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An input amplifier for a FM-radio receiver with RF selection (88-108 MHz) has been designed in the radio project. It has about 25 dB gain in the frequency rang 88-108 MHz. Mirror frequency rejection is between 5 dB to 9 dB. Noise figure is about 7 dB at resonant frequency. The amplifier works well, when it is connected to the rest of circuits to receive FM broadcast signals. The input amplifier with RF selection (88-108 MHz) should have low noise, high gain and frequency selection. The specification of the amplifier is as follows:low noise, maximum 2dB more than Fmin gain: Gt ≥ |S21|2 mirror frequency rejection: 20 dB generator impedance: 50Ω load impedance: 50Ω ... In order to fulfill the specification, an appropriate transistor was first chosen and its S-parameters were measured. The input stage has been designed by using a common-emitter amplifier. To compromise between gain and noise, an appropriate operating point is necessary. The amplifier has an inductor tap parallel resonant circuit at its collector to restore the amplifier gain. The frequency of the parallel resonant circuit can be shifted by changing the value of the parallel capacitor. The detail of the project design will be described in chapter 2. Different measurements and results can be found in chapter 3, followed by the conclusion in chapter 4. Chapter 5 is acknowledgement and reference is in chapter 6. In the project, BFR92A transistor is used. It has high power gain, low noise figure and low intermodulation distortion. To compromise between gain and noise, an appropriate operating point should be first considered. From figure 1 (gain as a function of collector current), figure 2 (gain as a function of frequency) and figure 3 (minimum noise figure as a function of frequency), an appropriate operating point was decided. IC = 10mA, VCE = 10V. The values of Fmin and opt for the operating point are not available in the datasheet, but from circles of constant noise figure for other operating points, one can see that Fmin in the project is between 1.7 dB and 2.4 dB.
The TDA7000 is a monolithic integrated circuit for mono FM portable radios, where a minimum on peripheral components is important (small dimensions and low costs). The IC has an FLL (Frequency-Locked-Loop) system with an intermediate frequency of 70 kHz. The i.f. selectivity is obtained by active RC filters. The only function which needs alignment is the resonant circuit for the oscillator, thus selecting the reception frequency. Spurious reception is avoided by means of a mute circuit, which also eliminates too noisy input signals. Special precautions are taken to meet the radiation requirements. The TDA7000 includes the following functions: • R.F. input stage • Mixer • Local oscillator • I.F. amplifier/limiter • Phase demodulator • Mute detector • Mute switch QUICK REFERENCE DATA 2,7 to 10 V Supply voltage range (pin 5) VP Supply current at VP = 4,5 V IP typ. R.F. input frequency range frf 1,5 to 110 MHz 8 mA Sensitivity for -3 dB limiting (e.m.f. voltage) (source impedance: 75 Ω; mute disabled) EMF typ. 1,5 µV EMF typ. 200 mV Signal handling (e.m.f. voltage) (source impedance: 75 Ω) A.F. output voltage at RL = 22 kΩ Vo PACKAGE OUTLINE 18-lead DIL; plastic (SOT102HE); SOT102-1; 1996 July 24. May 1992 2 typ. 75 mV Philips Semiconductors Product speciﬁcation FM radio circuit TDA7000 Fig.1 Block diagram. May 1992 3 Philips Semiconductors Product speciﬁcation FM radio circuit TDA7000 RATINGS Limiting values in accordance with the Absolute Maximum System (IEC 134) Supply voltage (pin 5) VP max. 12 V Oscillator voltage (pin 6) V6-5 Total power dissipation see derating curve Fig.2 Storage temperature range Tstg Operating ambient temperature range Tamb VP−0,5 to VP + 0,5 V −55 to +150 °C 0 to + 60 °C Fig.2 Power derating curve. D.C. CHARACTERISTICS VP = 4,5 V; Tamb = 25 °C; measured in Fig.4; unless otherwise speciﬁed... A.C. CHARACTERISTICS VP = 4,5 V; Tamb = 25 °C; measured in Fig.4 (mute switch open, enabled); frf = 96 MHz (tuned to max. signal at 5 µV e.m.f.) modulated with ∆f = ± 22,5 kHz; fm = 1 kHz; EMF = 0,2 mV (e.m.f. voltage at a source impedance of 75 Ω); r.m.s. noise voltage measured unweighted (f = 300 Hz to 20 kHz); unless otherwise speciﬁed... Signal handling (e.m.f. voltage) for THD < 10%; ∆f = ± 75 kHz Signal-to-noise ratio Total harmonic distortion AM suppression of output voltage (ratio of the AM output signal referred to the FM output signal) FM signal: fm = 1 kHz; ∆f = ± 75 kHz AM signal: fm = 1 kHz; m = 80% Ripple rejection (∆VP = 100 mV; f = 1 kHz) Oscillator voltage (r.m.s. value) at pin 6 Variation of oscillator frequency ∆fosc...
