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Reprinted with permission from the IFFGD. Originally printed in Participate -- Vol 7 No 1, Spring 1998. Go to the IFFGD website for Information on subscribing to Participate (and becoming an IFFGD member). People with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders can have a variety of symptoms that range from painless diarrhea or constipation, to pain associated with diarrhea and/or constipation (usually called irritable bowel syndrome). There is another, less common condition of abdominal pain that is chronic or frequently recurring; it is not associated with changes in bowel pattern. This condition is called chronic functional abdominal pain (CFAP). CFAP is a functional GI disorder. There are no abnormal x-rays or laboratory findings to explain the pain. It occurs because of altered sensitivity to nerve impulses in the gut and brain, and it is not associated with altered motility in the intestines. For people with CFAP, the pain can be so all-consuming that it becomes the main focus of their lives. Not only does it impact on quality of life, but it has a major economic impact as well. The US Householders Survey of Functional GI Disorders published in 1993 found that people with CFAP missed an average of 12 days of work annually due to illness compared to 4 missed days for people without gastrointestinal symptoms. Also, the number of doctor visits in a year averaged 11 for those with CFAP compared with only 2 for those without CFAP.
Hibernia Atlantic announced plans Thursday to build a new trans-Atlantic communications cable aimed at high-frequency Traders at the NYSE on May 6. stock traders, shaving 310 miles from the shortest existing route and cutting execution times by about 8%. The cable group's plan is the latest effort to link financial centers with new infrastructure, providing ever-faster trading times, and would be the first new line across the Atlantic in more than a decade. The trans-Atlantic market is WASl-IINGTON--/\ ruport Oil th\' world's second-busiest for fiIhl' May (j "Ilaxh cr.tsh' in II\(' u.uuial trades after LondonIIX stock m.ukct ~lilllS 10 giv(' ;1 Frankfurt. 1\ lWW, shorter cable route developed by Spread Netdefinitive, second-by-second account of the sudden plunge and works recently was opened on is likely to blame a confluence of the third-ranked New York-Chifactors rather than a single cul- cago corridor. prit, people familiar with the reClosing the Gap port said. "There has been a gap in the Atlantic market," said Mike By Jessica Holzer, Saunders, Hibernia Atlantic's Sarah N. Lynch vice president for business deAnd Kara Scannell velopment. Hibernia Atlantic has yet to The report by the staff of the Securities and Exchange Com- sign any definitive customer mission and the Commodity Fu- contracts for the project. It is tures Trading Commission is set targeting high-frequency traders and related financial firms with to be released within days. A draft of the report circuround-trip speeds of less than 60 milliseconds, compared with 65 lated to SEC commissioners didn't call for any specific policy milliseconds using the existing changes, said a person who has AC-1 trans-Atlantic network. Mr. Saunders said the comseen it. Rather, the report attempts to pany aims to start construction explain how market conditions next spring and complete the led to a sudden plunge in the 3,720-mile cable running from Dow Jones Industrial Average of Somerset in southern England to nearly 1,000 points, wiping out Halifax on Canada's eastern searoughly $862 billion in equityboard by mid-2012.
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Rugged or refined: whatever you need Whether it’s cruising on paved surfaces or heading off-road, the Amarok is equipped to deliver the performance for all environments and terrains D riv ing te ch ex pla ine d Permanent 4MOTION® Permanent is great for convenient oﬀ-roading. It keeps the four-wheel-drive system engaged whether you’re on- or oﬀ-road, so that power is always sent to the wheels with the most oned on South America’s rough mountain Sure-footed on any terrain grip. It’s available on the terrain, it’s no surprise that the Amarok is Designed to tackle the toughest off-road terrains, Amarok Highline – the such a formidable off-roader. With its powerful the Amarok has an Electronic Stabilisation Programme manual model comes with 2.0-litre TDI engines and the dynamic all-terrain benefits (ESP) fitted as standard – part of an impressive range the standard leaf-spring of the intelligent 4MOTION four-wheel-drive, it will take of safety features, which include on- and off-road suspension. The automatic you anywhere you need to go. On-road performance is anti-lock braking systems, an Electronic Differential has the heavy-duty leaf just as composed, thanks to the Amarok’s refined ride. Lock, and Trailer Stability Control. suspension system. Dependable four-wheel drive steep inclines when pulling away, while Hill Descent Selectable At the heart of the Amarok’s off-road performance is Control regulates engine speed and applies the brakes 4MOTION® Selectable Volkswagen’s advanced 4MOTION system, which if necessary, so that you can drive down slopes in a safe is ideal for rugged helps maintain optimum traction on all road surfaces.
