and more difficult. In this paper we attempt to answer this question for one specific, but critical, class of functionality – applications that need the highest possible raw performance for a reliable storage engine. There have been a few attempts to provide standardized tools to measure performance or other characteristics, but these have been hobbled by the lack of a clear mandate on exactly what they’re testing, plus an inability to measure load at the highest volumes. In addition, there is an implicit tradeoff between the consistency and durability requirements of an application and the maximum throughput that can be processed. What is needed is not an attempt to quantify every NoSQL solution into one artificial bucket, but a more systemic analysis of how some of these databases can achieve under assumptions that mirror real-world application needs. We attempted to provide a comprehensive answer to one specific set of use cases for NoSQL databases -- consumer-facing applications which require extremely high throughput and low latency, and whose information can be represented using a key-value schema. In particular, we look at two common scenarios.

Tags:
Nosql, Security and Encryption,

Hibernia Atlantic announced plans Thursday to build a new trans-Atlantic communications cable aimed at high-frequency Traders at the NYSE on May 6. stock traders, shaving 310 miles from the shortest existing route and cutting execution times by about 8%. The cable group's plan is the latest effort to link financial centers with new infrastructure, providing ever-faster trading times, and would be the first new line across the Atlantic in more than a decade. The trans-Atlantic market is WASl-IINGTON--/\ ruport Oil th\' world's second-busiest for fiIhl' May (j "Ilaxh cr.tsh' in II\(' u.uuial trades after LondonIIX stock m.ukct ~lilllS 10 giv(' ;1 Frankfurt. 1\ lWW, shorter cable route developed by Spread Netdefinitive, second-by-second account of the sudden plunge and works recently was opened on is likely to blame a confluence of the third-ranked New York-Chifactors rather than a single cul- cago corridor. prit, people familiar with the reClosing the Gap port said. "There has been a gap in the Atlantic market," said Mike By Jessica Holzer, Saunders, Hibernia Atlantic's Sarah N. Lynch vice president for business deAnd Kara Scannell velopment. Hibernia Atlantic has yet to The report by the staff of the Securities and Exchange Com- sign any definitive customer mission and the Commodity Fu- contracts for the project. It is tures Trading Commission is set targeting high-frequency traders and related financial firms with to be released within days. A draft of the report circuround-trip speeds of less than 60 milliseconds, compared with 65 lated to SEC commissioners didn't call for any specific policy milliseconds using the existing changes, said a person who has AC-1 trans-Atlantic network. Mr. Saunders said the comseen it. Rather, the report attempts to pany aims to start construction explain how market conditions next spring and complete the led to a sudden plunge in the 3,720-mile cable running from Dow Jones Industrial Average of Somerset in southern England to nearly 1,000 points, wiping out Halifax on Canada's eastern searoughly $862 billion in equityboard by mid-2012.

Tags:
Wall Street Journal, Journal,

Today the Wall Street Journal published a letter to the editor from Commission chair Judge Patti B. Saris regarding Mortimer Zuckerman’s op-ed “Harsh Sentencing, Overstuffed Prisons—It’s Time for Reform” (May 3, 2014): Sentencing Guidelines Are Being Intelligently Adjusted The amendment originated with the U.S. Sentencing Commission and is something we carefully considered over several years. Regarding Mortimer Zuckerman’s “Harsh Sentencing, Overstuffed Prisons—It’s Time for Reform” (op-ed, May 3): Mr. Zuckerman mentions a Justice Department sentencing panel proposing an amendment to federal guidelines. In fact, it was the U.S. Sentencing Commission, an independent, bipartisan agency that is part of the judicial branch, which voted unanimously on April 10 to amend the federal sentencing guidelines to modestly reduce sentences for the majority of federal drug offenders. We appreciated the support for this change from the Justice Department and others ranging from bipartisan members of Congress to the Federal Public and Community Defenders to Right on Crime, but the amendment originated with the commission and is something we carefully considered over several years. This amendment has been transmitted to Congress and unless Congress acts to disapprove, it will go into effect Nov. 1, 2014. The federal sentencing guidelines are advisory but carry substantial weight in determining federal sentences. The amendment reduces the guideline levels assigned to most drug-trafficking offenders based on the quantity of drugs involved in the offense. The commission determined that the guideline levels for drug quantity no longer needed to be so high. We estimate that our amendment will affect the sentences of almost 70% of federal drugtrafficking offenders and reduce their sentences by 11 months on average. These sentence reductions will correspond to a reduction in the federal prison population of approximately 6,500 inmates within five years and many more over time. The commission carefully weighed public safety concerns, and based on past experience, existing laws and guidelines and expert testimony it concluded that the amendment should not jeopardize public safety. Our amendment is modest in scope; only Congress can change statutory mandatory minimum penalties. But we believe it is an important start.