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET TEA5710; TEA5710T AM/FM radio receiver circuit Product speciﬁcation File under Integrated Circuits, IC01 March 1994 Philips Semiconductors Product speciﬁcation AM/FM radio receiver circuit TEA5710; TEA5710T FEATURES APPLICATIONS • Wide supply voltage range: 2.0 to 12 V • Portable AM/FM radio • Low current consumption: 7.5 mA at AM, 9.0 mA at FM • Clock radio • High selectivity with distributed IF gain • Personal headphone radio • LED driver for tuning indication • High input sensitivity: 1.6 mV/m (AM), 2.0 µV (FM) for 26 dB S/N DESCRIPTION The TEA5710 is a high performance Bimos IC for use in AM/FM radios. All necessary functions are integrated: from AM and FM front-end to detector output stages. • Good strong signal behaviour: 10 V/m at AM, 500 mV at FM • Low output distortion: 0.8% at AM, 0.3% at FM • Designed for simple and reliable PC-board layout • High impedance MOSFET input on AM QUICK REFERENCE DATA Conditions AM: fi = 1 MHz; m = 0.3; fm = 1 kHz; VP = 3.0 V; measured in Fig.4 with S1 in position B and S2 in position A, unless otherwise speciﬁed. Conditions FM: fi = 100 MHz; ∆f = 22.5 kHz; fm = 1 kHz; VP = 3.0 V; measured in Fig.4 with S1 in position B and S2 in position A, unless otherwise speciﬁed. SYMBOL... FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The TEA5710 incorporates internal stabilized power supplies. The maximum supply voltage is 12 V, the minimum voltage can go down temporarily to 1.8 V without any loss in performance. The AM circuit incorporates a double balanced mixer, a one pin low-voltage oscillator (up to 30 MHz), a field-strength dependent indicator output and is designed for distributed selectivity. The AM input is designed to be connected to the top of a tuned circuit. AGC controls the IF amplification and for large signals it lowers the input impedance. The first AM selectivity can be an IFT as well as an IFT combined with a ceramic filter; the second one is an IFT. The FM circuit incorporates a tuned RF stage, a double balanced mixer, a one-pin oscillator, a field-strength indicator output and is designed for distributed IF ceramic filters. The FM quadrature detector uses a ceramic resonator. March 1994
CHAPTER 4 RF/IF CIRCUITS INTRODUCTION SECTION 4.1: MIXERS THE IDEAL MIXER DIODE-RING MIXER BASIC OPERATION OF THE ACTIVE MIXER REFERENCES SECTION 4.2: MODULATORS SECTION 4.3: ANALOG MULTIPLIERS REFERENCES SECTION 4.4: LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIERS REFERENCES SECTION 4.5: TRUE-POWER DETECTORS SECTION 4.6: VARIABLE GAIN AMPLIFIER VOLTAGE CONTROLLED AMPLIFIERS X-AMPS DIGITALLY CONTROLLED VGAs REFERENCES SECTION 4.7: DIRECT DIGITAL SYNTHESIS DDS ALIASING IN DDS SYTEMS DDS SYSTEMS AS ADC CLOCK DRIVERS AMPLITUDE MODULATION IN A DDS SYSTEM SPURIOUS FREE DYNAMIC RANGE CONSIDERATIONS REFERENCES SECTION 4.8: PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS PLL SYNTHESIZER BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS THE REFERENCE COUNTER THE FEEDBACK COUNTER, N FRACTIONAL-N SYNTHESIZERS NOISE IN OSCILLATOR SYSTEMS PHASE NOISE IN VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS LEESON'S EQUATION CLOSING THE LOOP PHASE NOISE MEASUREMENTS REFERENCE SPURS CHARGE PUMP LEAKAGE CURRENTS... BASIC LINEAR DESIGN SECTION 4.8: PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS (cont.) REFERENCES 4.73 RF/IF CIRCUITS INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 4: RF/IF CIRCUITS Introduction From cellular phones to 2-way pagers to wireless Internet access, the world is becoming more connected, even though wirelessly. No matter the technology, these devices are basically simple radio transceivers (transmitters and receivers). In the vast majority of cases the receivers and transmitters are a variation on the superheterodyne radio shown in Figure 4.1 for the receiver and Figure 4.2 for the transmitter.