To suit: Voklswagen Amarok 2010-on Since 1950 Pedders has been designing and manufacturing suspension products specifically for Australian conditions to ensure your vehicle is always performing at its best. That’s why at Pedders Suspension we’re proud of our range of totally integrated 4WD suspension systems – TrakRyder. Pedders’ TrakRyder suspension range includes thousands of quality components that have all been designed to improve the ride and handling characteristics of specific vehicles. The range includes coil and leaf springs, torsion bars, shock absorbers, suspension bushes, brakes, alignment kits, u-bolts, shackles, airbags and more. Following is our range of tailor made kits to suit the aforementioned vehicle. TrakRyder Touring Kits: The spring and shock absorber rates were developed to provide an improved ride quality, a reduction in body roll and improved stability. This kit is primarily designed to return the vehicle’s ride height to it’s original specification ( up to 0.5”/13mm lift ) and to reenergise the suspension capabilities through the addition of new shock absorbers.
The product even includes the super potent 200:1 Maitake extract known as Maitakegold 404. Each of the included mushrooms are grown organically and are hot water extracted eliminating the indigestible fiber chitin that makes the majority of mushroom formulas on the market not assimilable by people.
If you’re looking for a fitness center in Raleigh, NC to kick-start your spring workout goals and find the yoga class that keep your healthy and fit.
Throughout this article I will address many basics of your vehicle’s steering, suspension, driveline, tires, and wheels. I did not intend this to be a “how to” manual with step by step instructions. It will simply illustrate the concepts. I’ll start with the lift and explain what it did to your steering, suspension, and driveline one aspect at a time. NOTES ABOUT THE ILLUSTRATIONS: 1) most are “spring under” leaf spring suspension, 2) non-pertinent parts are omitted for clarity, 3) many examples are exaggerated for illustration, and 4) most concepts illustrated also apply to spring over and coil/link suspensions. To cover the differences, I added a separate coil and link suspensions topic. Ready? OK, let’s get started. You lifted your Jeep and now it wanders all over the road and it vibrates too. What happened? Well, you just changed a lot of the vehicle’s geometry (probably without knowing it). Here’s a diagram of a stock Jeep and the proper angles. Your caster angle should be between 4 and 8 degrees positive. This caster angle creates an effect called mechanical trail. It’s the force that makes your wheels return to center. The caster angle shown below is close to stock. The point that the steering axis (black line) intersects the ground to the point to where the rotational axis touches the ground forms the points to measure your caster angle. You can best measure the caster angle from the top of the upper ball joint.
Fourth meeting of the EUROPEAN INTEGRATION FORUM Brussels, 6-7 December 2010 European Economic and Social Committee – rue Belliard 99, room JDE 52 Programme Monday 6 December – room JDE 521 8.30 – 9.20 R egistration of participants 9.30 – 10.00 Opening session Chaired by Staffan Nilsson, President of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) Opening speeches • Stefano Manservisi, Director General of DG Home Affairs, European Commission • Mercedes Bresso, President of the Committee of the Regions 10.00 – 11.00 Dialogue speakers-participants 11.00 – 11.30 Coffee break 11.30 – 12.30 P lenary session ‘ Active participation of migrants and strong commitment by the host society: The two-way process beyond words’, chaired by Marta Cygan, Director of Immigration and Asylum, DG Home Affairs, European Commission • Aygül Özkan, Minister for Social Affairs of Lower Saxony, Germany • Peter Bossman, Mayor of Piran, Slovenia • P resentation of the EESC study on national integration forums, by Thomas Huddleston, Migration Policy Group 12.30 – 13.00 Debate 13.00 – 14.30 Lunch nterpretation available from EN, FR, DE, ES, NL, SV into EN, FR, DE, ES I 1 14.30 – 18.30 Roundtables Roundtable A (room JDE 52) Roundtable B (room JDE 53) Moderator: Eva Schultz, European Moderator: Sukhdev Sharma, EESC Commission Roundtable C (room JDE 60) Moderator: Xavier Verboven, EESC Roundtable D (room JDE 61) Moderator: Brenda King, EESC Rapporteur: Eva-Maria Asari, Estonian Cooperation Assembly Rapporteur: Issah Huseini, New Communities Partnership, Ireland Rapporteur: Tarafa Baghajati, Platform for Intercultural Europe Rapporteur: Marco Perolini, European Youth Forum Facilitator: Josep Maria Felip, Valencian Region, Spain Facilitator: Doris Peschke, Churches’ Facilitator: Said Darwane, Union Commission for Migrants in Europe nationale des syndicats autonomes, France Facilitator: Michael Van der Cammen, German Employment Agency Interpretation: From EN, FR, ES, IT, DE into EN FR DE Interpretation: From EN, FR, ES, IT, DE into EN FR ES Interpretation: From EN, FR, ES, IT, DE into EN FR Interpretation: From EN, FR, ES, IT, DE into EN FR IT Topics for discussion (same topics for all roundtables): 14.30 – 16.15 First session: ‘Strong commitment by the host society’ 16.15 – 16.45 Coffee break 16.45 – 18.30 Second session ‘Active participation of migrants’ (including preparation of conclusions by each roundtable – 30 min) 18.30 Reception hosted by the European Economic and Social Committee Tuesday 7 December – room JDE 522 9.15 – 10.00 P resentation of the new platform on the European Web Site on Integration for information exchange between Forum participants 10.00 – 11.00 Conclusions session, chaired by Ann Singleton, University of Bristol Presentation of conclusions by the four rapporteurs.