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Wall Street Journal, Journal,

Die Aktiengesellschaft zeichnet sich unter anderem dadurch aus, dass Geldgeber und Betriebsverantwortliche in grosser Distanz voneinander entfernt sind; diese beiden Funktionen werden in der Aktiengesellschaft nicht in Personalunion abgedeckt, wie dies in zum Beispiel in Einzelfirmen oder Kollektivgesellschaften gegeben ist. Diese Feststellung bezieht sich auf die Aktiengesellschaft als Publikumsgesellschaft, deren Kapitalanteile an der Börse gehandelt werden. Eine Familiengesellschaft, die den überwiegenden Teil des Kapitals in der selben Familie hält, erfüllt zwar dieses Merkmal nicht, ist aber gegenüber der Öffentlichkeit im folgenden aufgeführten Punkt der Haftung trotzdem in gleichem Masse verpflichtet: Die Aktiengesellschaft haftet in ihrer Eigenschaft als juristische Person lediglich mit ihrem eigenen Vermögen - eine weitergehende Haftung der Aktionäre besteht eben gerade nicht (und seien sie privat noch vermögend). Zum Schutz ihrer Gläubiger (= diejenigen, die ein Guthaben geltend machen können) bestehen für die Aktiengesellschaft bezüglich der Gewinnverwendung und Buchführung genauere und verschärfte Vorschriften. Die Swiss GAAP FER (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Fachempfehlungen zur Rechnungslegung) hat entsprechende fachliche Richtlinien erarbeitet (http://www.fer.ch/de/index.htm). Die Börse stellt die Bedingung, dass die bei ihr gehandelten Papiere diese fachlichen Richtlinien einhalten: http://www.six-exchange-regulation.com/regulation/listing_rules_de.html Kotierungsreglement Die einschlägigen gesetzlichen Vorschriften zum Jahresabschluss in der Aktiengesellschaft finden sich im OR, wie dies im Folgenden näher erläutert wird:...

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Jahresabschluss, Business and Economy,

The following procedures are to be followed for scoring student answer papers for the Regents Examination in Algebra 2/Trigonometry. More detailed information about scoring is provided in the publication Information Booklet for Scoring the Regents Examinations in Mathematics. Do not attempt to correct the student’s work by making insertions or changes of any kind. In scoring the open-ended questions, use check marks to indicate student errors. If the student’s responses for the multiple-choice questions are being hand scored prior to being scanned, the scorer must be careful not to make any stray marks on the answer sheet that might later interfere with the accuracy of the scanning. Unless otherwise specified, mathematically correct variations in the answers will be allowed. Units need not be given when the wording of the questions allows such omissions. Each student’s answer paper is to be scored by a minimum of three mathematics teachers. No one teacher is to score more than approximately one-third of the open-ended questions on a student’s paper. On the student’s separate answer sheet, for each question, record the number of credits earned and the teacher’s assigned rater/scorer letter. Schools are not permitted to rescore any of the open-ended questions on this exam after each question has been rated once, regardless of the final exam score. Schools are required to ensure that the raw scores have been added correctly and that the resulting scale score has been determined accurately. Raters should record the student’s scores for all questions and the total raw score on the student’s separate answer sheet. Then the student’s total raw score should be converted to a scale score by using the conversion chart that will be posted on the Department’s web site at: http://www.p12.nysed.gov/apda/ on Tuesday, June 19, 2012.

Tags:
Algebra trigonometry, Education,

ALGEBRA 2/ TRIGONOMETRY Friday, June 14, 2013 — 1:15 – 4:15 p.m. SAMPLE RESPONSE SET Table of Contents Practice Papers—Question 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Practice Papers—Question 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Practice Papers—Question 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Practice Papers—Question 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Practice Papers—Question 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Practice Papers—Question 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Practice Papers—Question 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Practice Papers—Question 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Practice Papers—Question 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Practice Papers—Question 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Practice Papers—Question 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Practice Papers—Question 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Practice Papers—Question 28 28 Determine the sum and the product of the roots of the equation 12x2 ϩ x Ϫ 6 ϭ 0. Score 2: The student has a complete and correct response. Algebra 2/Trigonometry – June ’13 [2] Practice Papers—Question 28 28 Determine the sum and the product of the roots of the equation 12x2 ϩ x Ϫ 6 ϭ 0. Score 1: The student made a computational error by omitting a negative sign. Algebra 2/Trigonometry – June ’13 [3] Practice Papers—Question 28 28 Determine the sum and the product of the roots of the equation 12x2 ϩ x Ϫ 6 ϭ 0. Score 1: The student made a conceptual error by using the expression Algebra 2/Trigonometry – June ’13