The September 11 Travel Operation The success of the September 11 plot depended on the ability of the hijackers to obtain visas and pass an immigration and customs inspection in order to enter the United States. It also depended on their ability to remain here undetected while they worked out the operational details of the attack. If they had failed on either count—entering and becoming embedded—the plot could not have been executed. Here we present the facts and circumstances of the hijackers’ travel operation, including their 25 contacts with consular officers and their 43 contacts with immigration and customs authorities. We also discuss the 12 contacts with border authorities by other September 11 conspirators who applied for a visa. The narrative is chronological, retracing the hijackers’ steps from their initial applications for U.S. visas, through their entry into the United States, to their applications for immigration benefits, and up through their acquisition of state identifications that helped them board the planes. Along the way, we note relevant actions by U.S. government authorities to combat terrorism. There were a few lucky breaks for U.S. border authorities in this story. Mostly, though, it is a story of how 19 hijackers easily penetrated U.S. border security. Overview of the hijacker’s visas The 9/11 hijackers submitted 23 visa applications during the course of the plot, and 22 of these applications were approved. The hijackers applied for visas at five U.S. consulates or embassies overseas; two of them were interviewed. One consular officer issued visas to 11 of the 19 hijackers. Of the eight other conspirators in the plot who sought visas, three succeeded, but only one of the three later sought to use the visa to enter the United States. Hijackers Nawaf al Hazmi and Khalid al Mihdhar were the first to submit visa applications because they were originally slated to be pilots. The four hijackers who did become pilots applied for visas in 2000. The remaining “muscle” hijackers applied in the fall of 2000 through the spring and summer of 2001, three applying twice. Most of the hijackers applied with new passports, possibly to hide travel to Afghanistan recorded in their old ones. It is likely that many of the hijackers’ passports contained indicators of extremism or showed ties to al Qaeda. However, this intelligence was not developed prior to 9/11, and thus State Department personnel reviewing visa applications were not trained to spot these indicators of a terrorist connection. Visa decisions for the hijackers and conspirators were consistent with a system that focused on excluding intending immigrants and depended on checking a database of names to search for criminals and terrorists. Overview of the hijackers’ entries The hijackers successfully entered the United States 33 of 34 times, with the first arriving on January 15, 2000, at Los Angeles International Airport. All others entered through ...
