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Despite increasing levels of integration in modern electronic products, radio receiver designs continue to rely on discrete LC, ceramic, and electro-acoustic devices for the realization of RF and IF bandpass ﬁltering. Although considerable research has been directed at developing suitable switched-capacitor and Gm-C based replacements for these ﬁlters, the resulting designs have yet to see substantial commercial application. A critical problem faced by existing active ﬁlter implementations is found to be the power consumption required to simultaneously achieve narrow fractional bandwidths and acceptable dynamic range. This power consumption, which can reach several hundred milliwatts, is incompatible with portable wireless product design. Additional problems include the complexity of tuning control circuits required to achieve small fractional bandwidths, and diﬃculties in extending ﬁlter designs to higher frequencies. These problems are examined in depth, and performace bounds and new implementation techniques are considered. A detailed study of active ﬁlters reveals that their dynamic range limitations are fundamentally the result of regenerative gain associated with the realization of high-Q poles. Thus, some form of energy storage and exchange mechanism is shown to be required to decrease the regeneration needed. This leads to an investigation of on-chip LC ﬁltering. It ...
1. Introduction The design of the All Digital FM Receiver circuit in this project uses Phase Locked Loop (PLL) as the main core. The task of the PLL is to maintain coherence between the input (modulated) signal frequency, ωi and the respective output frequency, ωo via phase comparison. This self-correcting ability of the system also allows the PLL to track the frequency changes of the input signal once it is locked. Frequency modulated input signal is assumed as a series of numerical values (digital signal) via 8-bit of analog to digital conversion (ADC) circuit. The FM Receiver gets the 8 bit signal every clock cycle and outputs the demodulated signal. The All Digital FM Receiver circuit is designed using VHDL, then simulated and synthesized using ModelSim SE 6 simulator and Xilinx ISE 6.3i, respectively. FPGA implementation also provided, here we use Virtex2 device. The real measurement is done using ChipScope Pro 6.3i. 2. Architecture Description The system of All Digital FM Receiver consists of a digital PLL cascaded with digital low pass filter. The block diagram of system is shown in Fig. 1.
The NTE788 is a monolithic integrated circuit in a 16–Lead DIP type package that provides all the functions of a comprehensive FM–IF system. This device features a three–stage FM–IF amplifier/limiter configuration with level detectors for each stage, a doubly–balanced quadrature FM detector, and an audio amplifier that features the optional use of a muting (squelch) circuit. The advanced circuit design of the IF system includes desirable deluxe features such as delayed AGC for the RF tuner, an AFC drive circuit, and an output signal to drive a tuning meter and/or provide stereo switching logic. In addition, internal power supply regulators maintain a nearly constant current drain over the voltage supply range of +8.5V to +16V. Features: D Exceptional limiting sensitivity: 12µV typ. at –3dB point D Low distortion: 0.1% typ. (with double–tuned coil) D Single–coil tuning capability D Improved S + N/N Radio D Externally programmable recovered audio level D Provides specific signal for control of interchannel muting (squelch) D On channel step for search control D Provides programmable AGC voltage for RF amplifier D Internal supply–voltage regulators D Externally programmable “ON” channel step width, and deviation at which muting occurs...
Commercial buildings can save millions of gallons of potable water each year by harvesting rainwater, grey water, condensate and other on-site sources for non-potable uses like toilet flushing, irrigation and cooling tower make-up. Wahaso provides complete design/build systems custom-tailored to each building.
The example of Rosiak working with Solvik's engineers to design the Status Agent program demonstrates the benefits of such an IT/business unit partnership. In less successful environments, there is a legacy of disharmony between IT and the business units that hamper the development of e-commerce.
Townappliance.com is world leading distributor of home and commercial appliance to add a stand-alone design that’s beautiful to behold from any angle in your kitchen, Commercial use and lots more.
Smart Glass Systems, Inc. manufactures, distributes and installs SmartScreen™ smart glass and other high-performance glazing. We provide integrated systems of electronically controllable smart glass that control light and privacy of windows, skylights, doors, partitions, as well as multi-purpose projection screens. Beginning with system design and planning through fabrication and installation, the company is involved at every phase of integration to ensure that customers’ expectations are met or exceeded.
VEXplorer Contest Challenges Robot Enthusiasts Mythbuster Grant Imahara and Robot Select Top 25 VEXplorer Robot Ideas Northbrook, IL (April 3, 2007) – Protecting koi fish from a curious crane, launching cigarette butts back at their polluting perpetrators, playing fetch with a pet dog or dealing cards at the next poker night. This is the short list of the many robotics ideas submitted in response to the Grant Imahara VEXplorer Robot Challenge launched by Revell in March 2008. Revell, marketer of the VEXplorer robotics system, in partnership with Robot magazine, Innovation First and SolidWorks Corporation, is running this first-ever VEXplorer challenge offering contestants the opportunity to demonstrate their robotics creativity as they compete for a $5,000 college scholarship and other prizes. Grant Imahara, Discovery Channel’s Mythbuster known for his robotics skill, and Robot magazine selected 25 robot enthusiasts’ ideas. These contestants, who received free VEXplorer systems, have until June 1st to design, build and videotape their unique VEXplorer robots doing unusual things. Contestants will upload their videos to YouTube for the world to view and for Grant Imahara and Robot magazine to select first, second and third place winners. “I was very impressed with the wide range of ideas and creativity of the submissions,” said Grant Imahara, Discovery Channel’s Mythbuster. “I know selecting the winners is not going to be an easy job.” “Currently, robots are walking into live volcanoes, painting cars at Ford plants, assembling Milano cookies for Pepperidge Farms and driving trains in Paris,” said Mike Brezette, Revell marketing vice president. “Robots are an integral part of our world and we are excited to help today’s enthusiasts turn their robotics ideas into reality.” VEXplorer is available at toy and discount merchandise retailers including Toys “R” Us, and Fred Meyer, as well as at hobby stores across the nation. Online toy, hobby, discount...
How Do No-Spill™ Systems Work? Some Frequently Asked Questions About No-Spill™ Systems How do the drain plugs work? No-Spill Systems patented draining design has a stainless steel, spring-loaded valve inside the drain plug. This valve remains closed until No-Spill Systems patented drainer is attached to the drain plug. Once the drainer seals itself, the valve opens and the oil begins to drain through the hose. Do I need a drainer for every vehicle? No. The drainers are designed to fit all of the plugs within a series (i.e. one Large Straight Drainer fits all large bottom plugs in the Standard series). What series is correct for me? The series depends on the application, and style of draining. Standard plugs are common where clearance is not an issue. Compact plugs are used where clearance is a concern. Speed Click plugs are very popular with all sizes of fleets. Does any oil get left in the pan? No. No-Spill Systems plugs are designed to sit flush with the pan. Therefore, all of the oil is drained quickly and easily. Can I drain the oil hot? Absolutely. This is one of the main advantages of using No-Spill Systems. What if I can’t find a size? No-Spill Systems makes over 500 combinations of thread sizes and patterns. Please call us with your application, and we will find the size for you. Is there a minimum order amount? No. No-Spill Systems customers and dealers can order as few or as many plugs as are required. What are the Shipping Terms? Product is shipped FOB Origin. UPS Ground is the most common shipping method. How many of these drain plugs are in use? There are over 1,000,000 in use in North America. What are the plugs made of? The plugs are machined from solid brass bar stock. What is the warranty for the drain plugs?
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