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Algebra trigonometry, Education,

SAMPLE RESPONSE SET Table of Contents Question 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Question 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Question 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Question 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Question 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Question 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Question 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Question 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Question 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Question 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Question 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Question 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Question 28 28 Show that sec θ sin θ cot θ ϭ 1 is an identity. Score 2: The student has a complete and correct response. Algebra 2/Trigonometry – Jan. ’14 [2] Question 28 28 Show that sec θ sin θ cot θ ϭ 1 is an identity. Score 1: 1 sin θ The student made a substitution error by replacing _____ with _____ . Algebra 2/Trigonometry – Jan. ’14 tan θ [3] cos θ Question 28 28 Show that sec θ sin θ cot θ ϭ 1 is an identity. Score 0: The student made multiple errors when substituting for sec θ and sin θ. Algebra 2/Trigonometry – Jan. ’14 [4] Question 29 29 Find, to the nearest tenth of a square foot, the area of a rhombus that has a side of 6 feet and an angle of 50°. Score 2: The student has a complete and correct response. Algebra 2/Trigonometry – Jan. ’14

Tags:
Algebra trigonometry, Education,

This review was originally written for my Calculus I class but it should be accessible to anyone needing a review in some basic algebra and trig topics. The review contains the occasional comment about how a topic will/can be used in a calculus class. If you aren’t in a calculus class you can ignore these comments. I don’t cover all the topics that you would see in a typical Algebra or Trig class, I’ve mostly covered those that I feel would be most useful for a student in a Calculus class although I have included a couple that are not really required for a Calculus class. These extra topics were included simply because the do come up on occasion and I felt like including them. There are also, in all likelihood, a few Algebra/Trig topics that do arise occasionally in a Calculus class that I didn’t include. Because this review was originally written for my Calculus students to use as a test of their algebra and/or trig skills it is generally in the form of a problem set. The solution to the first problem in a set contains detailed information on how to solve that particular type of problem. The remaining solutions are also fairly detailed and may contain further required information that wasn’t given in the first problem, but they probably won’t contain explicit instructions or reasons for performing a certain step in the solution process. It was my intention in writing the solutions to make them detailed enough that someone needing to learn a particular topic should be able to pick the topic up from the solutions to the problems. I hope that I’ve accomplished this.

Tags:
Algebra trigonometry, Education,

Algebra 2 and Trigonometry is a new text for a course in intermediate algebra and trigonometry that continues the approach that has made Amsco a leader in presenting mathematics in a modern, integrated manner. Over the last decade, this approach has undergone numerous changes and refinements to keep pace with ever-changing technology. This textbook is the final book in the three-part series in which Amsco parallels the integrated approach to the teaching of high school mathematics promoted by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in its Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and mandated by the New York State Board of Regents in the Mathematics Core Curriculum. The text presents a range of materials and explanations that are guidelines for achieving a high level of excellence in their understanding of mathematics. In this book: ✔ The real numbers are reviewed and the understanding of operations with irrational numbers, particularly radicals, is expanded. ✔ The graphing calculator continues to be used as a routine tool in the study of mathematics. Its use enables the student to solve problems that require computation that more realistically reflects the real world. The use of the calculator replaces the need for tables in the study of trigonometry and logarithms. ✔ Coordinate geometry continues to be an integral part of the visualization of algebraic and trigonometric relationships. ✔ Functions represent a unifying concept throughout. The algebraic functions introduced in Integrated Algebra 1 are reviewed, and exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions are presented. ✔ Algebraic skills from Integrated Algebra 1 are maintained, strengthened, and expanded as both a holistic approach to mathematics and as a bridge to advanced studies. ✔ Statistics includes the use of the graphing calculator to reexamine range, quartiles, and interquartile range, to introduce measures of dispersion such as variance and standard deviation, and to determine the curve that best represents a set of bivariate data.

Tags:
Algebra trigonometry, Education,