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Congratulations on your purchase of the Ear Force PX51 from Turtle Beach. You now have in your possession a premium product that will bring your gaming experience to a whole new level, heightening your senses, sharpening your reflexes and enhancing your communications. Welcome to excellence! Package Contents Digital Optical Cable Headset Charging Cable USB Transmitter Power Cable USB Data Cable Xbox Talkback Cable RF Transmitter PX51 Headset Mobile Device Cable FOR / POUR XBOX 360® | PS3™ Quick Start Guide For the full user guide, please go to http://www.turtlebeach.com/products/PX51 Presets Reference Package Contents | Contenu de la boîte Download Black Ops II optimized presets or customize your own with the tools available from TurtleBeach.com. Pre-loaded Presets Featuring a re-engineered DSP (digital signal processing) architecture, the default pre-loaded presets below are re-engineered for enhanced audio effects. PX51 Headset and RF Transmitter PX51 casque et l’émetteur RF Digital Optical Cable Câble optique numérique USB Transmitter Power Cable USB Data Cable Câble d’alimentation USB USB Câble de programmation FOR / POUR ® | PS3 ™ XBOX 360 Presets Reference Download new presets or customize your own with the software from Tango TurtleBeach.com T U RT LE E ACH.COM B Xbox Talkback Cable Câble casque Charge Presets Reference Headset Charging Cable Turtle Beach Sticker Mobile Device Cable Câble casque Charge Vignette Turtle Beach Câble Périphénique Mobile Presets Reference référence Presets Quick Start Guide Turtle Beach Sticker
Congratulations on your purchase of the Ear Force XP510 from Turtle Beach. You now have in your possession a premium product that will bring your gaming experience to a whole new level, heightening your senses, sharpening your reflexes and enhancing your communications. Welcome to excellence! Package Contents XP510 Headset RF Transmitter XBA Bluetooth® Adapter Headset Charging Cable Digital Optical Cable USB Transmitter Power Cable Mobile Device Cable USB Data Cable FOR / POUR XBOX 360® | PS3™ Presets Reference Download Black Ops II optimized presets or customize your own with the tools available from TurtleBeach.com. Pre-loaded Presets Featuring a re-engineered DSP (digital signal processing) architecture, the default pre-loaded presets below are re-engineered for enhanced audio effects. Presets Reference Quick Start Guide Turtle Beach Sticker 4 Feature/Function Map (Location of controls/inputs) Headset 1. ain M 2. ower/Pair P 1 3. ame Presets G
Congratulations on your purchase of the Z SEVEN gaming headset from Turtle Beach. Well played. This premium product is designed to bring unmatched realism and effects to your gaming experience, enhancing it in ways you’ve never known before. Welcome to Turtle Beach excellence! DOWNLOAD GAME OPTIMIZED PRESETS HTTP://WWW.TURTLEBEACH.COM/COMMUNITY/PRESET-COMMUNITY Headset Overview Your Turtle Beach Z SEVEN headset is compatible with PC or Mac gaming platforms. You can enjoy gaming at home or at tournaments, and on the go with portable game systems and mobile devices like smartphones and tablets. Features include: · rogrammable presets that change your sound environment and allow you to hear sound cues you’d normally miss. P The Advanced Sound Editor tool to download, manage or create presets for your headset can be downloaded at: Turtlebeach.com/community/preset-community · djustable surround sound angles for the optimum surround sound experience A · uxiliary line input for use with a digital music player or mobile phone. A · he Audio Control Unit (ACU) is fully compatible with the Turtle Beach TM1 Tournament Mixer facilitating multiple T player communication. · urable 4-pole, 3.5mm breakaway cable connects to the Control Unit, portable game systems and mobile devices for D great sound across all your gaming and digital media. Operating Modes There are two operating modes on your Z SEVEN Headset’s Control Unit: 1. eadset Mode (LED Indicator: WHITE) – includes nine game presets. When used with a PC, the USB channel is set H to 5.1. 2. peaker Mode (LED Indicator: BLUE) – for use with external stereo speakers includes nine speaker presets for S surround sound virtualization. 4 Package Contents Z SEVEN Headset with Audio Control Unit Headset Removable Microphone (ACU) Breakaway Cable Audio Control Unit Extender Turtle Beach Stickers 3.5mm, 4-Pole Auxiliary Cable Cable 9-Pin DIN PC Speaker Adapter Mobile Adapter Cable Presets Reference Cable